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Full text of "A dictionary of the English language, explanatory, pronouncing, etymological, and synonymous, with a copious appendix. Mainly abridged from the latest edition of the quarto dictionary of Noah Webster, as revised by Chauncey A. Goodrich, and Noah Porter"

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Jnv Htwtotr enarabt'ng* on WtaBXt. 



Copyright, 1884, 
G. & C. Merriam & Co. 

Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1867, by 

George, Charles, and Homer Merriam, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 

The Riverside Press, Cambridge: 
Electrotyped and Printed by H. 0. Houghton & Oo. 


This volume is designed as in some sort a revision and enlargement of the Octavo 
Abridgment of Webster's " American Dictionary " known as the " University edition," 
which was prepared by the late Professor Goodrich of Yale College, and was first issued in 
1856. But as the " American Dictionary " was itself thoroughly revised in all its departments, 
and greatly augmented and improved, as recently as 1864, it was found that the original 
Abridgment could only in part be taken as the basis of reconstruction. The present work 
must therefore be considered as in the main an abstract from the last edition of the larger 
Dictionary, while the general plan is the same as that of its predecessor. Like that, it is 
intended to meet the wants of that large class of persons who wish to obtain in a single 
volume of moderate size and cost as complete a presentation as possible of the meaning 
pronunciation, and orthography of the words which make up the main body of our modern 
English tongue. Like that, too, it has a specific end and object, having been "framed 
expressly for the benefit of those who are cultivating English composition on a broad scale, 
and are desirous to gain an exact knowledge of our language, and a ready command of its 
varied forms of expression." How far the work will answer these purposes may appear from 
a more detailed statement of its chief features, and of the principles on which it has been 

1. Introduction. — Instead of the " Principles of Pronunciation" and the "Remarks 
on Orthography " contained in the former edition, the fuller and more elaborate articles on 
these subjects in the Quarto Dictionary have been substituted. The orthoepic notation is 
also the remodeled and simplified notation of the Quarto, which contains a few characters 
additional to those of the one previously employed. A " List of Words Spelled in Two or More 
Ways " is subjoined to the " Principles of Orthography," and will be found to be an addition 
of much practical usefulness. An explanatory list of the more common Prefixes and Suffixes, 
with illustrative examples, forms a new feature of the work, and one which adds not a little 
to its value. As these formative syllables enter into the composition of multitudes of words, a 
knowledge of their signification is very important, and the preliminary information which is 
furnished renders it unnecessary to explain them in each particular instance in the body 
of the Dictionary. 

II. Dictionary Proper. — 1. The Vocabulary contains a wide and careful selection 
of those words in regard to which miscellaneous readers may be presumed to need information. 
It comprises, or is meant to comprise, all English words in actual use at the present day, 
including many terms in the various departments of Science and Art, especially such as 
pertain to those departments with which all well-educated persons are supposed to have some 
acquaintance. Obsolete words have for the most part been omitted, as their insertion would 
increase the bulk and enhance the price of the volume to too great a degree. Rare words 
and self-explaining compounds have been omitted for similar reasons. Important phrases, 
however, are given, accompanied with explanations, which, though necessarily concise, will be 
found to be clear and exact. 

2. Definitions. Most Dictionaries designed for popular use are distinguished by an 
imprecision and unsatisfactoriness of definition resulting from the fact that the meanings of the 
words are to a great extent expressed by a mere array of other words of similar signification. 
This fault, it is hoped, has been avoided here, an attempt having been made to fix and exhibit — 
after the manner of the larger work — the various shades of meaning of all the more important 
words by means of formal, discriminative definition, conveyed in brief descriptive sentences 
or clauses. 

3. To words thus defined, Synonyms are often subjoined, printed in a separate paragraph, 
and in smaller type. The object is, after giving a clear conception of the peculiar import of 
a word, to bring others into view which have the same general signification, thus opening a 
wide range to a writer for selecting the most appropriate terms, and aiding him to acquire a 
varied and expressive diction. With the same end in view, synonymous words are carefully 
discriminated in numerous instances, the distinctive meaning of each being carefully drawn 
out, and a comparison made between them, showing the points of difference. 

4. Etymology. A leading and novel feature of this Abridgment is the introduction, in a 
reduced form, of the etymologies of the new edition of the Quarto Dictionary, which work has 
been declared by eminent philological authorities to be " the best general etymologicon we yet 



possess of the English language." The value of this portion of the volume to those who desire 
to gain a thorough knowledge of their mother-tongue does not need to be enlarged upon. 

5. The Pronunciation is that of the Quarto, upon which great care was bestowed, 
distinguished orthdepists both in England and America having been consulted on doubtful 
points. The system of referring from the words in the vocabulary to the preliminary 
" Principles " is one which the consulter of the work will find exceedingly useful. 

6. The Orthography, in disputed cases, — ■ and these embrace only a few limited classes 
of words, — is to a great extent given both ways, though with a clear indication of the form 
to be preferred on the principles of Dr. Webster. In every instance, the form preferred has 
been sanctioned by distinguished English grammarians and orthoepists, as Lowth, Walker, 
&c. Their claims to general adoption are based upon the fact that they are conformed to 
the acknowledged analogies of the language, and are designed merely to repress irregularities 
and remove petty exceptions. With both forms before him, every one can decide for himself 
which to adopt. 

7. The Illustrative Engravings on wood, about six hundred in number, have been selected 
and engraved expressly for this work. They are intended, not for mere ornament, but to 
elucidate the meaning of words which cannot be satisfactorily explained without pictorial aid. 
" There is no knowledge of things," says Locke, " conveyed by men's words, when their ideas 
agree not to the reality of things. . . . The shape of a horse, or cassowary, will be but rudely 
and imperfectly imprinted on the mind by words ; the sight of the animals doth it a thousand 
times better. . . . Such things as these, which the eye distinguishes by their shapes, would 
be best let into the mind by draughts made of them, and more determine the signification of 
such words than any other words set for them, or made use of to define them." 

III. Appendix. — The range of the Dictionary has been much extended by the 
addition to it of various useful vocabularies appropriate to the work as a manual of popular 
reference, as will be seen by an inspection of the Table of Contents on the ensuing page. 
Most of these vocabularies are abridged from those given in the larger work, but they 
will be found sufficiently comprehensive for all the ordinary wants of the general reader. 
The " Etymological Vocabulary of Modern Geographical Names" has been very carefully 
revised and somewhat enlarged by the aid of recent works of great value, and in its present 
state possesses increased accuracy and usefulness. The " Concise Account of the Chief 
Deities, Heroes, etc., in the Greek and Roman Mythology " was given in the previous edition 
of this work, but has now received numerous additions and emendations which render it more 
worthy of the public favor. The " Vocabulary of Perfect and Allowable Rhymes " — a 
peculiar feature of this edition — is based upon the corresponding "Index" in Walker's 
" Rhyming Dictionary " ; but it is more copious and far more correct. Walker calls attention 
to the fact that " this collection of words," besides its designed and most obvious application, 
" is in some measure a dictionary of pronunciation, and may answer very useful purposes to 
foreigners and provincials, who, by understanding the sound of one word, may become ac- 
quainted with the pronunciation of a whole class." The " Glossary of Scottish Words and 
Phrases," with preliminary remarks on the peculiarities of Scottish pronunciation and orthog- 
raphy, — which is also a new and peculiar feature of this work, — has been prepared under 
the supervision of a native of Scotland, Mr. William Russell, who is well-known as an elocu- 
tionist and scholar. The evident superiority of this Glossary to all others of a similar kind, 
will doubtless cause it to be warmly welcomed by lovers of Scottish literature. 

As a whole, it is hoped that this volume may fairly lay claim to the character of a 
" National Dictionary," fully suited to meet the requirements of all who are seeking a 
standard reference-book of this nature. 

In conclusion, it is due to Mr. William G. Webster to state that the editor has had the 
benefit of his co-operation in some portions of the work. 

Dorchester, Massachusetts, August 10, 1867. 

P. S. Since the publication of the edition of 1867, so many words have been introduced 
into the language, and the signification of so many words previously in use has been modi- 
fied or enlarged, that it has seemed desirable to complete this work by copious additions. 
These find place in a Supplement which contains about 3,600 words with their definitions. 
For the most part they have been taken from the latest Supplement to "Webster's Una- 
bridged Dictionary; " but other and still more recent publications have been freely consulted. 
There are also added full tables of the Metric System of Weights and Measures, with ex- 
planatory illustrations. 

New Haven, September, 1884. 





Vowels, » vii 





Consonants, siii 



Accent, • xviii 




Syllabication, xx 





PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES, xxxiv to xxxviii 




METRIC SYSTEM, 835, 836 





NAMES, • 881 to 894 


NAMES, , 895 to 910 

Explanatory Index of Prefixes, Suffixes, and Formative Sylla- 
bles, 895 

A Brief Alphabetical List of Geographical Names, with their 

Derivation and Signification, 902 



prefatory remarks, 911 

elements of pronunciation of the principal modern languages 

of continental europe, 911 

explanation of abbreviations and signs, 914 

observations necessary to be borne in mind, 915 

Vocabulary of Modern Geographical Names, 916 

Vocabulary of Modern Biographical Names, 93? 

















A, a, long, as in 
A, a, short, as in 
E, e, long, as in 
E, e, short, as in 
1, 1, long, as in . 
I, I, short, as in . 

Ale, Fate, Chamber, Gray. 
Add, Fat, Have, Random 
Eve, Mete, Peace, Seizure. 
End, Met, Check, Leopard. 
Ice, Fine, Mire, Thrive. 
Ill, Fin, Admit, Tribute. 

O, o, long, as in . 
0,6, short, as in 
U, u, long, as in . 
IJ, ii, short, as in 
Y, y, long, as in . 
Y, y, short, as in 



E, e 


t, as in Air, Share, Pair, Bear. 

1,, Italian, as in . . Arm, Father, Far, Palm. 
i, as in .... Ask, Grass, Dance, Branch 
b, broad, as in . . All, Talk, Haul, Swarm. 
l, like short o,as in "What, "Wander, "Wallow. 


O, 6, like short u, as 
O, o, like long 00, as 
O,o, like short 00, as 
O, 6, like broad a, as 
OO, 00, as in . . 
OO, do, as in . . 

like a, as in . . Ere, Th6re, Heir, Where. 
, like long a, as in Eight, Prey, Obey. 
, as in .... Ermine, Verge, Prefer. 

like long e, 1 
like e, as in 

Pique, Machine, Police. 
Irksome, Virgin, Thirsty. 

TJ, u, preceded by r , ai 
U , u, like short 00, as 
tr, u, as in . . . 

e, i, o, (Italic) mark 
a letter as silent 

Old, Note, Loaf, Depose. 
Odd, Not, Torrid, Resolve. 
Use, Tube. Lute, Feudal. 
tTs, Tub, But, Study. 
Fly, Style, Sky, Edify. 
Cyst, Nymph, Lyric, Abyss. 

in Other, Done, S6n,W6n. 
in Prove, Do, Move, Tomb- 
in Bosom, Wolf, "Woman. 
in Order, Form, Stork. 

. Moon, Food, Booty. 

. "Wool, Frfbt, Good. 

i in Bude, Rumor, Rural. 
in Bull, Put, Push, Pull. 
. Urge, Burn, Furl, Concur. 

1 Fallen, Token, Cousin, 
1 Mason. 


Oi, oi, or Oy, oy (unmarked), as in Oil, Join, Moist, Oyster, Toy. 

Ou, ou, or Ow, ow (unmarked), as in Out, Hound, Owl, Vowel. 


C, c, soft, like 5 sharp, as in 

C, e, hard, like k, as in . 

Ch, ch (unmarked), as in 

Ch, ch, soft, like sh, as in 

Ch, ch, hard, like k, as in 

G, g, hard, as in ... 

G, g, soft, likey, as in 

S, s, sharp (unmarked), ask 

§, §,soft or vocal, like z, as in Hag, Amuse, Roseate. 

Cede, Cite, Accept. 
Call, Concur, Success. 
Child, Much, Touch. 
Chaise, Marchioness. 
Chorus, Echo, Distich. 
Get, Tiger, Begin. 
Gem, Engine, Elegy. 
Same, Yes, Rest. 

Th, th, sharp (unmarked), as 
Th, th,fat or vocal, as in . 
Ng, ng (unmarked), as in . 
N,n (See §82), as in . . . 
3C, 5, likeg-z,as in . . . . 
Ph, ph,like/ (unmarked), as 
Qu, qu, like kw (unmarked), 
Wh, wh, like hw (unmk'd) 
Zh, zh, as in ... . 

Thing, Breath. 
Thine, Smooth. 
. Sing, Single. 
. Linger, Link, 
Ejist, Auxiliary. 
3 in Phantom, Sylpr\. 
as in Queen, Conquest. 
as in What, Awhile . 
Vision (vizh'un.) 

sound%f^he?ombina«on J£ %*???* dl P h £ong, u . r ° f a triphthong, is marked, it is to be taken as representing the 
clTpeovle roZ s^ ToCnaJ ^l!^ or ^ tters *£«* «™ not m ^ked are to be regarded as silent ; as in aim, clean, 
SblefmrnStelv o^^hCT^ ^ c °^ med letters ce > ci > sc h »«, »\ or ti, occurring before a vowel in a 

SgiSan susp i'cion Infill an acc< P ted s y Ua ble, are generally equivalent to sh ; as in o'cean, ceta/ceous, so'cial, 
SuchTvliablel fare not ZS con'saenoe, nauseous, controversial, dissen'sion, Initial, oration, fictitious, &c 

r B s e ^pUS^ 1 ' ^ ey ^ na -r lly K? vonou * c f correctiy by a » Engiish «*«*- 

„ _ , ' uuuutIUi > or difficult cases, the appropriate respelling is used. 

%JiTr e T X l an ^ n I?" 8 " S ° UndS ° Ccurrin S * *he Dictionary, see pp. 911-15. 

be pronounced l^U^S^^Z^}^ In ^1^^ the French ow ' «"' ^ &C "' the letterS «* are not to 
nosVand the mouth at the samftim^ % \ $l J *° m ^ the TOwel as nasal > that is ' as P r0n0Ullce <i trough both the 
all of them down to Mmeoff^wwSLi^! 1 ^ of a word when a number of related words follow, applies to 

some other word which is respelled. 
»ctt5SS^^ certain words in the Vocabulary refer to corresponding 

IntendS ~to tfif ai^r^fwnS^ * 64 ,^ heavy mark '> the «^ondary, by a lighter mark ; as in Su'per- 
Pl-e^hyphL^^^ ***» P««imlng tLir proper office, supply\he 


U&ltaval Academy 
April 16,1931 



§1. The vowel sounds in monosyllables and accented 
»yllables are marked in the Dictionary by pointing the let- 
ters according to the Key. Each of the vowels will now be 
considered under three heads; viz., its regular long , and 
short, and its occasional sounds, as heard in monosyllables 
and in accented and unaccented syllables. 



§ 2. Regular long sound, marked A, a, as in ale ; heard 
also in pain, day, gaol, gauge, aye, break, veil, whey, &c. 

NOTE. — This sound of a is in most cases dipthongal, 
having a slight " vanish " in e annexed to its " radical " or 
initial sound, as in pay, where the y may be regarded as 
representing the vanish. Writers are not agreed as to the 
nature of the radical part, some considering it to be the 
sound of short e, while others assert that it is a distinct, 
though very similar, element, being like the other long 
Towels as compared with their true corresponding short 
sounds, of a slightly less open quality. — See § 11, and § 8, 

§3. Regular short sound, marked A, a, as in add; 
heard also in plaid, bade, &c. 

Note. — This is a distinct element from the long a. 
Like the other shut or stopped vowels (e, I, o, u, 6"b), its 
sound is exceedingly sbort, and has a certain abrupt, 
explosive character, which is hardly found in any language 
but our own. With respect to its position in the scale of 
sounds, it is a palatal vowel, intermediate between d and 8, 
the tongue being raised higher than for a, and not so high 
as for 2. 

Occasional Sounds of A. 

§ 4. Sound of a before r, in such words as air, care, fare, 
bear , prayer, parent, marked A, a. The letter e has tbe same 
sound in a few words, such as there, where, their, heir, &c. 

Two errors in opposite extremes are here to be avoided : 
1. That of the vulgar, who pronounce where, whar ; bear, 
bar ; careful, earful, &c. ; 2. That of some among the 
educated classes, who pronounce pair, parent, &c, as if 
sjelt pay'er, pay'rent, &c. 

Some have considered the a in care as a distinct element ; 
this, however is not admitted by Smart, who maintains 
that it is our long a in/ate, and owes all its peculiarity to 
the subsequent r. Such , also, is the statement of Dr. Web- 
ster and most English orthoepists. The sound of r in these 
words is what Smart calls a "guttural vibration," — a 
sound which he represents by ur, and Dr. Webster by er. 
In care we touch lightly on the ct sound (the radical alone, 
without the vanish; see §2), and then pass fully and 
strongly into the guttural vibration (ca'ur or ca'er), draw- 
ing the two as closely as possible into the same syllable — 
bo closely that Smart (not aiming at philosophical exact- 
ness) speaks of the r as actually blending with the previous 
Vowel . In like manner, parent is sounded pd'ur-ent, or p&'- 
tr~ent; and fairy has the sound of fa'er-y., as the word was 

actually spelt by Spenser in his " Faery Queen." Smart 
refers, also, with approbation, to another mode of identify •> 
ing the sound in question ; viz., that of prolonging our 
short e before r. Thus, ther (with the e as in thSn), drawn 
out into long quantity, gives us there (th&r) ; and er (the 
first syllable in Srror) gives us ere or e'er (sir). Thus, in the 
view here presented, the initial sound should always be that 
of a in fate (the radical without the vanish; see §2), 
though the final impression upon the ear is that of an 
open or broad sound, in consequence of the " opening 
power " of the r. In primitive words like fare, lair, pair, 
and the others mentioned above, it is very important not to 
dwell so long on the a as to make it diphthongal ; for, if 
the close vanishing element of the vowel is retained, it is 
impossible for the open r to blend with it in the same syl- 
lable. But in derivative words likefayer, layer, payer, it 
is essential to preserve the terminational sound of the a, in 
order to keep up a distinction between the two classes. 

Some, however, especially in New England, give these 
words a slightly different sound; viz., that of our short a 
before the r, in air, pronounced aer, with a somewhat 
lengthened sound of the a. So harry, with the first sylla- 
ble protracted, gives us hairy. This sound is rather more 
open than the one mentioned above, and is apt, in the 
mouths of our common people, to become too broad and 
coarse. If well executed, however, it is scarcely at all in- 
ferior to the other in smoothness and grace. It is fre- 
quently heard among the well-educated in England ; there 
is a tendency in many to intermingle the two, and it often 
requires a nice ear to determine which is used. Dr. Web- 
ster, who adopted the former in his own practice, once 
remarked to the writer that he regarded the difference as 
unimportant, provided the New England sound be given 
without coarseness or undue breadth. 

§ 5. Sound of the Italian a, marked A, a, as in arm, 
father, far ; heard also in ah, hearth, Hunt, guard, tire, &c 

Note. — This sound occurs in monosyllables and in the 
accented syllable of many words, before r final or r fol- 
lowed by another consonant (as in scar, tar, tart, yard, 
de-barf, de-part'), and in the derivatives of such words (as 
in scarred, tarry, of, or resembling, tar, debarring). But 
when a occurs in an accented syllable, before r followed by 
a vowel or by another r, in a word not a derivative, it has 
its regular short sound, as in arable, barrow, tarry, to 

The Italian a is the most open of all the vowel sounds, 
and is one of the extremes of the vowel scale, the other 
extremes being e, and 6b. In its formation the mouth and 
throat are opened widely, and the tongue is left in its nat- 
ural position of rest. It was formerly much more common 
in English than it is at the present day. The loss of it to 
so great an extent has been an injury to our language, and 
any further exclusion of it is therefore undesirable. 

§ 6. Sound of a in certain words (chiefly monosyllables) 
ending Inff, ft, ss, st, sk, sp, with a few in nee, and nt. 
marked A, a, as in staff, graft, pas$,last, ask, gasp , chance, 
chant, &c. 

Note. Down to the close of the last century, words of 



this class were universally pronounced with the full Italian 
a. Some, especially among tne vulgar, gave this too broad- 
ly or with a kind of drawl (as pass like pahss, fast like 
fahst), so that talker, disgusted with this abuse, and 
having a prejudice against intermediate sounds, marked 
all such words in his Dictionary by the sound of short a, 
giving the vowel in past, staff, &c, the sound of that in 
pat, Stuffa (the island), &c. It will not be surprising — 
if we bear in mind the remark in § 3 on the extreme short- 
ness and abruptness of this sound— that this change was 
strongly condemned by the orthoepists. Jones declared it 
to be°"a mincing affectation;" and Mitford said, "No 
English tongue fails to express, no English ear to perceive, 
the difference between the sound of a in passing and in 
passive. No colloquial familiarity will substitute the one 
for the other." Still, the high character of Walker, and the 
increasing disgust for every thing like a drawl in speaking, 
gave currency to the change. It prevailed in London, and 
in some of the larger cities of America, until there sprung 
up, on both sides of the Atlantic, what Smart has called a 
" new school " and an " old school " on this subject. The 
extreme shortness of the a as marked by Walker, was still 
objected to ; and Smart, in his Dictionary, first published 
in 1838, censured Walker on this account, saying, u He 
allows no compromise between the broad Italian a, with 
which a vulgar mouth pronounces ass, and the sound nar- 
rower (if possible) than the a in at, with which an affected 
speaker minces the same word." He therefore spoke of a 
" medium sound " of the a in words of this class, saying, 
" We are apt, even in London, to give a slight prolongation 
to the vowel (a) which would, in other cases, be quite rus- 
tic." This prolongation has passed into America, and is 
now heard extensively among the followers of Walker in 
this country. It is a kind of drawl on the a in such words 
as last, past, fast, &c. Smart states, however, in a recent 
letter, that in England this prolongation is now wholly 
laid aside. "Custom with us," he remarks, "is much 
changed. It is no longer affectation to say ass; and grant, 
graft, &c. , at present indicate the pronunciation of well- 
educated London people under sixty-five or sixty years of 
age." In other words, Walker's extreme short sound of 
staff, like Staffa, and pass like passive, is now adopted by 
many Londoners as the true and only proper sound. 

The change introduced by Walker never had any great 
currency in this country, except in a few large cities and 
in places immediately affected by their influence. Our 
leading lexicographers, Webster and Worcester, declared 
against it. Many who were taught it in childhood have 
since laid it aside ; and there is an increasing disposition 
among our teachers and literary men to unite on some in- 
termediate sound between the extreme broadness, or length, 
of the a in father, and the extreme narrowness, or short- 
ness of the a in fat. That of Smart (mentioned above as now 
disused) was intermediate in quantity; and so also is an- 
other, which Fulton and Knight have introduced into their 
Dictionary, viz., a shortened sound of the Italian a. They 
give the word ii lard ,J as an example of the long Italian 
sound (as in father, &c), and " last " of their short Italian 
sound ; and mark with the latter the entire class of words 
now under consideration, such as staff, graft, pass, last, 
ask, gasp, and a few words in nee and nt, as dance and 
chant. In this way they guard against that undue prolon- 
gation of the a which offended Walker, and still retain in 
use one of the finest sounds of our language. This is the 
sound recommended in this volume, and marked A, a. 
Some might possibly prefer one a little less open , verging 
Slightly more towards that of a in an ; and there is cer- 
tainly room here for a diversity of taste and practice among 
those who agree in the main point of rejecting the extreme 
shortness of Walker's sound. If it be proposed, however, 
to give these words a sound intermediate in quality between 
the Italian a and our short a, one thing is important to be 
considered. Mr. Smart states, in answer to an inquiry on 
the subject, that., although he can exemplify such a sound 
he is not aware that any thing of the kind is used among 
the educated classes in England. The only alternative 
there seems to be between the Italian a and the extreme 
short sound of Walker ; and it is natural and desirable 
that those among us who reject the latter should adopt the 
same sound with those who led the way in that rejection 
upon the other side of the Atlantic. Any one who heard 
the lectures of Mr. Thackeray during his visit to this coun- 
try in 1855-6. and noticed his pronunciation with reference 
to this subject, must have been struck with the definite 
sound of the Italian a which he gave to all words of this 
class. He even gave that sound in the word answer, which 
though common in England, is comparatively rare in Amer- 
ica. A gentleman who held for many years a high diplo- 
matic station at the court of St. James, told the writer 
tliat, except among Londoners, he almost uniformly heard 

the Italian a in such cases, especially among the officers of 
government, and the nobility and gentry with whom he 
was led to associate. Such, also, is said by members of 
Oxford aud Cambridge to be the case now at those univer- 
sities ; and some of tne most eminent preachers of the king' 
dom, such as the Bishop of Oxford ( Wilberforce), have been 
mentioned in confirmation of this remark. It is for such 
reasons that the words in question are here marked with a 
shortened or brief sound of the Italian a, in accordance 
with the views and practice of Dr. Webster. 

§ 7. Sound of broad a, marked A, a, as in all, talk, haul, 
swarm; heard also in sauce, awe, georgic,fork, groat, 
bought, &c. 

Note. — This has sometimes been called the German a, 
but is a broader and more guttural sound, being formed by 
a depression of the larynx, and a consequent retraction of 
the tongue, which enlarges the cavity of the mouth poste- 

§ 8. Short sound of broad a, marked A, a, as in what, 
wander, wallow, &c. ; heard also in knowledge. 

Note. — This is the extreme short sound of broad a, and 
coincides with the sound of o in not. It differs, however, 
in quality as well as quantity from broad a, being a more' 
open sound ; that is to say, the aperture of the lips and 
the internal cavity of the mouth, though of the same shape 
in both cases, are somewhat larger for the former (a) than 
for the latter (a), while the position of the tongue remains 
unaltered throughout. Nor is this difference peculiar to a 
and a, ; it also exists between the other pairs of vowel sounds 
that have essentially the same organic formation , but differ 
in length or duration: in each case, that which is the 
briefer in quantity is the more open in quality of the two. 

There is a sound of a, as heard in salt, although, &c, 
which is intermediate between that in awe and that in 
ivhat. No distinctive mark is used to indicate this inter- 
mediate sound, but the inquirer is referred to this section 
from all words in the vocabulary in which the sound oc- 
curs. — See § 21, Note. 

§ 9. An exceptional sound of a occurs in the words any, 
many. It is as if they were spelled en'y, men'y, being the 
regular short sound of e. 


§ 10. Regular long sound, marked £ , e , as in eve , mete, 
&c. ; heard also in Csesar, beard, feet, leisure, people, key, 
machine, field, oesophagus, quay, &c. 

Note. — In the formation of this element, the tongue is 
raised convexly within the dome of the palate, pressing 
against its sides, and leaving only the smallest possible pas- 
sage through which a vowel sound can be uttered. E is 
therefore the closest lingual or palatal vowel, and is one of 
the extremes of the natural vowel scale, a and oo being 
the other extremes. 

§ 11. Regular short sound, marked E. 6, as in end, me~t ; 
heard also in many, aphxresis, said, says, feather, hSifer, 
leopard, friend, asafatida, bury, guSss. 

Note. — This is not a short sound of the long e. It has 
usually been considered as the shut or extreme short sound 
of the a in fate ; but most orthoepists at the present day, 
while allowing it to be a nearly related sound, regard it as 
distinct, being slightly more open than the radical part of 
a, and lacking the vanish : both are intermediate between 
a and c, the tongue not being so much depressed as for the 
former, nor raised so high toward the palate as for the 
latter. — See § 2, and § 3, Note. 

Occasional Sounds of E. 

§ 12. Sound of e like a (as in care, fair, bear, &c.,) 
marked E, 6, as in ere, thSre, hSir, Per, &c. This, as is 
stated in § 4, is the same sound with that of a in care. — 
See § 4. 

§ 13. Sound of e like a, marked E, e, as in eh, eight, 
prey, vein, &c. — See § 2. 

Note. — This is essentially the sound which this letter 
generally has in the leading modern languages of Continen- 
tal Europe. 

§ 14. Sound of e before r, verging toward the sound of 
u in urge, marked E, e, as in ermine, verge, prefer; heard 
also in earnest, mirth, myrtle, &c. 


Note.— The case here contemplate i is that of e before r, in 
a monosyllable or in an iccented syllable in which the r is 
not followed by a vowel or by another r, or in derivatives of 
such words, when the syllable retains its accent, as in herd, 
defer, deferring, err, erring, term, "-lercy, maternal. When 
e occurs before r, followe vo wel or by another r, in a 

word not derived as abov , it either has the short sound, as 
in ferry, peril, perilous, heritage, ferule, or the long sound, 
as in period, hero, material. 

The vulgar universally, and many cultivated speakers 
both in England and America, give the e in such words the 
full sound of u in urge, as, murcy for mercy, turm for term, 
&c. But, in the most approved style of pronunciation, the 
organs are placed in a position intermediate between that 
requisite for sounding u and that for sounding e, thus 
making (as Smart observes) "a compromise between the 
two." In other words, this element is radically distinct 
from both u and e~, being less guttural than the former 
and less palatal than the latter, from which it was doubt- 
less originally evolved. 


§ 15. Regular long sound, marked I, I, as in Ice ; heard 
also in aisle, height, eying, eye, vie, guile, buy, thy, rye, 
&c. ; in pint, in child, mild, wild; and in monosyllables 
ending with nd, as bind, find, hind, &c, except wind, 
meaning air in motion, and wind, to scent, to cause to lose 
or to recover wind or breath. 

Note. — This sound, though represented by a single 
character, is not a simple element, but a diphthong. It is 
composed of a and c as extremes, with the a accented, but 
made so very brief that the ear with difficulty recognizes 
the precise character of the sound. 

§ 16. Regular short sound, marked I, 1, as in ill ; heard 
also in English, beaufin, been, sieve, women, busy, guinea, 
nymph, &c. 

Note. — This is not a short sound of long i. Many have 
considered it as the shut or extreme short sound of long e ; 
but it is really a distinct, though closely allied, element, 
and is so regarded by the best orthoepists at the present 
time. In its formation, the tongue is slightly relaxed from 
the position assumed for producing e ; this is the only dif- 
ference between the two sounds. — See § 3, Note, and § 8, 

Occasional Sounds of I. 
§ 17. Sound of i like that of long e, marked 1, I, as in 
pique, machine, caprice, &c. — See § 10. 

Note. — This is appropriately the sound of i in all for- 
eign languages. Most of the English words in which this 
sound is represented by this letter are from the French. 

§ 18. Sound of i before r, verging toward u in urge, 
marked I, I, as in irksome, virgin, thirsty, &c, identical 
with that of e in ermine. 

Note. — J in this case is sounded by many speakers like 
ft, as vurgin for virgin. The observations made under § 14 
as to short e in words like ermine, verdure, &c, apply fully 
to this sound of the i. 

§19. Regular long sound, marked O, o, as in old; 
heard also in hautboy, beau, yeoman, sew, roam, hoe, door, 
shoulder, grow, owe, &c. 

Note. — This sound of o is in most cases diphthongal, 
having a slight " vanish " in oo annexed to the " radical " 
or initial sound, as in below, where the w ma; be regarded 
as representing the vanish. The radical part of the sound 
is a simple element, intermediate with respect to the mode 
of its formation, between a and oo, the tongue being less 
depressed than for a, and the labial aperture greater than 
for oo. It is essentially the same element as that described 
in the next section, but of a slightly less open quality. The 
vanish of the o is omitted in unaccented syllables, as in 
o-phVion, to-bae'eo, &c, but ought not to be omitted else- 
where. This remark is important as bearing on a very 
prevalent error, which will be mentioned in the next sec- 

§20. It is exceedingly common, in some parts of the 
Ifaited States, to'.<,hortcn the long o of certain words, as 
holt, most, only, &c, by dropping the vanishing element 


which belongs to the vowel, and giving to the radical por- 
tion a somewhat more open quality ; but this practice is 
wholly opposed to English usage. The provincialism here 
pointed out obtains, more or less widely, in respect to the 
following words, viz. : boat, bolster, bolt, bone, both, broke, 
broken, choke, cloak, close, a., coach, coat, coax, colt, colter, 
comb, dolt, folks, goad, hold, holm, holster, home, homely, 
hope, jolt, load, molten, most, molt, none, only, open, pole, 
polka, poultice, poultry, revolt, road, rode, rogue, soap, 
sloth, smoke, sofa, sol (the name of the note Gr of the musi- 
cal scale), spoke, v., spoken, stone, story, swollen (or swoln), 
throat, toad, xipholsterer, upholstery, whole, wholly, whole- 
some, wrote, yoke, yolk, and possibly a few others. Most 
persons in New England sound the o in a part or all of 
these words without the vanish, while some among the 
vulgar go farther, and give to a number of them almost 
the sound of short u, as, hum for home, &c. They should 
all, however, have the full sound of the o as heard in ac- 
cented syllables, though not in all cases with quite the 
same prolongation of the sound. Thus the full o of dome 
should be given to home ; of hole to whole ; of slope to 
hope ; of poach to coach; of moat to coat; of joke to spoke, 
cloak, smoke, and broke ; of hone to bone and stone ; and 
similarly in the other cases. Still the theoretic phonolo> 
gist can not but regard the true short o described in this 
section as an important and legitimate member of the fam- 
ily of vowel sounds, and must look upon its absence in the 
established orthoepy of our language as a defect and an 
anomaly. To him, therefore, its rise and growth in the 
popular speech are interesting facts, and its final preva- 
lence and admittance to equal rights with the other vowels 
is a thing he would rather desire than deprecate. 

§ 21. Regular short sound, marked 6, o, as in 8dd, 
not; heard also in wander, knowledge, &c. — See §3, 
Note, and § 9. 

Note. — This is the shut or extreme short sound of broad 
a, and coincides with the sound of a in what. There is a 
medium sound of this letter which is neither so short as in 
not, nor so long as in naught. This medium sound is usu- 
ally given to the short o when directly followed by ss, st, 
and tli, as in cross, cost, broth; also in gone, cough, trough, 
off, and some other words. To give the extreme short 
sound to such words is affectation : to give them the full 
sound of broad a is vulgar. 

Occasional, Sounds of O. 

§ 22. Sound of o like short u, marked O, 6, as in other, 
dove, &c. ; heard also in does, gun, flood, double, &c. — 
See § 31. 

§ 23. Sound of o like 6b long, marked O, o, as in prove, 
do, move, tomb, &c. — See § 26. 

§ 24. Sound of o like do short, marked O, o, as in 
bosom, wolf, woman, &c. — See § 8, Note, and § 27. 

NOTE. — This sound coincides with that of u in bull, 
which is also used for oo short. — See § 33. 

§ 25. Sound of o like a (broad a), marked 6, 6, as in 
drder,fOrm, stGrk, &c — See § 7. 

Note. — The letter o generally has this sound when it 
occurs before r in a monosyllable (as in for, form, lord, 
north) or in an accented syllable when not followed by a 
vowel or by another r, as in fur'mer, dr'chard, abhor', and 
also in the derivatives of such words, as in formed, north- 
ern, abhor'ring. But when o occurs, in an accented syllable, 
before r followed by a vowel or by another r in a word not 
a derivative, it has its regular short sound, as in for'eign, 
or'ange, tor'rid. These two sounds of o, viz., the broad, 
like that of a in call, and the short, like that of a in what, 
have been confounded by some orthoepists ; but there is 
an obvious difference between them, not only in quantity, 
but also in quality, the short vowel being more open than, 
the broad. — See § 8, Note. 


§ 26. Regular long or open sound, marked OO, ob, as 
in moon, food; heard also in rheum, drew, to, canoe, man- 
ozuvre, group, rude, rue, recruit, &c. 


NOTE . — This sound is the same element with the u of 
the Germans, Spaniards, and Italians, and coincides with 
the French ou in route. It is the closest labial vowel ; that 
is to say, in forming it, the lips are more nearly closed than 
for any other vowel, the sides being brought into contact 
with each other so as to leave only a small central aperture 
for the escape of the voice. 

§ 27. Regular short sound of oo, marked OO, &b, as 
in wool, foot ; heard also in wolf, should, bull, &c. — See § 
8, Note. 

§ 28. The following words, room, root, roof, rood, broom, 
and soon, have properly the long sound of oo, as in food 
(see § 26) ; but many pronounce them with the short sound, 
as in foot (see § 27). New Englanders especially are often 
recognized abroad by their habit of pronouncing room, 
rdbm ; root, rcTot ; roof, rdbf ; ro~bd, rdbd; broom, bro"bm, 
and soon, sdbn. 


§ 29. Regular long sound, marked U, -G, as in mute, 
Unit, &c. ; heard also in beauty, feodal, feud, pew, ewe, 
lieu, view, cue, suit, yeiv, you, yule, &c. 

Note . — This is a compound sound, formed of the vowel 
oo, with a slight sound of the consonant y or of the vowel 
£ or t before it. When the u begins a syllable, or is pre- 
ceded by any one of the palatal or labial sounds k, g,p, b, 
f, v, m, the sound of y is clearly perceived, as in the words 
usage, cube, gules, puny, burin, futile, mule. 

§ 30. When the long u is preceded, in the same syllable, 
by any one of the consonants d, t, I, n, s, and th, it is 
peculiarly difficult to introduce the sound of y ; and hence 
negligent speakers omit it entirely, pronouncing duty, 
dooty ; tune, toon; lute, loot; nuisance, noosance; suit, 
soot ; thurible, thoorible, &c. The reason is, that, in form- 
ing these consonants, the organs are in a position to pass 
with perfect ease to the sound of oo, while it is very difficult 
in doing so to touch the intermediate y ; hence the y in 
such cases is very apt to be dropped. On this point Smart 
remarks, " To say tube (tyoob), lucid (lyoocid), with the 
u as perfect [i. e. with a distinct sound of y prefixed to oo] 
as in cube, cubic, mute, &c, is either northern or laboriously 
pedantic," — a description which applies to the vulgar in 
our Eastern States, and to those who are over-nice at the 
South. The practice of good society is to let the y sink 
into a very brief sound of long e or of short i, both of 
which have a very close organic relationship to consonant 
y. Special care must be taken not only to make this sound 
as brief as possible, but to pronounce it in the same syllable 
with the oo. We thus avoid the two extremes, of over- 
doing, on the one hand, by making too much of the y, and, 
on the other hand, of sounding only the oo after the man- 
ner of careless speakers. 

It ought to be added that wherever the sound of sh or of 
zh precedes the u, the y is omitted, as in sure, sounded 
Bhoor ; sugar, shdbgar, azure, azh'oor, &c. 

§ 31. Regular short sound, marked tj, ii, as in but; 
heard also in sun, does, blood, touch, &c. 

Note. —This is not the short sound of long u. It is a 
distinct and simple element, and derives its peculiar gut- 
tural character from the influence of the pharynx and back 
part of the mouth In its organic formation, it is essen- 
tially the same sound as u in urge, but is shorter in quan- 
tity, and of a rather more open quality. — See § 3, Note, 

2U1CI § Oj .NOTE. 

Occasional Sounds of U. 

§ 32. Sound of u when preceded by r in the same syl- 
lable, marked U, u, as in rude, rumor, rural, &c. 

Note —All the English orthoepists agree that the u in 
this case drops the y or I which is generally an element of 
its compound sound when preceded, in the same syllable 
by any other consonant than r, and becomes simply ~o so 
that rue is pronounced ro~o ; rule, ro"ol ; ruby, robby &c. 

§ 33. Sound of « like that of short oo (6t>), marked U 

u, as in bull, put, pus,',.. puU, sc. — See § 8, NOTE, and 

§ 34. Sound of u before r in such words as urge, burn, 
furl, concur, &c, marked tl, H ; heard also in worm, jour- 
ney, &c. 

NOTE. — This is often called the natural vowel, because 
it requires almost no effort to utter it, the mouth being 
slightly opened in the easiest or most natural and uncon- 
strained manner for the passage of voice in a nearly un- 
modified form. But the name is scarcely appropriate ; for 
the sound is altogether wanting in many languages, and — 
with the single exception of the English — it occupies a 
comparatively subordinate place in the vowel systems of 
the principal tongues in which it occurs. It has been more 
aptly termed the neutral vowel, with reference to its want 
of any strongly-marked distinctive character ; and this 
name is here adopted as, on the whole, preferable to any 
other. The sound differs from that of short u (with which 
it has often been identified) in length, and in a somewhat 
greater degree of closeness. (See § 8, Note.) It occurs, 
in monosyllables, before r not followed by a vowel (as in 
cur, fur, furl, hurt, burst, purr) ; in accented syllables, be- 
fore r final or r followed by one or more consonants different 
from itself (as in recur 1 , cur'few, fur'long, disbursed').; and 
in derivatives from any such words (as currish, furry, pur- 
ring, recurring). Except in the cases here specified, the 
letter u before r has its short sound, as in cur'ry, hur'ry. 


§ 35. Regular long sound, marked Y, y, as in fly, style, 
sky, edify, &c. 

Note. — This is the same sound as long i. — See § 15. 

§ 36. Regular short sound, marked Y, y, as in cyst, 
nymph, lyric, abyss, coinciding with the sound of short i. — 
See § 16. 

Occasional Sound of Y. 

§ 37. Yhas only one occasional sound; viz., in such 
words as myrrh, myrtle, in which it has, like the e and i in 
similar circumstances (see § 14 and § 18), very nearly the 
sound of u in urge. This is indicated in the Dictionary by 
respelling, the words in which y has this sound being very 
few in number. 


OI or OY. 

§ 38. The sound of oi or oy (unmarked), as heard in oil, 
join, oyster, &c. 

Note. — The elements of this diphthong are o as in cord 
(the same as broad a), and i as in fin (short i), with the 
accent on the former. Oy is always regular in English 
words, and oi is regular also, except in the following cases ; 
viz. , avoirdupois (av-wr-du-poiz'), connoisseur (kon-f's-soor'), 
shamois (sham'wy), choir (kivire), tortoise [tov'tis), tur- 
quois (sometimes pronounced txxv-keez*). 

Until near the beginning of the present century, oi was 
extensively pronounced like long i, as jine for join, rile for 
roil, &c. ; but this pronunciation is now confined ex- 
clusively to the lowest classes. 


§ 39. The sound of ow (unmarked), as heard In owl, 
vowel, flower, &c. 

Note. — This diphthong is compounded of the elements 
a and oo. the former of which is accented, but made ex- 
tremely brief. In a considerable number of words, ow 
represents the sound of long o ; in the single word knowl- 
edge and in its derivatives, it has the sound of short o. 
These are accordingly distinguished by the proper mark, 
as, blow, slow, know, knowledge, &c. 


§ 40. This diphthong has two leading sounds. 

(1.) That of ow in words derived from the Anglo-Saxon, 
as in out, hound, &c. 

(2.) That of oo in words derived from the French, as in 
soup, group, &c. 

§ 41. The diphthong ou has also, In a number of words, 



the sound of long o, as in sdul ; vi a few cases, the sound 
of the broad a, as in bougkt (bawt) •; sometimes that of 
short u, as in couple ; sometimes that of u in urge, as in 
adjourn (adjurn) ; and, in the three words could, would, 
should, that of 6b as in fool. These peculiarities are indi- 
cated in this Dictionary by the appropriate mark over the 
significant or sounded vowel, or by respelling. 


§ 42. When an unaccented syllable ends in a consonant, 
its vowel, if single, has, in strict theory, its regular short 
or shut sound, though uttered somewhat more faintly, or 
with a less proportionate force, than in an accented syllable, 
as in os-sign', con'duct, con'Jtict, &c. In many words of 
this class, however, the vowel is apt to suffer a change or 
corruption of its distinctive quality, passing over into some 
sound of easier utterance. Thus the vowel sounds in the 
unaccented syllables ar, er, ir, or, yr (as in altar, offer, 
tapir, mirror, zephyr), are coincident with that of the 
second « in sulphur. As a general rule, a and o, in unac- 
cented syllables ending in a consonant, verge toward, or 
fall into, the sound of short u, particularly in colloquial 
discourse, as in h&Vlad, bar'racfc, yer'bal, he&'lam, capstan, 
l&Vap, Was, bal'last, hav'oc, meih'od, yis'tol, \en'om, cnm- 
pel', flag'on, bish/op, fA'lot, prov'os*. In such words, it 
would ordinarily be the merest pedantry or affectation to 
give the vowel its regular short sound. 

The vowel e, in unaccented syllables ending in a con- 
sonant, is, in some words, liable to be sounded like short i 
(as in barrel), and, in others, like short u (as in silent) ; but 
these changes are usually avoided by good speakers. 

It may here be remarked, that some of the diphthongs 
are similarly affected by the absence of accent. Thus at, 
which, in an accented syllable, is usually sounded like long 
a (as in corn-plain'), sinks into £ or i in an unaccented 
syllable, as in mountain, pronounced moun'tSn or moun / - 
tin. So ei, ey, and ie become changed in pronunciation 
into 1 (as in sur'feit, hon'eij, car'fied), and ou is sounded as 
U (as in griev'ous). 

It is also to be observed, that, in the unaccented sylla- 
bles of some words from the Latin, the vowel is long, 
though followed by a consonant in the same syllable, as in 
cantharides ; but, in such cases, the long mark is, in the 
Dictionary, placed over the vowel. 

§ 43. When the unaccented syllable does not end in a 
consonant, two cases arise ; viz. , — 

(1.) The syllable may consist of, or may end in, a vowel, 
as in the words a-bound', di'-rect', e-vent', rao-lest', &c. 

(2.) The syllable may end in a consonant with final e 
mute at the close of words, as in xd'ti-mate, fi'nite, rep'- 
tile, &c. 

The former of these will, for the sake of brevity, be called 
No. 1, the latter No. 2. These will now be considered un- 
der each of the vowels. 


§ 44. (No. 1. See § 43.) Here the a has properly a 
brief sound of the Italian a, as in Cu'ba, a-muse', .4-mer'i- 
ca; but, in familiar speech, it is almost always so slighted 
and obscured as to be indistinguishable from the neutral 
vowel, or u in urge, murmur, &c. In some words, like 
fi-e'ri-al, cAa-ot'ic, &c, the a has its regular long or name 
sound, somewhat shortened by the omission of the " van- 
ish." This is due to the influence of the subsequent vowel, 
which, in fluent utterance, refuses to take the Italian a 
before it without the intervention of one or more con- 
sonants. Some speakers in this country give the same 
brief sound of long a to this letter when it occurs in an 
initial unaccented syllable followed by a consonant in an 
accented syllable, as in a-bound', fa-tal'i-ty ; but this prac- 
tice is not sanctioned by the best orthoepists. In the ter- 
minations -a-ny and -a-ry, the a has usually the same 

sound as short « unaccented, as in mis'cel-la-ny, mo'ment- 
a-ry, &c. 

§ 45. (No. 2. See § 43.) Here the a has sometimes its 
long sound, particularly in verbs ending in ate, as, dedi- 
cate, ed'u-cfite, &c. In other parts of speech, the sound 
of the a is more obscure, verging toward short e, as in ulti- 
mate, night'in-gale, preface, &c. In some instances it is 
apt to verge toward short i, as in vil'lage. 

§ 46. (No. 1. See § 43.) Here the e has its long sound, 
slightly obscure or abridged, as in e-vent', e-mo'tion, so- 
ci'e-ty, &c. Care should be taken not to sink the e into 
an indefinite sound of short u, as, soci'uty for society, &c. 

§ 47. (No. 2. See § 43.) Here, also, the e has usually 
its long sound a little shortened and slighted, as in obso- 
lete. In a few instances, it verges toward short t, as in 


There is great diversity in the case of this letter. Hence 
it is difficult to lay down general rules ; and, as Smart 
remarks, " The inquirer must be sent to the Dictionary to 
learn, in each particular case, the true pronunciation." 

§ 48. (No. 1. See § 43.) 1, when final in a syllable, 
has more commonly its short sound, as in phl-los'o-phy, 
dl-rect', &c. But the i is usually long in the initial sylla- 
bles i, bi, chi, cli, cri, pri, tri, as in z-de'a, bi-ol'o-gy, crl- 
te'ri-on, prl-me'val, &c. 

§ 49. (No. 2. See § 43.) In these terminations, usage 
is greatly divided. On the whole, the i is more generally 
short, as in ac-com'pllce, in'fi-nzte, fer'tzle, mar^-time, 
ad-a-man'tme, an'lse, pos'i-ttve, &c. ; but there are some 
important exceptions, as, cock / a-trzce,ex / zle,gen / tIle, con'- 
cu-bme, archive, &c. ; also all names of minerals ending 
in lite or ite; as, chrys'o-lzte, ste'a-tite, &c. Here the Dic- 
tionary must be consulted for the several words. Accord- 
ing to Smart and Cull, chemical terms ending in ide (as 
bromide, chloride, &c.) should be pronounced with the i 
long ; but all other orthoepists are unanimous in making 
the vowel short ; and the propriety of the latter mode of 
pronunciation is established by the fact that this whole 
class of words is not unfrequently spelt without the final e, 
thus, bromid, chlorid. 


§ 50. (No. 1. See § 43.) Here the o has usually its long 
sound slightly abbreviated, and without its " vanish " 
(see § 19), as in o-pin'ion, croc'o-dile, to-bac'co, &c. Care 
should here be taken not to sink the o into short u, as care- 
less speakers often do, pronouncing o-phVion, wp-pin'ion, 
&c. An exception, however, is perhaps to be made in the 
case of the terminations -o-ny and -o-ry, in which, according 
to universal usage in England, the o is sounded like short 
u unaccented, as in mat'ri-mo-ny, prom'is-so-ry, &c. Yet 
most speakers in this country give the o in such words its 
long sound, slightly abbreviated, as in other unaccented 
syllables. The practice — too common among us — of lay- 
ing a secondary accent on the o is a fault which should be 
sedulously avoided. — See § 110. 

§ 51. (No. 2. See § 43.) The o in these terminations 
has usually its regular long sound, as in tel'e-scope, ep'ode, 
&c. Sometimes it has the sound of short o, as in di'a-logue : 
in other cases, it verges toward short u, as in purpose. 


§ 52. (No. 1. See § 43.) Here the « gencrallyhas its 
long sound slightly abridged, as in ac'ctt-rate, e-mol'w- 
ment, man-tt-mit', an'nw-al, dep'w-tize, w-til'i-ty. But 
when the u is preceded by d, t, or s, these combinations, du, 
tu, and su, are by the great majority of speakers changed 
into joQt) choo, and shoo or zhoo, respectively, as in ed'* 


K-cate (ej'oo-kate), ha-bit'n-al (ha-blch'oo-al), sen'sw-ous 
(sen'shoo-us), vis'n-al (vizh'oo-ai). (See §§ 66, 77, 92, 93, 
95 and 107.) In the notation of words of this class in the 
Dictionary, the regular pronunciation is generally given 
instead of the irregular, in conformity with the views of Dr. 
Webster ; but, in many instances, reference is made to the 
remarks contained in the present section. When the u is 
preceded by r, it simply drops the y sound, and is pro- 
nounced oo, as in er-u-di'tion (er-oo-dish/un). (See § 32.) 

§ 53. (No. 2. See § 43.) The u in these terminations 
should generally retain its regular long sound (see §§ 29, 
30) slightly abridged, as in graVi-tftde, in'sti-tute, rid'i- 
cf/le, trib'wte, im-post'hnme, sub'ter-fnge, &c. There are 
a few exceptions, as minute (mhVit), n., and let'twce (lef- 
tis). If the letter r precedes the u, the initial element of 
the vowel is dropped, as in ce'rase (se'roos), peruke (per'- 
ook), &c. (See § 32.) On the other hand, when the wis 
immediately preceded by the letter t, it should never be 
changed into mere oo, as grat'i-tood for grat'i-tude, in'sti- 
toot for in'sti-twte — a practice which prevails among the 

The terminations dure, ture, and sure, though sometimes 
pronounced with the regular sounds of the letters, are more 
commonly pronounced joor, ckoor, and shoor or zhoor, re- 
spectively, as in the words tem'per-a-ture (tero/per-a-choor), 
ver'dwre (ver'joor), cy'no-swre (si'no-shoor), ex-po'swre (eks- 
po'zhoor). (See §§ 66,77,92, 93, 95, and 107.) When these 
terminations are immediately preceded by an accented syl- 
lable, many speakers change them still further into chur, 
jur, and shur, or zhur, as in na'twre (na'chur), ver'dz^re 
(ver'jur), cen'snre (sen'shur), ex-po'swre (eks-po'zhur). The 
Dictionary follows the practice of Dr. Webster in giving to 
dure and ture the regular sounds of d, t, and u (pronounc- 
ing v erd ure, vSrd'yoor, creature, kreet'yoor, &c), while sure 
is respelt shoor or zhoor, as in the examples given above. 
This, it is true, is an inconsistency ; but it is one of little 
moment, inasmuch as general usage is so fluctuating, and 
as reference is in most cases made to the present section. 


§ 54. (No. 1. See § 43.) Here y has usually its short 
sound, as in h#-poc / ri-s?/, my-thol'o-gy, van'i-t?/, iner'ri-h/, 
proph'e-cy, &c. ; but verbs ending in fy have the y long, 
as in jxxs'tiiy, m&g'm-iy, &c. also the three verbs, oc'- 
cu-py, mul'ti-pli/, proph / e-sy. 

§ 55. (No. 2. See § 43.) The y in these terminations 
(which are few in number) is generally long, as in an'o- 
dyne, per'i-sti/le, ne'o-phyte, pros'e-li/te, &c. 

§ 56. Vowels which are printed in Italics are not to be 
sounded, as the e in used, burden, the i in cousm, &c. 
Some of these cases require a more particular consideration, 
and will now be mentioned. 

E final. 
§ 57. The letter e is always mute when final, except in 
monosyllables containing no other vowel, in classical words, 
and in some words from modern foreign languages ; but, in 
a monosyllable or in an accented syllable of a word, though 
silent, it generally serves the purpose of indicating that a 
preceding single vowel followed by a single consonant, a con- 
sonant digraph, or the combined letters st or ng, has its reg- 
ular long sound, as in plane, hope, cube, inscribe, paste 
change. When a silent e follows c or g at the end of a word, 
it serves also to show that the consonant is to have its soft 
and not its hard, sound, as in ace, nice, age, huge, oblige. 
In a number of monosyllables (as bade, come, give were 
done, &c.) and in the accented syllables of a few words de- 
rived from them (as forbade' , become', forgive'), the e does 
not have its usual effect of lengthening the sound of the 

preceding vowel. In unaccented syllables, it sometime* 
keeps the vowel in its. l#ng sound, as in gen'tlle, su'pine, 
finite, ar' chive ; but in a great many instances it exercises 
no such influence, as in jus'tice, hos'ttle, mar'i-time, dod- 
trine, an'tse, gran'tte, plain 1 'Ave 

EN with B silent. 
§ 58. Most words ending in en drop the e in pronuncia- 
tion, as, often (of'n), heaven (heav'n), even (ev'n), &c. One 
of the most prevalent errors of the present day, especially 
among our clergy (for the laity have fallen into it much 
less), is that of pronouncing the words even (ev'n) evwn, 
heaven (heav'n) heavnn or heaven, often (of'n) often, &c. 
Walker remarks with great keenness on this error, declar- 
ing it to be a "puerile and false pronunciation." If the 
writer is correctly informed, it is never heard among good 
speakers in England. The following are nearly all the 
words in which thee should be sounded: aspen, chicken, 
hyphen, kitchen, jerken, latten, lichen, marten, mynchen, 
paten, patten, platen, rowen, wicken, and yewen. The e 
is also sounded when preceded by the liquids I, ?n, n, r, as 
in wooden, omen, linen, siren, &c, though fallen, stolen, 
and swollen omit the e in pronunciation. With regard to 
Eden, bounden, heathen, mitten, sudden, and sloven, there 
is a diversity of usage among good speakers in this country, 
some suppressing, and some sounding, the e. 

ON with O silent. 
§ 59. Many words ending in on preceded by c, ck, s, and 

t, omit the o in pronunciation, as in reckon (reck'n), bacon 
(bak'n), treason (treas'n), mutton (mutt'n), &c. 

ED with E silent. 
§ 60. The termination ed is usually shortened in pro- 
nunciation by dropping the sound of the e (as in loved 
(lov'd), aimed (aim'd), diffused (diffus'd), &c), unless this 
letter is preceded by d or t (as in amended, contented, &c), 
when its omission is organically impossible. But in adverbs 
formed by adding ly, and in nouns formed by adding ness 
to words ending in ed, the e of this termination is uniformly 
sounded, as in assuredly, confusedly, renewedly, amazed- 
ness, composedness, &c. There are also some participial 
adjectives, and some adjectives not derived from verbs, in 
which the eis commonly sounded, as, aged, beloved, blessed, 
crabbed, cragged, crooked, crutched, cursed, cusped, deuced, 
dogged, hooked, jagged, learned, legged, naked, peaked, 
picked (sharp), ragged, rugged, stubbed, wicked, winged, 
wretched. The e is also pronounced in the derivatives 
formed from such adjectives, as, learnedly, blessedness; but 
is generally omitted in the compounds, as, full-aged (-ajd), 
sheath-winged (-wingd). In poetry, the meter often requires 
us to pronounce ed as a distinct syllable, when it would not 
be so pronounced in prose. In all cases where it should 
properly be sounded, its omission is a mark of great vul- 

Note. — In reading the Scriptures and Prayer-book, 
some persons, chiefly among the clergy, make it a practice 
to pronounce the participial termination -ed, in most cases 
in which it is not preceded by a vowel (as in believed, re- 
vealed), as a distinct syllable. Thus, " Whom he did pre- 
destinate, them he also call-erf ,• and whom he call-erf, them, 
he also justifierf ; and whom he justifierf, them he also glo- 
rifierf." This usage was formerly a very prevalent one, 
but at the present time it is much more limited, and is 
commonly regarded as savoring of affectation or of an old- 
school education. 

EL with E silent. 
§ 61. As a general rule, the e is sounded in these ter- 
minations, as in graveZ, leveZ, vessel, chapeZ, &c. To omit 
the e in such cases, pronouncing level lev'l, chapel chap'l, 
&c, is generally regarded as a vulgarism. The following 
are nearly or quite all the words of this kind in which the 
e is properly omitted ; viz., barbel, betel, chattel, drazeL 



drivel, easel, grovel, hazel, mangel-wurzel, mantel, mis- 
pickel, mussel, navel, ousel, ravel, rivel, scovel, shekel, 
shovel, shrivel, snivel, swingel, swivel, teasel, toggel, towsel, 
weasel, and, according to a few orthoepists, model. 



§ 62. The sound represented by this letter (which is un- 
marked) is heard in the words barn, rob, labor, table, &c. 

Note. — This sound is formed by the compression of 
vocalized breath, or voice, within the mouth, while the 
Kps are shut and the back nostrils are closed by covering 
them with the soft palate. When preceded by m, or fol- 
lowed by t, in the same syllable, b is generally silent, as in 
bomb, climb, tomb, debt, doubt, subt'le, &c. Accumb, dith- 
yramb, iamb, succumb, rhomb, /humb, are said to be excep- 
tions ; yet, in this country, the first and the fourth of these 
words are commonly pronounced without sounding the b. 
B is also silent in bdellium. 


§ 63. C marked thus, £, 9, (soft c), has the sound of s, 
as in cede, trace, acid, cypress, &c. 

Note. — It takes this sound whenever it occurs before e 
(even if silent), i, or y. — See S, § 90. 

When the letters ce or ci are immediately preceded by an 
accented syllable, and are followed by a vowel in the next 
syllable, the c combines in pronunciation with the e or i to 
form the sound sh, as in ocean, social, saponaceous, &c. In 
some words, c alone has this sound, or, rather, the e or i is 
used twice, first combining with the c to represent the 
sound of sh, and then, in the same syllable, taking on its 
customary vowel sound, as in so-ci-aVi-ty. — See SH, § 95. 

§ 64. C marked thus, -€, -e (hard c), has the sound of k 
when it comes before a, 0, u, I, or r, before k, s, or t final, 
and when it ends a word or a syllable, as in call, cot, cut, 
dot, crown, black, act, zinc, traffic, pic' ture,flac'cid, eth'ics. 
— SeeK, §78. 

§ 65. Chas the sound of z in the. words sacrifice, sice, 
suffice, and discern, and in their derivatives. It is silent in 
the words czar, victuals, indict, and their derivatives, and 
also in the termination scle, as in muscle, corpuscle, &c. 


§ 66. Ch unmarked (English ch) has very nearly the 
sound of tsh, as in child, much, richer, speechless, &c. 

Note. — The compound sound signified by this digraph 
is not precisely equivalent to that represented by tsh. The 
ordinary sound of t is uttered with the tip of the tongue 
pressed against the gum of the upper front teeth. The first 
element of ch is uttered with the upper flat surface of the 
tongue, near the tip, applied to the gum at a point higher 
up, just where a relaxation of the contact produces the 
configuration requisite for sounding sh, the second constit- 
uent of the compound. The two elements are so closely 
blended in pronunciation that, like a diphthong, or com- 
pound vowel, they have the effect of only a single sound or 
beat upon the ear. 

When the letter t comes before u (= yoo) in an unac- 
cented syllable, and is at the same time preceded by an ac- 
cented syllable (as in nature), or when it is preceded by s or 
x in an accented syllable, and is immediately followed by ia 
(== ya) or io (= yo) in an unaccented syllable (as in Chris- 
tian, question, admixtion), both this letter and the y vir- 
tually following it are, by some speakers, preserved in their 
usual and appropriate sounds; thus, nature (nat'yoor) 
Christian (krist'yan), question (kwest'yun), admixtion (ad- 
mikst'yun), &c. But by others they are suffered to sink 
into the easier and closely allied sound of ch in church; 
thus, nature (na-choor), Christian (kris'chan), question 
(kwes'chun), admixtion (ad-miks'chun), &c. In regard to 
the pronunciation of words ending in teous, when this ter- 
mination is not under, but is immediately preceded by, the 
accent (as in boun'teous), usage is far from being uniform, 
Borne calling it t-yus (as bount'yus), others reducing it to 
chas (as boun'chus), while others corrupt it into che-us (as 
boun'cheus) ; but that mode which keeps both the t and 
the e in their customary sounds (as bounJte-us), is the most 

common, except in the single word righteous, which is 
properly pronounced rlt'yus, or rl'chus. 

§ 67. Ch marked thus, £h, qh. (French ch), has the 
sound of sh, as in chaise, marchioness, machine, &c. — See 
SH, § 95. Most words of this kind are derived from the 

§ 68. Ch marked thus, -Ch, -eh (Latin ch), has the 
sound of k, as in chorus, epoch, distich, &c. This is the us- 
ual sound in words derived from the ancient languages ; but 
cherub and charity, with their derivatives, are exceptions. 
Ch is always hard (like k) before I and r, as in chlorine, 

Note. — The prefix arch, denoting chief, is pronounced 
ark in archangel and its derivatives, and in words from 
foreign languages in which the other component part is not 
separately current in English, as, architecture, arcAipelago, 
architrave, &c. In all other cases, it is pronounced artch, 
as in arcA-bishop, arcA-enemy, arcA-fiend, &c. 

§ 69. Ch is silent in the word drachm (though not in 
drachma, drak^ma), and also in scMsm, yacAt (yot), and 
their derivatives. 

§ 70 . The sound of d (unmarked), as in dale, sad, rider, 
tradesman, &c. 

Note. — The sound of this letter is formed by pressing 
the end of the tongue against the upper gums, and then 
forcing up vocalized breath, or voice, into the mouth, the 
soft palate being raised to prevent its escape through the 

This is the regular and usual sound of d ; but when this 
letter follows a whispered or non-vocal consonant in the 
same syllable, it uniformly takes the sound of t, as in hissed 
(hist). (See § 108.) B is silent only in the words Wednes- 
day and handkerchief. 


§ 71. The sound of /"(unmarked), as in fame, leaf, def- 
inite, softly, &c. 

Note. — This letter, which is never silent, is uttered by 
applying the lower lip to the upper front teeth, and emit- 
ting the breath. F has only this one sound, except in the 
single word of, in which it has the power of v. In the 
compounds hereof, thereof, and whereof, many speakers 
preserve the customary and regular sound of the f; but 
good usage allows it to be sounded as in the simple word. 


§ 72. G marked thus, G, g (g hard), has the sound of 
that letter in the word go ; as in get, gave, give, begun, 
keg, sluggish, smuggle, &c. 

Note. — This sound is produced by a compression of in- 
tonated breath, or voice, confined within the mouth by a 
contact of the root of the tongue with the posterior part 
of the palate, which is at the same time raised sufficiently 
to cover the back nostrils, or openings from the pharynx 
into the nose. 

G is hard before a (except in the single word gaol and its 
derivatives), o, u, h, I, and r, as in gate, gore, gum, ghastly, 
glad, grain. It is sometimes, though not usually, hard 
before e, i, and y, as in get, give, gibbous, muggy. This 
occurs chiefly in words from the Anglo-Saxon, and in a very 
few from the Greek. It is also, and always, hard at the 
end of words, and in the derivatives of such words, even 
when the g is doubled and followed by e, i, or y, as in crag, 
drug, fog, cragged, druggist, foggy. 

When a, 1, or %, is preceded in the same syllable by the 
sound of g, or of k, very many speakers, particularly in 
England, interpose a slight sound of e, as in card, kind, 
garden, guard, girl, guile, guise, sky. Some persons affect 
the introduction of a full and distinct sound of long e, or 
of consonant y, in such cases ; saying kee-ard or k-yard, 
kee-lnd or k-yJnd, ske-y or sk-yl,Scc. The practice of a 
very large portion, if not a majority, of the best speakers 
in the United States, and also of many educated persons in 
England, is to join the sound of the g or k to that of the a 
or I, without suffering any other sound to slip in between 

§ 73. G marked thus, G, g (g soft), has the compound 
sound of j, as in gem, rage, engine, caged, &c. — See § 77- 



Note. — The letter g generally takes this sound when it 
comes before e, i, or y ; but there are some exceptions. (See 
the preceding section.) G has also its soft sound before a 
in the single word gaol (now commonly spelt jail), and in 
its derivatives and compounds. 

§ 74. In a few words from the French, g retains the 
sound of zh, which it has before e and i in that language, 
as in rouge (roozh), mirage (lni-rizh'), &c. 

G is silent before m and n final, and also when initial be- 
fore n, as in phlegm, sign, gnat. 

For the office which g performs in such words as longer, 
stronger, &c, see § 82. 

§ 75. This digraph (which is unmarked) is sounded, at 
the beginning of a word, like g hard, as in ghastly, ghost, 
gherkin, &c. It is silent after the vowel i, as in high, sigh, 
weigh ; and it is generally silent before t, as in bought, 
fraught, taught, &c. The words draught and laughter, 
where it has the sound of/, are exceptions. In other 
cases, gh is generally pronounced like/, as in chough , cough, 
rough, tough, trough, enough, &c. ; but it sometimes has 
the sound of h, as in hough, lough, shough. In the word 
hiecough, it is usually pronounced like j>. 


§ 76. This letter (which is unmarked) is a mere aspira- 
tion or breathing, and represents no fixed configuration of 
the vocal organs. 

Note. — It is an emission of unvocalized breath through 
whatever position of the mouth-organs is required by the 
succeeding element, the organs being always placed to form 
the next following letter before the h is pronounced. Thus , 
in he the tongue is put in a position to sound the e before 
the h is uttered ; and similarly in hall, hard, home, &c. It 
differs, however, from a mere whispered vowel, in being an 
expiration of breath through the open glottis, whereas in 
whispering a vowel the glottis is almost closed by the ap- 
. proximation of the vocal cords. 

In the following words, heir, heiress, herb, herbage, honest, 
honor, honorable, hour, with their derivatives, and also in 
hostler (more properly spelt ostler), h is silent. It is also 
marked as silent by most orthoepists in hospital, humor, and 
humble, with their derivatives. There is, however, an in- 
creasing tendency to sound the h in these words. H is 
silent after g initial, as in ghost, gherkin, &c. ; after r, as in 
rhyme, myrrh, &c. ; and also when preceded by a vowel in 
the same syllable, as in ah, eh, oh, buhl, Jehovah, &c. In 
many parts of England, the sound of this letter is almost 
always omitted where it ought to be uttered, and uttered 
where it ought to be omitted ; as ^ouse for house, happle for 
apple, &c. This very gross and vulgar error is rarely, if 
ever, heard among natives of the United States. 


§77. This letter (which is unmarked) has very nearly 
the sound of dzh, being precisely the same as that of g 
soft, as in jar, jeer, joke, &c. — See § 73. 

Note. — The sound of j, though almost identical with 
that of dzh, differs from it as the sound of ch in chin dif- 
fers from that of tsh. (See § 66, Note.) J" is never silent. 
In the word hallelujah, it has the sound of consonant y. 

In words in which d precedes a letter having regularly 
the sound ofy, and occurring in an unaccented syllable, as 
in modulate (mod'u-late), soldier (sold'yer), the sound of j 
is very often substituted for the combined sounds of the d 
and y (thus, mbj'oo-late, sol'jer) ; —just as the sound of ch 
is substituted for the combined sounds of t and y, in na- 
ture, question, righteous, &c. (See § 66, Note.) Smart 
remarks, " It is possible to preserve the pure sound of the 
t and d in nature and verdure ; yet nothing is more certain 
than that they are not preserved pure by the best and most 
careful speakers." 

§ 78. This letter (which is unmarked) has one uniform 
sound, as heard in keep, king, kitchen, &c.,and is precisely 
equivalent to c hard. — See § 64. 

Note. — The sound represented by this letter differs from 
that of g in go (hard g) only in being a whispered and not 

a vocal utterance ; the organs are placed in the same posi- 
tion for forming both sounds. Before n, in the same sylla- 
ble, k is silent, as in knack, knell, knit, know, &c. It is 
also silent after c, as in back, barrack, &c. In regard to the 
pronunciation sometimes given to such words as kind, sky, 
&c, see § 72, Note. 


§ 79. The sound of I (unmarked), as heard in left, bell, 
chalice, melting, &c. 

Note. — This letter has only one sound, which consists 
of an efflux of vocalized breath, or voice, over the sides of 
the tongue, while its tip is pressed against the gums of the 
upper front teeth. L is silent in many words, especially 
before a final consonant, as in almond , malmsey , palmer, 
alms, calm, walk, half, could, would, should, &c. 


§80. The sound of m (unmarked), as heard in make, 
aim, clamor, armed, &c. 

Note. — This letter has one uniform sound, produced by 
closing the lips, and letting the voice issue through the 
nose. It is silent when it precedes n in the same syllable, 
as in mnemonics. 

§ 81. The sound of n (unmarked), as heard in nail, ten, 
panel, entry, &c. 

Note. — In the production of this sound, the tip of the 
tongue is pressed against the upper gums, as for d; but the 
voice, instead of being confined within the mouth, is suf- 
fered to escape uninterruptedly through the nose, the nasal 
passages being uncovered for that purpose. 

When final after / or m, n is uniformly silent, as in kiln, 
condemn, solemn, hymn, limn, &c. ; but it is generally 
sounded in the derivatives formed from such words by add- 
ing to them a termination beginning with a vowel, as in 
condemnatory, solemnize, hymnic, limner, &c. In the 
present participles of verbs ending in mn, as contemn, 
hymn, &c.,the n, though often unpronounced, is more 
properly sounded, as, contemning, hymning, &c. 

§ 82. The sound of n as heard in linger, link, uncle, 
&c. (marked N, n). 

Note. — This is essentially the same sound as that repre- 
sented by ng ; but its length varies greatly according as it 
is followed by a whispered or a vocal consonant. When it 
is followed in the same syllable by the sound of k, as in link, 
it is cut so short by the instantaneous and perfect closure 
of the organs which form this pure mute as to add almost 
nothing to the length of the syllable. It is therefore undc 
sirable to respell words ending in nk by the use of ng ; and, 
in this volume, this is not done, a diacritical mark being 
placed below the n instead, as a sufficient indication of the 
true quality and quantity of the sound. But when this 
sound of n is followed by that of g in a separate syllable, 
as in the primitive words anger, finger, conger, hunger, it is 
long and sonorous, and increases the duration of the syl- 
labic utterance very perceptibly. As a general rule, the 
change of n into n takes place only before g and k (or before 
the equivalents of k, namely, c, q, andcc = ks). It takes place 
before k or its equivalents when any one of these letters fol- 
lows n in the same syllable, as in \ink, cingue, mina;, be- 
think, adunyue', phar'ynx; and before g or k, or an equiv- 
alent of k, when any one of these letters begins an unac- 
cented syllable and the n ends a preceding accented one, 
as in con/cord, congress, un'cle, &c. Penguin and a few 
other words are exceptions ; also words beginning with the 
prefixes in, non, quinque, and un ; as, in'come, non'con- 
form'ity, qmVguevalve, un'compound'ed, &c. It is to be 
observed that, if the n ends an unaccented syllable, and the 
g or k begins an accented one, the n invariably retains its 
regular sound ; as in con-cord'ant, con-gres'sional, &c. 

It is also to be observed that in most derivative words, 
like hanger, singer, wronger (from hang, sing, and wrong), 
the g is not sounded, but unites with the n to represent 
the sound which in the primitives just cited is represented 
by n alone. But in the comparative and superlative de- 
grees of the three following words, viz., long, strong, and 
young, and also in the words diphthongal and triphthongal 
(from diphthong and triphthong), the g is always, though 
very irregularly, pronounced, taking its hard sound, as in 
go ; thus, lon'ger, stron'ger, &c. It is further to be ob- 
served that there is a small class of words in which the n 
has its ordinary sound, as in nail, and the S its soft sound} 



as in gem. Of this class, the words danger, stranger, gin- 
ger, and plunger are examples. 

§ 83. The sound of ng (unmarked), as in sing, singer, 
singly, &c. 

Note. — This is a simple, elementary sound, and is not 
(as might be supposed) a compound sound made up of the 
sound of n in conjunction with that of g. In forming ng, 
the tongue is placed in the same position as for forming g; 
the nostrils, however, are not completely closed, but yet so 
much so as to produce a marked resonance (somewhat sim- 
ilar to the sound of n), which may be continued to any 
length, as in sing, bring, &c. — See § 82. 

§ 84. The sound of p (unmarked), as heard in pay, ape, 
paper, aptly, &c. 

Note. — The position of the organs necessary for forming 
this sound is the same as for b, but the sound itself differs 
from that of b in being an utterance of the breath instead 
of the voice. 

P has but one sound ; it is silent when initial before n,s, 
And t, as in pneumatics, psalm, pshaw, ptarmigan. It is 
also silent or very indistinct when it occurs between m and 
t in the same syllable, as in tempt, exempt, &c. ; but when 
preceded by m in the same syllable and followed by t or by 
k in the next syllable, it is more properly sounded ; as in 
temp-ta'tion, exemp'tion, redemption, consumptive, sump'- 
tuous, bump' kin, pump 1 kin, &c, though, in colloquial ut- 
terance, it is very often suppressed in words of this class. 
It is also mute in the following words, and in their deriva- 
tives : viz., raspberry, receipt, sempstress, accompt, and 


§ 85. This digraph (which is unmarked) occurs chiefly 
in words of Greek derivation, and has usually the sound 
of/, as in phantom, sylph, philosophy , &c. In Stephen it 
has the sound of v ; and, according to most orthoepists, it 
has the same sound in nephew (nev'ew), though in this 
country it has commonly its regular sound of f in that 

Before th initial, ph is silent, as in £>Athisis ; it is also si- 
lent in apophz/zegm. In diphthong , triphthong, ophthalmy, 
naphtha, and other allied words, together with their deriv- 
atives, the ph is often sounded as p, or the h may be re- 
garded as silent. 


§ 86. Q is followed in all cases by u, and these two let- 
ters, taken together, have usually the sound of kw, as in 
queen (kween), conquest (konk'west), &c. In a few words 
derived from the French, qu is sounded like k, as in co- 
quette, quadrille, &c. It has the same sound in the com- 
mon termination que, as in antique, oblique,. burlesque, &c. 


§ 87. This letter (which is unmarked) may be viewed 
under three aspects : — 

(1.) R as in rip, trip, carol, &c. (sometimes called rough, 
trilled, dental, or initial r). 

In forming this sound, the tongue assumes nearly the 
same position as for d; but the voice, instead of being con- 
fined within the mouth, is suffered to flow freely over the 
tip of the tongue, producing a very slightly trilled and 
peculiarly liquid sound, closely resembling that of z in the 
mode of its formation, but not partaking of its harsh, buzz- 
ing quality ; the difference between the two sounds, in this 
respect, resulting from the fact that the tip of the tongue 
is approximated more closely to the upper gum for z than 
for r. R is sometimes strongly trilled or rolled by a forcible 
expulsion of the voice ; but in customary speech, it is very 
gently pronounced, and any marked vibration of the tongue 
should be carefully avoided as a pedantic affectation. The 
sound here described is heard in English in the two follow- 
ing cases: 1. When r is not preceded by a vowel, as in ream, 
dream, prompt, spring ; 2. When it stands between two 
vowels of which the first is short, as in baron, merit, spirit, 

florid. Often the r is doubled in the written word, as in 
barren, merry, torrid; but, in these cases, only one r is 
heard in the pronunciation, providing the preceding vowel 
is short. — See § 109. 

(2.) R as in far, form, terse, surge, &c. (sometimes called 
smooth, palatal, guttural, obscure, or final r). 

By most orthoepists at the present day, the letter r, when 
it occurs before any consonant, or when final, is regarded 
as a distinct element from the last, and as formed by a 
slight vibration of the back part, or root, of the tongue 
against the extremity of the soft palate. Many writers, 
however, do not admit any such distinction in the sound 
of r, maintaining that the value of the letter (apart from 
the obscure vowel element described in No. 3) is uniform in 
all situations. 

(3.) R, connected with a guttural vowel sound, as heard 
in such words as fare, mere, ire, ore, cure, poor, pure, &c. 
Here the character r represents two sounds : viz., an obscure 
vowel sound resembling that of u in urge, and a smooth or 
palatal r, so that the above words are pronounced faur (see 
§ 4), meur, lur, &c. 

§ 88. In the pronunciation of accurate speakers, r is 
never silent ; but when it occurs after a long vowel or a 
dipththong in the same syllable, as in here, fur, murmur, 
our, mire, &c, it is commonly and entirely suppressed, 
both in the United States and the south of England. In 
the northern counties of England, and in Scotland and Ire- 
land, with equal impropriety, it is, when so situated, always 
trilled. ■ 

§ 89. In English usage, when the letter r is preceded in 
an accented syllable by a long vowel or a diphthong, and ii 
followed by a vowel in the next syllable, it uniformly repre- 
sents both the palatal, or smooth, and the dental, or trilled, 
sound of this letter, as in hero, iris, glory, lurid, pronounced 
her/ro, lr'ris, glor'ry, lur'rid. In the United States, this 
double power of the letter r is chiefly, though not invari- 
ably, restricted to the derivatives of words ending in r or 
re preceded by a long vowel or a diphthong, as in poorer 
(poor'rer), from poor; boring (bor'ring), from bore ; airy(W- 
ry), from air ; peerage (peer/rage), from />fier, wiry (wlr'ry), 
from wire ; securing (securing), from secure ; but, on the 
other hand, we say he'ro, i'ris, glo'ry, lu'rid, &c, because 
these words are not derived from any other words in the 
language. In Scotland, however, the universal practice is 
to join the r in all cases to the following vowel ; or, in other 
words, to give it only its dental or trilled sound; thus, 
pee' rage and he'ro, wi'ry&nd I'ris, bo'ring and glo'ry, secu- 
ring and lu'rid, &c. 

It is to be observed that those orthoepists who maintain 
that r has one invariable sound, assert that the only pecu- 
liarity in the English pronunciation of such words as hero, 
iris, &c, and in the English and American pronunciation 
of such words as poorer, boring, &c, consists in the inter- 
position between the r and the preceding vowel of an ob- 
scure vowel sound like that of u in urge, which obscure 
sound is omitted by the Scotch. 

§ 90. S unmarked has its regular Bharp or hissing 
sound, as in same, yes, massy, resting, &c. 

Note. — This sound is an utterance of unvocal breath 
forced between the tip of the tongue and the upper gum, 
the tongue being placed in the proper position for sounding 
t and d. S always has this sound at the beginning, and 
frequently in the middle and at the end, of words. — See 

§ 91. S, when marked thus, §, §, has the buzzing 
sound of z in zeal, as in has, amuse, rosy, &c. — See § 108. 

Note. — There has been much diversity among orthoe- 
pists as to the sound of 5 in words commencing in dis, as 
disarm, disburse, &c. Walker laid down this rule : — "It 
[s] ought always to be pronounced like z when unaccented 
and followed by an accented flat mute [b, d, g hard, v], a 



liquid [I, m, n, r], or a vowel." Hence he gave pronuncia- 
tions like the following : disbud, dizbud ; disedify, diz- 
edify ; disjoin, de'zjoin ; dislike, cfelike ; dislodge, dzzlodge, 
&c. Scarcely any subsequent orthoepist has gone so far. 
Webster's Dictionary gives s the sound of z in the following 
words only : viz., disarm, disaster, discern, disease, disheir, 
dishonest, dishonor, dismal, disown, dissolve. 

There are a few verbs ending in se, which are also used as 
nouns or adjectives. To distinguish between them, the s is 
vocalized in the verb, and whispered in the noun or adjec- 
tive ; as close, a., and close, v. ; house, n., and house, y. ; 
use, n., and use, v. ; diffuse, a., and diffuse, v. 

§ 92. When the letter s, having regularly its sharp or 
hissing sound, follows a liquid or another s, and precedes a 
letter having the sound of consonant y, as i in reversion, 
mansion, passion, and, in a few cases, when it precedes u 
(=yoo), as in sure, sugar, censure, sensual, the sounds rep- 
resented by these letters are exchanged for that of the sim- 
ple but very similar element represented by sh. Thus the ex- 
amples just given are actually pronounced re-ver'shun, man'- 
shun,pash'un, shoor, shoog'ar, cen'shoor, sen'shoo-al, though 
the theoretical pronunciation would be re-vers'yun, mans'- 
yun, pass'yun, s-yoor, s-yoog'ar, cens'yoor, sens'yooal. 

In a few words, s alone takes the sound of sh, as in nau- 
sea, Asiatic ; or rather the e or i, in such cases, does double 
duty, uniting with the s to signify the sound of sh, and at 
the same time retaining its usual vowel character. 

§ 93. When 5 is preceded by a vowel in an accented syl- 
lable, and is followed by a vowel having regularly or theo- 
retically the sound of consonant y, these two letters are 
commonly pronounced like zh, as in adhesion, revision, ex- 
plosion, confusion, pleasure, visual, usury, &c. (See § 107.) 
So also in scission, abscission, rescission, though the s is 
not preceded by a vowel in the accented syllable. 

§ 94. 5 is silent in the words aisle, isle, island, demesne, 
puisne, viscount, and generally at the end of French words 
adopted into English, as chamois, corps, vis-a-vis, &c. 


§ 95. This digraph (which is unmarked) represents the 
simple sound \eard in shelf, flesh, usher, &c. 

Note. — This element is formed by a partial contact of 
the upper surface of the tongue, near the tip, with that 
side of the arch or dome of the palate which is just above 
the gums of the front teeth, and by an effusion of unvocal 
breath through the narrow aperture left for its escape. Or- 
ganically considered, the sound is intermediate between 
those of s and consonant y ; genetically considered, it has 
been evolved from the combination of these two sounds, 
which, in rapid utterance, do not easily maintain their dis- 
tinct character. Thus, if we pronounce the word special 
in three syllables, spec'i-al, and then try to reduce it to two, 
we shall find that it is difficult to articulate the c (= s) and 
the i (=y) by one continuous effort of the organs, and that 
the intermediate sh is naturally substituted as an easier and 
a closely allied sound. So with version, mission, sure, &c. 
In motion, and. other words ending in tion not preceded by 
5 or by x, we may suppose the t to have been originally 
sounded like s, as in words of the same class in French ; or 
the process of development may have been, first, mo'ti-on 
(with the t kept pure) ; then mot'yun ; next mdt'shun or 
mo'chun (see § 66); and finally, by sinking the t, mo' shun. 
Sh is never silent. It is expressed : 1. By c, as in o-ce- 
an'ic, e-ma-ci-a'tion ; 2. By s, as in nau'se-ate, A-si-at'ic ; 
3. By t, as in ne-go-ri-a'tion ; 4. By ce, as in o'cean ; 5 By 
», as in so'cial ; 6. By se, as in nau'seous ; 7. By si, as in 
tendon ; 8. By ti, as in captious ; 9. By the si implied in 
xi (=ksi), as m noxious ; 10. By the sy implied in su ( = 
6yoo), as m men-su -ration (men-s/ioo-ra'shun) ; 11. By the 
sy implied in xu (=ksyoo), as in lux'u-ry (luk's/ioo-ry ; 12. 
By ch, as in cAaise, cAar'la-tan, ma-cAine' ; 13. By chs, as in 
fu'cAsi-a ; 14. By sc, as in con-sc?-en'tious ; 15. By sch, as 
Q7 SC n2 rl ' By *"'» ^ in con/s « ence - — See §§ 63, 92, 

In some words, particularly those ending in date and 
tiate, some orthoepists and speakers pronounce the vowel 
distinctly after the c or t sounded as sh; as, enunciate 
(e-nun'shi-ate), expatiate (eks-pa'shi-ate), &c. ; others pro- 
nounce it with a slight sound, as of a very brief or half- 
euppressed e, represented in the Dictionaries of Smart and 

Cooley by an apostrophe, thus, enunciate (e-nun'sh'ate), 
expatiate (eks-pa/sh'ate), &c. ; others, again, as Sheridan, 
Perry, and Dr. Webster, considering it an error to use the 
vowel twice, pronounce these terminations, and others like 
them, in one syllable ; as, enunciate (e-nun'shate), expa- 
tiate (eks-pa/shate), &c. In this Dictionary, however, 
these terminations are given in two syllables (-shl-ate), in 
accordance with what is believed to be the best and most 
general usage ; but a reference to the present section is 
generally appended to words of this class, that the inquirer 
may not be left in ignorance of the fact that there is a want 
of uniformity in their pronunciation. 


§ 96. The sound off (unmarked) as heard in tone, note, 
noted, assets, &c. 

Note. — This sound differs from that of d (see § 70) only 
in being a whispered and not a vocal utterance ; that is to 
say, the position or configuration of the articulating organs 
is the same in both cases, but for d the breath, confined 
within the mouth by a close contact of the fore part of the 
tongue with the upper gum, is vocalized and rendered audi- 
ble in a sort of murmur heard before the organs separate, 
while for t it is kept pure or unvocal, and cannot therefore 
be heard until the contact is forcibly broken. 

Tis silent in the terminations ten and tie after s, as in 
fasten, listen, often, castle, gristle, throstle, &c. It is also 
silent in the words chestnut, Christmas, hostler or ostler, 
mistletoe, and mortgage. 

§ 97. When t precedes any one of the diphthongs ia, ie, 
and io, and, at the same time, follows an accented syllable 
not ending in s or x, it assumes, in some words, the sound 
of sh, as in negotiation ; but, in most cases, the compound 
sound resulting from the coalescence oft and i is exchanged 
for that of sh, as in patient, station, partial, &c. When s 
or x precedes the t, this letter and the i following it either 
preserve their own sounds pure, or exchange them for the 
sound of ch in chin, as in question (kwest'yun or kwes'- 
chun), mixtion (miksVyun or miks'chun), &c. — See § 66, 
Note, and § 95. 


§ 98. Th unmarked has its sharp or whispered sound, 
as in thing, breath, author, athlete, &c. 

Note. — This is the sound made in lisping. It is pro- 
duced by putting the point of the tongue between the 
teeth, or by placing it against the back of the upper front 
teeth, and forcing out unintonated breath. 

Th has this sound generally at the beginning and at the 
end of words ; but there are some exceptions. 

§ 99. Th marked thus, Th, til, has its soft, flat, or vo- 
cal sound, as in thine, then, with, mother, writhed, &c. 

Note. — This sound differs from the foregoing only in 
being an utterance of voice instead of simple breath. It 
occurs chiefly between two vowels in words purely English, 
as in leather, wither, heathen; also at the end of the verbs 
mouth, bequeath, and smooth ; and when followed by a final 
e mute, as in breathe, clothe, &c. 

Nouns which, in the singular, end in th sharp, usually 
preserve the same sound in the plural, as death, deaths ; 
sabbath, sabbatfis, &c. ; but in the plurals of the following 
seven words the th is vocal; viz., bath, cloth, lath, mouth, 
oath, path, and wreath, as, baths, cloths, laths, paths, &c. 
Some pronounce truths, in the plural, with the vocal sound 
(truths), but this is sanctioned by no orthoepist. 

Although th in with has its vocal sound, yet in the com- 
pounds herewith, therewith, and wherewith, it is, according 
to the orthoepists, pronounced with its sharp or whispered 
sound. Good, usage, however, allows it to retain in the 
compound the same sound that it has in the simple word. 

§ 100. Th has the sound of t in phthisic (tiz'ik), thyme 
(tlm), and their derivatives ; and also in the proper names 
Thomas (tonkas) and Thames (temz). This is also its sound 
in all modern European languages except the Greek. In 
asthma and isthmus, it is said by the orthoepists to have 
the same sound ; but the great majority of speakers, in the 
United States at least, entirely suppress the th, pronoun- 
cing the former word az'ma or as'ma, and the latter ls'mu* 
or Iz'mus. — See § 108. 



§ 101. The sound of v (unmarked), as in vane, leave, 
tivil, &c 

Note. — This sound differs from that of f only in being 
an utterance of the voice instead of the breath, the organs 
assuming precisely the same position for both sounds. 

Vis, never silent, except in sevennigkt (sen'nit), which is 
also written sennight, and, according to some orthoepists, 
in the word twelvemonth, colloquially pronounced tweV- 


§ 102. At the beginning of a word or of a syllable, as 
wet, worse, inward, this letter (which is unmarked) is a 
consonant, formed from, and nearly resembling, the vowel 
do, but requiring for its utterance a closer position, or 
greater contraction, of the labial aperture ; and this com- 
pression of the lips changes the quality of the sound, giv- 
ing it a buzzing and articulative, instead of a smooth and 
purely vocal, character. 

Note. — Some writers, however, maintain that the sound 
is merely that of a brief oo ; in other words, that it is no 
consonant at ah ; but a simple experiment will serve to 
show the incorrectness of this view. If w is the same as 
oo, the word woo must be equivalent to oo pronounced 
twice in succession ; but db-o~b' is evidently a word of two 
syllables, and woo, as universally pronounced, is confess- 
edly a monosyllable. Another consideration will help to 
establish the consonantal nature of w. Like the other con- 
sonants, it is capable of stopping or shutting a vowel, that 
is, of causing it to assume its regular short sound, as in 
the cockney pronunciation of very as vfi'wy, of marry as 
ma/wy, of horrid as ho'wid, flbc. 

After a vowel in the same syllable, iv is generally silent, 
as in glow, thrown, &c. ; though sometimes significant, as 
in flato. With e it unites to form a diphthong, which is 
generally sounded like long u, as in dew, few, new ; but it 
is sounded like o~o, or like u in rude, if the letter r stands 
before it, as in crew, shrew, &c. It is often joined with a 
preceding o to represent the diphthongal sound otherwise 
expressed by on, as in brow, cow, toion, &c. — See § 39. 

W is always silent before r in the same syllable, as in 
wring (ring), wrote (rot), awry (a-ry 7 ); also in the words 
answer (an'ser), sword (sord), toward (to'ard), two (too). 

It is often represented by u occurring before another 
vowel in the same syllable, as quail, query, languid, as- 
suage, &c. 


§ 103. The true sound of these letters is in the reverse 
order, viz., hw, as they were written by the Anglo-Saxons ; 
e. g., whet is pronounced hwet. The h is here a free emis- 
sion of breath through the position taken by the lips in the 
formation of w, the vocal cords being all the while com- 
pletely relaxed. (See §76.) Many recent phonologists, how- 
ever, contend that the combination xvh represents a simple 
whisper of the ordinary w, to which it stands in the same 
relation as any surd consonant does to its corresponding so- 
nant. Those who hold this opinion not only wrongly appre- 
hend and describe their own pronunciation, but they over- 
look the fact, that, as a closer approximation of the lips in 
pronouncing oo-et changes the sound to wet, so hoo-et in like 
manner gives rise to whet ; and they forget that all words 
of this class originally began with an aspiration or a gut- 
tural, as their etymological history clearly shows. Thus 
what is from the A.-S. hwxt, 0. Sax. huat, Icel. hvater, 
&c. Compare also Scot, quhile and English while, Lat. 
quid and English what. In who, whole, ivhoop, whore, 
and then? derivatives, the w is silent. 

§104. This letter has two sounds; viz., its regular 
sharp sound (unmarked) like hs, as in expect, tax, &c, and 
its soft or flat sound (marked ~%., $) like gz, as in exist, 
example, &c. 

Note. — This latter sound usually occurs when the syl- 
lable which immediately follows the x begins with an ac- 
cented vowel, as in auxiliary, exert, exalt, luxurious, and 
sometimes also in the derivatives of such words, even 
though the x is under the accent, as in exemplary, exhala- 
tion, &c. 

In anxious, noxious, luxury, and a few other words, the 


5 which is the second element of the x, and the following i 
or the first element of the following u, instead of retaining 
their usual sound of y, are generally exchanged for 
sound of sh; thus, ank'shus, nok'shus, luk'shoo-ry, &c. 

At the beginning of words, x has the sound of z as in 
xanthic (zan'-), xebec (ze'-), xylography (zl-), &c. 


§ 105. The sound of y (unmarked), as in yawn, year, 
young, beyond, &c. 

Note. — This sound — which is heard in English only at 
the beginning of a word or a syllable — is formed from the 
vowel e by a closer approximation of the tongue to the roof 
of the mouth, which destroys the pure vocality of the e. 
As w is often confounded with oo, so y is often confounded 
with c ; but it may be proved to be a distinct sound by an 
experiment on the word ye similar to that by which w was 
shown to be distinct from oo. — See § 102. 

In the middle or at the end of a syllable, y is a vowel, 
and has precisely the sound that i would have in the same 
situation. —See §§ 15, 16, 35, 48, 54, &c. 

3f is often represented by ?', when this letter occurs in an 
unaccented syllable before another vowel, and, at the same 
time, follows an accented syllable, as in familiar, minion, 
poniard, &c. 


§ 106. The regular and leading sound of this letter 
(which is unmarked) is heard in zone, maze, hazy, frozen, 
&c. It is the vocal or sonant form of s. (See § 90.) In a few 
words it takes the sound of zh, as in seizure (se'zhoor) &c 
(See § 107.) In rendezvous it is silent. 


§ 107. This sound is the vocal correspondent of sh, and 
is uttered with the organs in precisely the same position. 

Note. — It has arisen, in all English words, from an at- 
tempt to pronounce the sound of z in maze (see § 106) and 
that of consonant y (see § 105) in immediate succession. 
On account of the vicinity of the contacts represented by 
zh and y, the effort to do this causes the tongue to assume 
the position reqtiisite for sounding zh, or nearly so ; and 
hence zh was naturally substituted as being a very similar 
sound of easier utterance. Thus, fu s ion may be supposed 
to have been originally pronounced fuz'yun, and then fu'- 
zhun; grazier, first graz'yer, and then grazh'er. — See § 95. 

The combination zh is used in works on pronunciation to 
indicate the sound here described, on account of the rela- 
tionship of this sound to that commonly expressed by the 
digraph sh. But the two letters zh never come together in 
the proper orthography of any English word. The sound 
for which they stand is represented by zi (when the z occurs 
in, or is immediately preceded by, an accented syllable, and 
the i is followed by another vowel and occurs in an unac- 
cented syllable, as in glazier) ; by the zy implied in zu ( = 
zyoo), as in azure ; by s in symposium, &c. ; by si in cer- 
tain situations (see § 93) ; by ti in the single word trans- 
ition, as sometimes pronounced; and by g in one or two 
words adopted from the French, as rouge. 


§ 108. "When a whispered and a vocal consonant come 
together in the same syllable, it is generally very difficult, 
in fluent pronunciation, to preserve each in its regular and 
appropriate sound. Hence it frequently becomes necessary 
to change the character of the one or of the other, in order 
to make the combination readily pronounceable. This is 
generally done, in English, by assimilating the sound of the 
second consonant, whether whispered or vocal, to that of. 
the first. Thus, in chintz, the vocal consonant z assumes; 
the sound of its whispered correspondent s, in order to> 
unite with the whispered t. On the other hand, the s in 
wtnds is vocalized, or assumes the sound of z, for the sake 
of corresponding with the vocal d. Sometimes, though 
rarely, the sound of the first consonant is assimilated to 
that of the second, as in spasm, (spazm). 

This affinity between these two classes of consonants is 
an important fact, and one which needs to be familiarly 
known. For there are four very common inflectional ter- 
minations which invariably come under its influence, viz. : 
1. Possessive forms ins, as wzairf's (maidz) ; 2. Plurals in s t 


as tubs (tubz), groves (grovz) ; 3. -Sin the third person sin- 
gular of verbs, as loads (loadz), smooths (smoothz) ; 4. Pre- 
terits and participles in d preceded by e mute, as in dashed 
(dasht), ingulfed (ingulft). 

It is necessary to observe, that there are a few words end- 
ing in dth, as breadth, hundredth, &c, where the aspirate 
th is not assimilated to the vocal d; and also that, after ng, 
and the liquids I, m, n,r, — all of which are vocal conso- 
nants, — a whispered consonant can be pronounced with- 
out difficulty, and actually is pronounced, as in melt, terse, 
tempt (temt), fence, strength, &c. 


§ 109. In many words, a consonant is doubled between 
two vowels ; yet, in such cases, no more than one articula- 
tion is ever used in speaking. In banner, for example, we 
close the organs but once between the first and second syl- 
lables ; nor is it possible to use both of the letters n with- 
out pronouncing ban, then intermitting the voice entirely, 
opening the organs, and closing them a second time. 
Hence, in all cases, when the same consonant is written 
twice between vowels, as in banner, robbing, madden, let- 
ter, horrid, one of them only is represented by an articula- 
tion of the organs ; and the only reason for repeating the 
consonant is to indicate the fact that the preceding vowel 
has its short sound. 

But, although only one articulation is ever used, or, in 
fluent speech, possibly can be used, where a consonant is 
written twice, yet in some words the articulation is dwelt 
upon for an appreciable space of time, producing an appar- 
ent duplication of the sound. This effect takes place in 
many derived words in which the primitive ends or begins 
with the same letter as that with which a superadded suffix 
or prefix of English origin respectively begins or ends, as in 
soulless, foully, keenness, misstep, outtravel, unnatural. 
The same effect takes place in most compound words, in 
which the second part begins with the same sound as that 
with which the first part ends, as in post-town, head-dress, 
half-filled. — See §127. 


§ 110. Accent is a particular stress or effort of voice 
upon certain syllables of words, which distinguishes them 
from the others by a greater distinctness and loudness of 
pronunciation. Accent is of two kinds, primary, as in in- 
tend', where the full force of the voice is on the last sylla- 
ble, and secondary, as in su'per-in-tend', where the first 
syllable is distinguished by a stress greater than that laid 
on the second and third syllables, though less than that 
laid on the last. In some words there are two secondary 
or subordinate accents, as in in-com/pre-hen'si-bil'i-ty. 

Note.— (1.) The general tendency of accent, whether 
primary or secondary, is to shorten all vowels but u, when 
further back than the penultimate syllable, as in ten'ement, 
neg'essariness, an'atom'ical, person 1 ifica'tion, &c. ; but we 
say lu'bricate, and not lub'ricate ; tru'culency, and not truc'- 
ulency; su'perabun'dant, and not" superabundant, &c 
This tendency generally fails, if the accented syllable is fol- 
lowed by two unaccented vowels, as in pe'ri-od, ma'ni-ac • 
or by two vowels of which the former only is unaccented 
as in de'vi-a'tion, o'ri-en'tal. 

(2.) The primary and secondary accents are, in certain 
cases, so nearly equal that we interchange them freely 

making," as Walker remarks, " the secondary principal 
and the principal secondary." He specifies violin, referee 
privateer, artisan, courtesan, charlatan, and might have 
added ambuscade, cavalcade, caricature, etiquette reverie 
confidante, governante, invalid, n., parachute, and others' 
Nearly all of these, except the first three, have now (accord- 
ing to able orthoepists) transferred the primary accent from 
the last to the first syllable, as in artisan, &c, under the 
operation of a principle which is stated in § 117. 

(3.) Many in this country give a marked secondary accent 
in certain words which properly have but one accent and 
that on a pre-antepenultimate syllable, as in ter'ri-to'ry 

diffi-cul'ty, cir'cum-stSn'ces, in'ter-gst'ing, &c. Thin 
droning fault may be corrected by giving the accented syl- 
lable a sharp percussion, which carries the voice lightly 
through the rest of the word. It is also a vulgar American 
custom, in many words having an unaccented initial sylla- 
ble followed by an accented one, to lay a nearly equal stress 
of voice on both, as in ex'act'ly. gl'gan'tic, i'taVic,po l lit t - 
ical, pre'cise'ly, sal'va'tion, stu'pen'dous. 


§ 111. In quite a large number of words, there is a di- 
versity of practice among good speakers as to the place of 
the primary accent. This arises mainly from a conflict be- 
tween certain great principles which' affect the seat of the 
accent. A few of these will now be mentioned, with a view 
to account for this diversity. It is all that can be done in 
a brief sketch like this. 

§ 112. First Principle. — Derivatives take for a time, 
if not permanently, the accent of the original words from 
which they are formed, as resolve 1 , from resol'vo, aspect' 
(Shakespeare, Milton), from aspectus, Hindostan' ee , from 
Hindostan 1 ', &c. So also words derived from other English 
words by adding one or more syllables to their beginning 
or end, as within', from in, improp'er, from prop'er,po'et- 
ess, from po'et, pleas' antly , from pleas'ant, serviceable, 
from ser'vice, re-ad just'ment, from adjust', &c. 

§ 113. Second Principle. — Ease of utterance has some 
influence in deciding the place of the accent. Ac'ceptable, 
receptacle, and u'tensil, fashionable in the days of Walker, 
have now taken the easier accentuation of accept' able, re- 
cept'acle, and uten'sil. Dis' crepant and discrepancy are 
marked discrep'ant and discrepancy by Richardson, Boag, 
Craig, Wright, Clarke, and others. Subal'tern (instead of 
Walker's sub'altern) is the accentuation of Richardson, 
Knowles, Barclay, Craig, Clarke, and many more. Dys- 
pep'sy has taken the place of dys'pepsy in the marking of 
Webster, Smart, Cull, Wright, Clarke, Cooley, &c, and is 
now the prevailing accentuation. On the same ground, 
ances'tral is preferred to an'cestral by Jameson, Webster, 
Boag, Clarke, and Cull, in conformity with campes'tral 
and other similar words. Confes'sor, like profes'sor, has 
superseded confessor m this country, and has the sup- 
port of Perry, Ash, Rees, Barclay, Boag, Clarke, Cull, 
Webster, and Worcester. Rem'ediless, from the difficulty 
of the sound, has been changed in this country into re- 
medy Hess, as sanctioned by Perry, Ash, Rees, Fulton and 
Knight, and Webster. Con'sistory has given way to con- 
sist'ory in the marking of Knowles, Barclay, Reid, Brande, 
Craig, Boag, Clarke, Cooley, and others. In like manner, 
ac'cessary and accessory (as marked in most English Dic- 
tionaries) are commonly pronounced in this country acces- 
sary and acces'sory, as recommended by Bailey and Ash. 
These may serve as instances of the application of this 
principle. It is an important one in its place ; and, though 
it may give rise for a time to a diversity of pronunciation 
(since some will cling to that which is older and harder), 
changes of this kind, which promote ease of utterance, will 
finally prevail. 


§ 114. Third Principle. — In words of two syllables, 
there is a tendency (though with numerous exceptions) to 
accent the former or penultimate syllable, as in a'gue, bar'^ 
on, com'mon, dis'cord, &c. 

Note. — (1.) This tendency meets with a powerful coun- 
teraction in Principle No. 1, viz., that of derivatives re- 
taining the accent of their primitives, as in amuse', deter', 
offend', &c. It is natural, in such formatives, to place the 
accent on the radical part of the word ; and hence some 
hundreds of our dissyllables, especially verbs and adverbs, 
have their accent on the last syllable. 

(2.) Still, there is a constant struggle (especially among 
the common people, who are unacquainted with the deriva- 
tion of words) to draw back the accent to the first syllable. 
Here arises another conflict, which produces a diversity of 
accent ; and the common people, being a majority, are, on 



the whole, slowly gaining upon those who are tenacious of 
Principle No. 1. Hence con'nate and in'nate (instead of 
connate 1 and innate 1 ) are generally prevalent in this coun- 
try, and are now sanctioned by Reid, Boag, Craig, and 
others. AL'cove (for alcove') is more common among us, 
and it is so marked by recent English orthoepists, Boag, 
Craig, Cull, and others. Con'tents (for contents') has be- 
come the general usage of this country, as sanctioned by 
Cull, Clarke, Webster, and Worcester. Re'tail (for retail') 
is now the marking of a majority of the orthoepists. De'- 
tail (for detail') is less prevalent, but is sanctioned by 
Smart, Clarke, Cull, Cooley, &c. Pro'lix and pre'text (for 
prolix' and pretext') are widely prevalent (especially the for- 
mer), and are authorized by some recent lexicographers. 
Bom'bast (for bombast') is the accentuation of Walker, Bar- 
clay, Richardson, Cull, and Webster; it is admitted by 
Worcester, and is extensively used in this country. Bu'- 
reau (for bureau') was admitted by Dr. Webster, and is very 
generally applied to the article of furniture, while bureau' 
is sometimes used in reference to a department of the gov- 
ernment. Ac' cess (for access') is authorized by a number 
of orthoepists, and especially, among the later ones, by 
Knowles, Boag, Wright, Clarke, and Cull. 

(3.) No orthoepist has given any sanction, it is believed, 
to ro'mance and fi> nance (for romance' and finance'), or to 
re' search, and re' source (for research' and resource'), though 
these pronunciations are not infrequently heard in America. 
The two last ought especially to be discountenanced ; for 
search and source are English words, and should therefore 
remain (as they were from the first) the chief objects of 

§ 115. We have about eighty cases among our dissylla- 
bles in which the same word is used for a verb on the one 
hand, and a noun or an adjective on the other. To distin- 
guish between them, we accent the nouns and the adjec- 
tives on the first syllable, and the verbs on the last, as, a 
con'vert, to convert' ; a con'tract, to contract', &c. It is 
unnecessary to give the list in full, since the accent of nearly 
all these words has been long settled by general usage. 

Note. — There are a few cases of divided use in nouns, 
which will sooner or later be made to conform to the gen- 
eral rule. For example, usage will probably soon fix per- 
manently on per' feet for the adjective, and perfect' for the 
verb ; per'mit for the noun, and permit' for the verb ; pro'- 
test for the noun, and protest' for the verb ; per'fume for 
the noun, and perfume' for the verb; pro'ceeds for the 
noun, and proceed' for the verb ; de'tail for the noun, and 
detail' for the verb ; in'crease for the noun, and increase' 
for the verb ; re'tail for the noun, and retail' for the verb : 
sur'vey for the noun, and survey' for the verb. 

There is a tendency among many to accent the first sylla- 
ble of the noun ally, allies ; and, although without sanc- 
tion as yet from a single orthoepist, it would not be sur- 
prising if this tendency should prevail on the ground stated 
above, making the noun al'ly, al'lies, and the verb ally'. 
The noun cement has been extensively pronounced cem'ent, 
as distinguished from the verb to cement'; but Smart 
thinks this will not finally prevail ; and the tendency does 
certainly now seem to be toward cement' for the noun as 
well as the verb. 

§ 116. We have a few dissyllables which are at once 
nouns and adjectives. These are distinguished by accent- 
ing the nouns on the first syllable, and the adjectives on 
the last. 



Au'gust, the month. August', noble. 

Com'pact, an engagement. Compact', close. 

Ex'ile, banishment. Exile', small, slender. 

In'stinct, an im pulse. Instinct', animated. 

Min'ute, of time. Minute', very small. 

Su'pine, in grammar. Supine', indolent. 

The word gallant departs from the above rule. When it 
denotes a suitor, or " attentive to ladies," it is accented 
gallant', and is changed into gal'lant when it means high- 
spirited or daring. 

Trisyllables and Polysyllables. 
§ 117. Fourth Principle. — In words of three or more 
Syllables, there is a strong tendency to accent the antepe- 
nult, or third syllable from the end, as in el'oquent, ac'ci- 
dent, opportunity. 

Note. — This tendency is counteracted by that of deriva- 
tion (Principle No. 1. See § 112) ; and here arises another 
" conflict," which, to some extent, arrays our scholars on 
the one side, and the body of the people on the other. 
Many scholars, for example, are strongly inclined to say 
contem'plate, demon' strate , confiscate, obdu'rate, &c. (for- 
getting that they come from participles, contempla'tus, dem- 
onstra'tus, &c), because by Latin rules their second sylla- 
ble is long ; while the mass of the people, who know noth- 
ing of Latin, and are governed by English analogies, are 
equally bent on saying con' template, demonstrate, ob'du- 
rate, &c. The latter pronunciation is now very extensively 
heard, and thus we have a " divided usage " in respect to 
these and similar words. There is a class of botanical and 
mineralogical terms ending in phyllous and phyllile (from 
Gr. <f>v\kov, a leaf), as quadriphyllous, anthophyllite , &c, 
in which the same struggle is going on. Words having 
these terminations are differently accented by different au- 
thorities, and sometimes even by the same authority. 
Knowles, Gray, and Worcester are the only authorities 
who are self-consistent in their pronunciation of such 
words — Knowles accenting them all on the antepenult, 
Gray as uniformly, on the penult, and Worcester giving an 
alternative in every case, the penultimate accentuation 
being his preference. There can be no doubt that that 
mode of pronunciation which places the accent on the an- 
tepenult is most in accordance with the genius of our lan- 
guage ; and, in all probability, it will ultimately prevail 
over the learning or the pedantry of those who contend for 
the penultimate accentuation. In like manner, bal'cony 
(for bako'ny) has now, according to Smart, become the true 
English pronunciation, and is so marked by Knowles, Web- 
ster, Cull, Wright, Cooley, and many more. 

Ele'giac (for elegi'ac) is the general pronunciation of this 
country (in accordance with maniac and most other words 
in -iac), and has the sanction of Perry, Knowles, Wright, 
Clarke, Cull, Cooley, and Webster. Qvan'dary (for quan- 
da'ry), in accordance with boundary and nearly every other 
word of three syllables in -ary, is our prevailing pronunci- 
ation, and is sanctioned by Maunder, Cull, Craig, Clarke, 
Cooley, Worcester, and Webster. Many are disposed to re- 
duce vaga'ry to the same accentuation (va'gary). 

§ 118. It is a just principle, laid down by Walker, that 
" when words come to us whole from the Greek or Latin, 
the same accent ought to be preserved as in the original." 
Hence the following words ought to be accented as here 
marked : viz., Abdo'men, hori'zon, deco'rum, diplo'ma, 
muse'um, sono'rous, acu'men, bituhnen, and, on like 
grounds, farra'go, and others. Yet the strong tendency 
of our language to accent the antepenultimate in all words 
of three or more syllables has caused this principle to be 
violated in some cases, as in am'azon, cic'atrix, min'ister, 
or'ator, pleth'ora, &c. 

§ 119. Words of more than two syllables having the 
same orthography are generally distinguished by a differ- 
ence of accent, as at' tribute, n., and attrib'ute, v., miscon'- 
duct, n., and misconduct', v., o'verthrow, n., and over- 
throw' , v. In such cases, the nouns have the accent fur- 
ther from the end. 

§ 120. With a very few exceptions, words of more than 
two syllables having the following terminations take the 
accent on the antepenult, or last syllable but two : — 

-cracy ; as, demoe'racy, theoe'racy ; 

-ferous ; as, somniferous, umbelliferous; 

-fluent ; as, affluent, cir cum' fluent ; 

-fluous; as, mellifluous, superfluous ,* 

-gonal; as, diag'onal, hexag'onal; 

-gony ; as, cosmog'ony, theog'ony ; 

-grapher; as, lexicog'rapher, stenog'rapher ; 

-graphy ; as, photog'raphy , typography ; 

-loger ; as, philol'oger, astrol'oger; 

-logist ; as, entomol'ogist, physiol' ogist^; 

-logy ; as, chronol'ogy, mythol'ogy ; 

-loquy ; as, col'loquy, solil'oquy ; 

-machy ; as, logom'achy, theom'achy ; 

-mathy ; as, chrestom'athy , polym'athy ; 

-meter ; as, barom'eter, hygrom'eter ; 

-rnetry ; as, altim'etry, geom'etry ,- 

-nomy ; as, astron'omy, econ'omy ; 

-parous ; as, ovip'arous, vivip'arout ; 


pathy; as, ap'athy, antip'athy ; 

-phony ; as, antiph'ony, coloph'ony ; 

-scopy ; as, aeros'copy, deuteros' copy ; 

-strophe; as. apos'trophe, catas' trophe ; 

-tomy ; as, anat'omy, lithot'omy ; 

-trophy; as, at'rophy, hypertrophy ; 

-voinous, as, flammiv' omous, igniv' omous ; 

-vorous, as, carniv'orous, graminiv'orous. 
§ 121. Words of more than two syllables, ending in 
-cate, -date, -gate, -fy, -tude, and -ty, preceded by a vowel, 
have, for the most part, the accent on the antepenult ; as, 
dep'recate, rus'ticate, recip 1 rotate ; an'tedate, elu'cidate, ac- 
com'modale ; prop'agate, delegate, fu'migate ; rar'efy, 
sanc'tify ; qui'etude, lat'itude ; soci'ety, acid'ity, dep'uty. 
§ 122. The penultimate syllable is to be accented in al- 
most all words having the sound of sh, of zh, or of conso- 
nant y immediately before their last vowel or diphthong, 
except those words in which ch is sounded like 5/1 (as capu- 
chin, kap-yij -sheen 7 ) ; e. g., dona'tion, conces'sion,illu'sion, 
controversial, vermil'ion, opin'ion. 

The Terminations IC and ICS. 
§ 123. Words ending in ic and ics (derivatives from 
words in ikos or icus, in Greek or Latin, or formed after the 
same analogy) have their accent on the penult ; as, epi- 
demic, scientific, Sec. The following words are exceptions, 
having the accent on the antepenult : viz., ag'aric, Ar'abic, 
arith'metic, ar'senic, n., cath'olic, choVeric, ephem'eric, her- 
etic, lu'natic, pleth'oric, pol'itic, rhet'oric, and tur'meric. 
Climacteric has usually the antepenultimate accent, though 
some pronounce it climacter'ic. In like manner, the nouns 
empiric and schismatic, and the noun and adjective sple- 
netic, are sometimes accented on the penult, and sometimes 
on the antepenult. 

The Terminations E-AL, E-AN, and E-UM. 
§ 124. A part of the words having these terminations 
follow the English analogy, and take the antepenultimate 
accent; as, ceru'lean, hyperbo'rean, Hercu'lean, Mediterra'- 
nean, subterra'nean, Tarta'rean, marmo'rean ; petro'leum, 
perios'teum, succeda'neum. A part accent the penult; as, 
adamante' an,Atlante'an, colosse' 'an, empyre' an, Epicure' 'an, 
Europe'an, pygme'an ; mausole'um, muse'um. Orphean, 
being derived from Or'pheus (or'fus), is more properly ac- 
cented Or'phean. Most words ending in eal accent the ante- 
penult ; as, lin 1 eal, ethe 1 real, fune 1 real; but hymene'al and 
ide'al take the accent upon the penult. 

The Termination OSE. 
§ 125. There is a considerable number of adjectives 
ending in ose, as animose, comatose, operose, &c, in the 
accentuation of which tbe dictionaries are at variance with 
each other, and many of them inconsistent with them- 
selves. But all words of this class, as Walker remarks, 
ought, from their form and derivation, to be pronounced 
alike. Walker bimself accents them all upon the last syl- 
lable, and in this he is followed by Worcester and Cooley ; 
but, in trisyllables having this termination, most recent 
authorities, following the natural tendency of the language, 
as well as the prevailing usage, give only a secondary ac- 
cent to the last syllable, placing the principal accent on the 
antepenult. (See § 110, Note, second paragraph.) As to 
dissyllabic adjectives ending in ose, as jocose, verbose, mo- 
rose, &c, they take the accent on the last syllable, with a 
few exceptions. 

§ 126. In poetry, words are frequently used with an ac- 
centuation different from that adopted in ordinary speech, 
as in tbe following examples : — 

'Twixt that and reason what a nice barrier' ! 
Forever separate, yet forever near. Pope. 

Ye icefalls ! ye that from the mountain's brow 
Adown enormous rav'ines slope amain. Coleridge. 

§ 127. When two words of similar formation and the 
same accentuation are contrasted with each other, the ac- 
cent is transferred to the syllable of difference (unless this 
is already accented, as in em'inent, im'minent) . and the 
regularly accented syllable takes a secondary accent ; thus, 
undo' is pronounced un'do' when opposed to do or to out'- 
do> , and in'tervene' is pronounced intervene' when used 
antithetically to su'pervene' . So also with am'puta'tion 
and im'puta'tion, pi' en 1 nidi and tri'en'nial, op'pose' and 
sup'pose' ; ex'er'cise and ex'or'cise, al-le'ga'tion and al-li'- 
ga'tion; proph'et' and profit' ; do' nor' and do' nee r , guar- 
antor' and guarantee'. 

§ 128. When separately pronounced, all monosyllabic 
words have their vowel as distinctly sounded as if under ac- 
cent. But in connected discourse, certain classes of mono- 
syllables, such as articles, prepositions, pronouns, conjunc- 
tions, and auxiliary verbs, are usually unemphasized, and 
their vbwel is liable to the same corruption of qiiality as 
that in an unaccented syllable of a word. But when used 
antithetically to other words, they are emphasized, receiv- 
ing a full and distinct stress of voice. Thus, the possessive 
pronoun their, when emphatic, should take the full sound 
of e; as, " Their (ther) interests, and not yours, are to be 
consulted." But when unemphatic, the sound becomes 
more obscure, verging toward, or falling into, that of the 
neutral vowel (u in urge) ; as, " They will not neglect their 
(thur) interests." So, also, there, when used as an adverb 
of place, is distinctly pronounced with the appropriate 
sound of the vowel ; as, "I shall be there (ther)." When, 
however, it serves merely to introduce a verb or a sentence, 
it takes the obscurer sound ; as, " There (thur) is no diffi- 
culty in the case." In like manner we say a, your, that, 
the, from, fOr, &c, when we pronounce the words by them- 
selves ; but in actual use they become nearly or quite ii, 
yur, thut, thu, frum, fur, &c. The following passage from 
the Spectator, No. 80, well illustrates this tendency to a 
corruption of the vowel sound in unemphasized monosylla- 
bles: — "My lords, with humble submission that that I 
say is this, that that that that gentleman has advanced is 
not that that he should have proved to your lordships." 


§ 129. Words are sometimes divided into syllables for 
the sole purpose of showing their proper pronunciation (as, 
a-dorn, o-void) ; and sometimes in order to exhibit their 
etymological composition merely, without the least regard 
to their pronunciation (as, ad-orn, ov-oid). In ordinary 
cases — as where a word requires to be divided at the end 
of a line — these modes of syllabication are to a certain 
extent combined. In the United States, the etymological 
principle is allowed to operate only in separating prefixes, 
suffixes, and grammatical terminations from the radical 
part of the word, where this can be done without misrepre- 
senting the pronunciation. In English practice, however, 
words are usually divided in such a manner as to show their 
constituent parts independently of the pronunciation (as, 
hypo-thesis, philosophy, belli-gerent, Sec), and a single 
consonant or a consonant digraph between two vowels goes 
to the latter (as, a-na-to-my, de-li-cate, ma-the -ma-tics, 
Sec). In this Dictionary, words are uniformly divided so 
as to represent their pronunciation in the most accurate 
manner ; but very frequently the root of a word may be 
exhibited to the eye without violating the orthoe'pical prin- 
ciple of syllabication, and, where this is possible, it has 
generally been done, more particularly in the case of ac- # 
cented syllables. 



The English language, as being the offspring of two par- 
ent languages very different in form and spirit, and having 
been, in no inconsiderable degree, modified in its growth by 
influences from various other tongues, contains, as was in- 
evitable, very many anomalies ; and in no particular are 
these anomalies more numerous and striking than in its 
orthography, with the single exception, perhaps, of its 
orthoepy. Neither the Anglo-Saxon nor the Norman- 
French could boast of any great regularity in orthography, 
though the spelling of words in these two languages was 
far less arbitrary than it is in the modern English. When, 
therefore, the vocabularies of these two languages, widely 
different both in their orthographical structure and their 
phonological character, were combined, the result was a 
language in which the orthography has almost reached the 
extreme of irregularity. To such an extent, in fact, have 
the signs representing sounds been multiplied, that many 
of the letters are pronounced in several different ways, 
while the letters, or combinations of letters, for a single 
sound amount, in some cases, to scores. Indeed, it is com- 
puted that many words of no more than two syllables may 
be spelled in several thousand different modes, by the use of 
combinations actually employed in other words in the lan- 
guage. The word scissors, for instance, may be thus writ- 
ten, as is computed by Ellis, in nearly six thousand different 
ways. Of course, comparatively very few of these possible 
forms of spelling are ever employed in the case of any one 
word ; yet the causes of disorder mentioned above have 
operated so effectually, that the words in respect to which 
even the most careful writers are at variance are numbered 
by thousands, while those in which an orthography con- 
trary to analogy has been universally adopted are equally 

Bad, however, as is the orthography of the present day, it 
is order itself compared with that of a few centuries ago. 
It would, of course, be unreasonable to expect that there 
should be any general correspondence of orthographical 
forms in the works of different authors before the types of 
the printer gave prominence to certain forms, which finally 
became recognized as standards ; and manuscripts conclu- 
sively prove that the wildest license prevailed in spelling 
words. Even proper names, which would naturally re- 
ceive more attention, and be written with more care than 
any other class of words, are found recorded in great mul- 
titudes of forms, several variations being sometimes found 
in the same manuscript or work. Disraeli states that 
"Leicester has subscribed his own name eight different 
ways," and that " the name Villers is spelled fourteen dif- 
ferent ways in the deeds of that family." A still more re- 
markable instance is stated by Lower; namely, that the 
family of Mainwaring has the extraordinary number of 
one hundred and thirty-one variations of that single name, 
all drawn from authorized documents. But there is evi- 
dence that, in the midst of all this confusion, there were 
some writers who were attentive to the proper forms of 
words, and who were notable exceptions to the general rule. 
The spelling of the Ormulum, which was written in the 
thirteenth century, though strange and cumbrous, is very 
remarkable for its regularity ; and the author strenuously 

urges his copyists to follow hk orthography with the ut- 
most exactness. So also Chaucer, more than a century 
later, carefully revised and corrected his own works; 
and he enjoined upon his scribe to "write more trew" 
that which was intrusted to him, saying that he was 
obliged "it to correct and eke to rubbe and scrape," be- 
cause of the negligence and haste with which it had been 

The invention of printing began a new era, though for a 
long time even this had little effect to fix the exterior form 
of the language. Indeed, much of the perverse orthog- 
raphy of books printed two or three centuries ago is to be 
attributed to the printer, who often inserted or expunged 
letters, as the length of the lines or convenience of spacing 
required. It is no uncommon thing to find, in the works 
of Chaucer, Spenser, and other early writers, or in books 
printed two or three centuries ago, the same words occur- 
ring in several different forms upon the same page. Even 
as late as the time of Shakespeare, orthography was very 
unsettled ; and, as Halliwell states, the name of the great 
bard himself was written in more than thirty different ways. 
The printers, however, were not solely, nor even chiefly, 
responsible for this confusion ; for it is certain that their 
arbitrary changes and deviations from uniformity would 
not have been tolerated had they been made in defiance of 
established usage ; and there is abundant evidence to prove 
that writers themselves were careless in the extreme. The 
fact must not be overlooked that in the writings of Wycliffe, 
Chaucer, and other early authors, there were still many 
remnants of the Semi-Saxon inflection, which have since 
utterly disappeared, and which gave to some words a va- 
riety of form to be attributed neither to the carelessness of 
the writer, nor to an unsettled orthography. 

The irregularities found in early books, though continu- 
ing for so long a time, were neither unnoticed nor looked 
upon with indifference. On the contrary, not only have 
numerous complete systems for the reformation of orthog- 
raphy been proposed, but various scholars have advocated, 
with more or less acuteness and learning, changes in re- 
gard to a great number of particular points. Sir Thomas 
Smith, Secretary of State to Queen Elizabeth, was the first 
who endeavored to introduce a regular system of orthog- 
raphy ; after him, William Bullokar brought forward an- 
other system ; a few years after this, Dr. Gill, Master of St. 
Paul's School, in London, a teacher of considerable emi- 
nence, proposed another scheme ; and, still later, Charles 
Butler devised a new method of spelling, and printed a book 
in which it was employed. These writers agreed essen- 
tially as to the manner in which they sought to attain the 
end proposed, their plan being to reduce the spelling of 
words to uniform principles and make it practically pho- 
netic, by the use of new characters, by applying various 
diacritical marks to the old letters, and by making the 
letters, or their combinations, represent certain definite 
sounds. It is needless to say, that these projects were never 
carried into practice. 

In the time of Charles I. , many changes were introduced, 
and it was very common, even among eminent scholars, to 
spell words according to their pronunciation, omitting such 



letters as were deemed superfluous. These attempts at im- 
provement, being made upon no settled or uniform prin- 
ciples, had little or no permanent effect upon the language. 
Another elaborate plan was proposed, in the seventeenth 
century, by Bishop Wilkins, similar in its general charac- 
ter to those of Smith, Bullokar, Gill, and Butler, and 
equally unsuccessful. 

The celebrated Dictionary of Dr. Samuel Johnson, first 
published in 1755, has contributed more than any work 
written either before or since, to fix the external form of 
the language and to diminish the number of irregulari- 
ties ; for, though numerous inconsistencies are to be found 
in it, and many oversights, the learning of the author, and 
the sound judgment and practical wisdom which he dis- 
played, gave it at once an authority which it has not even 
yet entirely lost; and the orthography of the present day, 
though it has received some important modifications since 
his time, is substantially the same as that exhibited in his 
dictionary. The changes in the spelling of words, intro- 
duced by Dr. Johnson, were generally made in order to 
restore the ancient orthography, or to remove some anom- 
aly ; and perhaps the most important office performed by 
his work was its having settled usage definitely in favor 
of some one of the numerous forms in which many words 
were written, thus removing the cause of much confusion. 
Among the most prominent alterations made by him were 
the restoration of k to many words which had long been 
written without it, as in musick, rhetorick, and the like, 
and the insertion of u in the termination of many words 
which previously ended in or, as in ancestour, authour, er- 
rour, and others. The former of these changes, a revival 
of the " ancient practice," was not received with favor, nor 
was this spelling adopted by subsequent writers ; the latter, 
as it was thought to be justified by the analogy of the cor- 
responding termination eur in the French, through which 
language many, perhaps a majority, of the words affected 
by it were derived from the Latin, was generally followed. 
Johnson's practice in this respect, however, was not in har- 
mony with his theory ; for he wrote ODly about half the 
words of this class with the ending our, leaving the rest in 
or, though for no reason that would not equally apply to 
them all. Yet this notable inconsistency was not only 
overlooked, but was perpetuated, and still exists in the 
orthography of English writers. In the United States a 
different practice prevails, as will presently be mentioned. 

The scheme of Pinkerton, who, in 1785, under the name 
of Robert Heron, proposed to render the language more 
euphonious by adding vowels to words ending in conso- 
nants, and by pronouncing the silent final vowels of others, 
in a manner perfectly arbitrarj r , is too ridiculous to deserve 
further mention. About twenty years later another absurd 
plan was published by Elphinstone, who printed a book in 
order to introduce it, but without success. During the last 
century, several English divines, as Lardner, Benson, and 
others, employed in many words methods of spelling pecu- 
liar to themselves, chiefly such as had long been abandoned, 
as in writing ie for final y ; in adding e to words ending in 
55 / and in the use of such forms as prseface, per sue, procede, 
sais (for says), and the like. So also Mitford used many 
singular forms, such a3 Hand, intire, endevor, meer (for 
mere), tho (for though), spred, &c. It is proper to men- 
tion here also the innovations of Archdeacon Hare, in the 
present century, who, on the ground of pronunciation, 
etymology, and analogy, employed in his works such forms 
as atchieve, compell, enure, firy (for fiery), forein, invey 
(for inveigh), highth, plouhman, smugler, and the like. He 
also omitted the hyphen in many compound words where 
it is usually inserted, and advocated the omission of the 
apostrophe in the possessive case, and the substitution of t 
for ed in those preterits in which the latter termination is 
pronounced like t; as in exprest,fixt, publisht, &c, for ex- 
pressed, fixed, published, &c. This substitution of t for ed, 

however, is not peculiar to Hare, since it is merely a return 
to the usage of the early writers. This spelling of the 
preterit is also not unfrequently found in modern poetry. 

Besides the imperfect attempts mentioned above, many 
plans have been devised at different times, for reducing the 
spelling of words to absolute uniformity and the greatest 
simplicity, by a complete reform in the method of repre- 
senting the sounds of words by written characters, that is, 
by employing a new alphabet in which each sign stands 
for one and only one definite sound, and each sound is rep- 
resented by one and only one character. Such a method 
of spelling was invented by Dr. Franklin, in the last cen- 
tury, though he never brought it to perfection, and scarcely 
used it, except in a brief correspondence with a friend. 
The most recent, and in every respect the most comprehen- 
sive and philosophical scheme of this kind, is that of which 
Mr. Alexander John Ellis, of Cambridge, England, has 
been the most prominent advocate and representative, and 
to a large extent the inventor. The alphabet in this system 
contains about forty characters, each of which represents 
but a single sound, so that a word written according to this 
method could be pronounced in only one way. Although 
this system has received great publicity, and has had many 
earnest supporters, it has gained no ground in the public 
favor, and has finally been abandoned by its author as a 
means of reforming orthography. The schemes ofLepsius, 
M'uller, and others who have endeavored to form philo- 
sophical alphabets of universal application, are hardly to 
be mentioned here, as they are but indirectly related to 
English orthography. 

In 1828, Dr. Webster published his Dictionary of the 
English Language, and the changes in spelling advocated 
by him have had no inconsiderable influence upon orthog- 
raphy, especially in the United States. These alterations 
were proposed by him chiefly on the ground of etymology 
and of analogy, from a desire, on the one hand, to make the 
words correspond, as far as practicable, with their primi- 
tive forms, so as to reveal more clearly their etymological 
affinities, and on the other to reduce as much as possible 
the number of anomalies and exceptional cases. Of the 
words whose orthography had been changed for the former 
reason, many were restored to their ordinary forms by Dr. 
Webster himself in the second edition of his work published 
in 1840, and others still were restored in subsequent edi- 
tions. The alterations of the second class have been re- 
ceived with favor and adopted by a large portion of the 
writers in the United States, and by some authors also in 

It is to be observed that many of Dr. Webster's deviations 
from the usage of his time were not innovations, but resto- 
rations of older forms which were once very generally em- 
ployed. The most important points in which his orthography 
differs from that of most other modern lexicographers, and 
in reference to which there is still difference of usage among 
scholars, are stated in the following list, in which the num- 
bers refer to the sections of the Rules for Spelling Certain 
Classes ofWords(seep. xxiii.), where the cases arementioned 
particularly. These are, the not doubling the final conso- 
nant in derivatives of words like travel, worship, &c. (§ 8); 
doubling the Mh installment, enrollment, &c. (§ 9) ; doub- 
ling the final letter in such words as fulfill, instill, &c. 
(§ 16) ; retaining the i in derivatives of villain(§ 27): writ- 
ing defense, offense, &c, for defence, offence, &c, and 
practice for practise (§ 27) ; writing the termination er for 
re in words like center, meter, &c. (§ 31) ; writing mold and 
molt without u (§ 34). 

With respect to certain cases, it seems proper to add a 
few words. Dr. Webster wrote the chemical terms ending 
in ide and ine, as chloride, chlorine, &c. (§ 32), without the 
final e in most cases, deeming the letter superfluous, and 
not demanded by usage, which was variable. This letter 
is retained in this volume, in accordance, with the almost 


universal practice of the present day. The word written 
by Dr. Webster oxyd is now spelled oxide, for reasons 
stated in section 32 and under the word itself in the Dic- 
tionary. It may be remarked further with regard to words 


often written with the termination re, but which in this 
book are spelled with the ending er, that this orthography 
is but a restoration of the older spelling ; and the same is 
true of the substitution of the termination or for our. 



§ 1, The letters/ and I, at the end of monosyllables, 
and standing immediately after single vowels, are generally 
doubled ; as in staff, cliff, doff, puff; all, bell, hill, toll, null. 
The words clef, if, of, and sol, are exceptions. 

§ 2. The letter s, at the end of a monosyllable, and 
standing immediately after a single vowel, is generally 
doubled, except when it is used to form the possessive case 
or plural of a noun, or the third person singular of a verb ; 
as in grass, press, hiss, moss, truss. The only import- 
ant exceptions are as, gas, has, was, yes, his, is, thus, and 


§ 3. Besides /, I, and s, the only consonants that are 
ever doubled at the end of a word are b, d, g, m, n,p, r, t, 
and z. The following list contains all, or nearly all, the 
words in which these letters are doubled; namely, abb, 
ebb; add, odd, rudd ; bigg, egg, snigg; lamm, scomm, 
mumm (to mask) ; inn, bunn ; xoapp ; gnarr, parr, err, birr, 
shirr, skirr, burr, hurr, murr, purr ; mitt , plitt , smitt, butt ; 
fizz, fuzz, buzz, huzz, muzz. 

Note. — The words let, net, and set are sometimes incor- 
rectly spelled lett, nett, and sett; and some other words 
which should have the final letter single are spelled, by 
some writers, with it doubled. 

§ 4. A consonant standing at the end of a word imme- 
diately after a diphthong or double vowel is never doubled. 
The words ail, peat, haul, door, and maim, are examples. 
The word guess is only an apparent exception, as the u 
does not strictly form a diphthong with the e, but serves 
merely to render the g hard. 

§ 5. Monosyllables ending, as pronounced, with the 
sound of k, and in which c follows the vowel, have usually 
k added after the c; as in black, fleck, click, knock, and 
buck. The words lac, sac, talc, zinc, ploc, roc, soc, arc, marc, 
ore, and fisc, are exceptions. 

Words of more than one syllable, ending in ic or iac, 
which formerly ended in k, also words derived from the Lat- 
in or Greek languages, or from other sources, and similar to 
these, or formed in an analogous manner, are now written 
without the k; as, maniac, elegiac, cubic, music, public. 
The word derrick is an exception. Words of more than 
one syllable, in which c is preceded by other vowels than i 
or ia, commonly end in ck ; as, arrack, barrack, hammock, 
hillock, wedlock. The words almanac, sandarac, limbec, 
xebec, manioc, and havoc, are exceptions. Almanac, lim- 
bec, and havoc, however, are sometimes written with k 
after the c, especially in England. 

§ 6. In derivatives formed from words ending in c, by 
adding a termination beginning- with e,i,ovy, the letter k 
is inserted after the c, in order that the latter may not be 
inaccurately pronounced like s before the following vowel : 
as, colic, colicky; traffic, trafficked, trafficking, trafficker; 
talc, talcky ; zinc, zincky. 

§ 7. In derivatives foi-med by adding a termination be- 
ginning with a vowel to monosyllables and words accented 
on the last syllable, when these words end in a single con- 
sonant (except x) preceded by a single vowel, that conso- 

nant is doubled: as, clan, clannish; plan, planned, plan- 
ning, planner; bag, baggage; hot, hotter, hottest; wit, 
witty; cabal', cabal'ler ; abet 1 , abet'ted, abet' ting, abet' tor ; 
begin', begin'ning, begin'ner ; infer', inferred', infer'ring. 
The consonant is doubled in these words in order to pre- 
serve the short sound of the vowel, as otherwise the latter 
would be liable to be pronounced long. Thus, planned, 
hottest, and abetted, would naturally be pronounced planed, 
hotest, and abeted, if the consonant were not doubled. 
Words of this class, in which the final consonant is pre- 
ceded by qu, followed by a single vowel, form no exception 
to the rule, since the u performs the office of the consonant 
w ; as, squab, squabbish, squabby ; squat, squatting, squat- 
ter; quit, quitted, quitting; acquit', acquit'ted, acquit' ting. 

The derivatives of the word gas (except gassing and 
gassy) are written with but one s; as, gaseous, gaseity, 
gasify. Excellence, as being from the Latin excellens, re- 
tains the double I, though one I has been dropped from the 
termination of excel'. Besides these, the only exceptions 
to the rule are those derivatives in which the accent of the 
primitive is thrown back upon another syllable : as, cabal', 
cab'alism, cab'alist; prefer' , prefl 'erence ; refer', reference; 
defer', deference. It is no exception to this rule that chan- 
cellor, and the derivatives of metal and crystal, as metalloid, 
metallurgy, crystalline, crystallize, and the like, are written 
with the I doubled, since they are derived respectively from 
the Latin cancellarius (through the French), and metallum, 
and the Greek Kpu'crnzAAos. So also the word tranquillity 
retains the double I as being from the Latin tranquillitas, 
while the English derivatives of tranquil, though often 
written with two Vs, are more properly written with only 
one, as tranquilize, tranquilizer, and the like. 

§ 8. When a diphthong, or a digraph representing a vowel 
sound, precedes the final consonant of a word, or the ac- 
cent of a word ending in a single consonant falls on any 
other syllable than the last, or when the word ends in two 
different consonants, the final consonant is not doubled in 
derivatives formed by the addition of a termination begin- 
ning with a vowel : as, daub, daubed, dauber ; need, needy ; 
brief briefer, briefest; rev' el, rev'eled, rev'eling; trav'el, 
trav'eling, trav'eler; profit, profited; act, acted, actor; 
perform , performer ; stand, standing. 

The final consonant is doubled in the derivatives of a few 
words ending in g, in order to diminish the liability to its 
being pronounced like,;', before e or i : as, humbug, hum- 
bugged, humbugging ; periwig, periwigged. The word 
woolen is more generally thus written, in the United States, 
with one I ; but in England it is written ivoollen. 

Note. — There is a large class of words ending in a single 
consonant, and accented on some other syllable than the 
last, the final consonants of which are, by very many 
writers and lexicographers, doubled in their derivatives, 
unnecessarily and contrarily to analogy. This practice ap- 
pears to have arisen from a desire to prevent the vowel of 
the final syllable of the primitive from being inaccurately 
pronounced long in the derivatives. These words are chiefly 
those ending in I, with also a few of other terminations. The 



following list, the words in which are chiefly verbs, includes 
the most important of those in regard to which usage 
varies : namely, apparel, barrel, bevel, bias, bowel, and its 
compounds, cancel, carburet and all similar words ending in 
uret, cavil, carol, channel, chisel,, counsel, cud- 
gel, dial, dishevel, dowel, drivel, duel, empanel, enamel, 
equal, funnel, gambol, gravel, grovel, handsel, hatchet, im- 
peril, jewel, kennel, kidnap, label, laurel, level, libel, mar- 
shal, marvel, medal, metal, model, panel, parallel, parcel, 
pencil, peril, pistol, pommel, quarrel, ravel, revel, rival, 
rowel, shovel, shrivel, snivel, tassel, tinsel, trammel, travel, 
tunnel, unravel, vial, victual, worship. Worcester doubles 
the final letters of all these words, except parallel, in form- 
ing derivatives by the addition of terminations beginning 
with vowels, though he remarks, with respect to those end- 
ing in I, that " it better accords with the analogy of the 
language " to spell their derivatives with but one I. Smart 
retains the double consonant in this class of words solely 
on the ground that usage favors it, but remarks that " the 
doable p in worshipped, worshipper, &c, the second I in 
travelling, traveller, &c, are quite unnecessary on any 
6ther score than to satisfy the prejudices of the eye." 
Cooley doubles the consonant in a majority of the deriva- 
tives of words of this class, but writes a single consonant in 
many, as in those of apparel, barrel, bevel, channel, drivel, 
gambol, &c. Perry wrote the derivatives of these words 
with but one I, according to the rule, and the same prac- 
tice was advocated by Walker. Conformity to the regular 
rule has been advocated also by Lowth and other eminent 

§ 9. Derivatives formed from words ending in a double 
consonant, by adding one or more syllables, commonly re- 
tain both consonants: as, ebb, ebbing; odd, oddly; stiff, 
stiffness: fell, fellable ; skill, skillful, skillfulness ; will, 
willful, willfulness ; dull, dullness ; full, fullness. So also 
the double I is retained in the words installment, inthrall- 
ment, thralldom, and enrollment (from install, inthrall, 
thrall, and enroll), in order to prevent the false pronuncia- 
tion they might receive if spelled with one I. Many writers 
and lexicographers, especially in England, omit one I in 
these words, as also in the derivatives of skill, will, dull, 
and full, formed by adding the syllables ly and ness. 

The derivatives of pontiff are exceptions to the rule, be- 
ing written with only one/; as, pontific, pontifical, ponti- 
ficial, and the like. One I is also dropped in a few words 
formed by adding the termination ly to words ending in 
11, in order to prevent the concurrence of three Vs ; as, ill, 
illy : dull, dully ; full, fully. Words similarly formed \>y 
adding the termination less, however, are written either 
with the three Vs, a hyphen being inserted before the ter- 
mination, or with two Vs, and without the hyphen ; as 
bell-less, or belless, skill-less or skilless, smell-less or smelless. 
§ 10. In derivatives formed from words ending with 
silent e, the e is generally retained when the termination 
begins with a consonant : as, pale, paleness ; hate, hateful; 
incite, incitement ; chaste, chastely, chasteness ; move, move- 
ment. When, however, the e is immediately preceded by 
another vowel (except e), it is often dropped from the de- 
rivative : as, due, duly; argue, argument; true, truly; 
awe, awful; and the derivatives and compounds of these 

The words wholly, nursling, wisdom, abridgment, ac- 
knowledgment, lodgment, judgment, and the compounds of 
some of these, are exceptions. The last four, however, are 
written, by many authors, abridgement, acknowledgement, 
lodgement , judgement. 

§ 11. In derivatives formed from words ending with 
silent e, when the termination begins with a vowel, the e is 
generally omitted, except in the cases mentioned in the 
next paragraph : as, bride, bridal: guide, guidance ; plume, 
plumage; use, usage; grieve, grievance; come, coming; 
shape, shaping; move, movable ; sale, salable ; fleece, 
fleecy ; force, forcible ; true, truism. 

The e is retained in the word hoeing, shoeing, and toeing 
(from hoe, shoe, and toe), in order to prevent a doubt as to 
the pronunciation, that might arise in case it were omitted. 
It is retained, also, in the words dyeing, singeing, springe- 

ing, swingeing, tingeing (from dye, singe, springe, twinge, 
tinge), to distinguish them from dying, singing, springing, 
swinging, tinging (from die, sing, spring, swing, ting). 
The word mileage, as commonly written, does not omit the 
e, though it is sometimes, and more correctly, spelled mil- 
age. The words lineage, lineal, and pineal, though appar- 
ently exceptions, are not really such, since they are derived 
not directly from fee and pine, but from the Latin linea 
(through the French), linealis, andpinea. The e, standing, 
in a derivative, before a termination beginning with a or o, 
and immediately after c or g, is retained in order to preserve 
the soft sounds of these consonants; as, peace, peaceable; 
notice, noticeable; manage, manageable; change, change- 
able ; advantage, advantageous ; outrage, outrageous ; 
mortgage, mortgageor. The latter word is sometimes very 
improperly written mortgagor, and pronounced mor'ga-jor. 

§ 12. In derivatives formed from words ending in ie, by 
adding the termination ing, the e is dropped, and the i 
changed to y, in order to prevent two vs from coming to- 
gether: as, die, dying; hie, hying ; lie, lying ; tie, tying; 
vie, vying. 

§ 13. In derivatives of words ending in y, preceded by a 
consonant, and formed by appending any termination ex- 
cept one beginning with i, the y is usually changed into i: 
as, icy, iciest, icily ; mercy, merciless; tidy, tidiness; mod* 
ify, modifies; foggy, fogginess; earthy, earthiness ; pity, 

The derivatives of adjectives of one syllable ending in 2/, 
preceded by a consonant, are exceptions, and usually re- 
tain the y : as, shy, shyness ; sly, slyest ; dry, dryly ; spry, 
spryer, spry est ; wry, wryness. But the adjectives drier, 
and driest, from dry, are commonly written with i instead 
of y. Derivatives formed by adding the termination ship, 
as secretaryship, suretyship, ladyship, and the like, also re- 
tain the y, though some authors write them with 7', ac- 
cording to the rule. The words babyhood and ladykin are 
likewise exceptions. The y is also retained in the possessive 
case singular of nouns, when formed by adding s with the 
apostrophe ; as, country" 1 s, everybody's. 

§ 14. Derivatives formed by affixing a termination to 
words ending in y preceded by a vowel, generally retain the 
y unchanged : as, gay, gayety, gayly ; play, player, plays ; 
sway, swayed; obey, obeying ; joy, joyful; enjoy, enjoyed; 
buy, buying ; gluey, glueyness. 

The words daily, laid, paid, said, saith, slain, and staid 
(from day, lay, pay, say, slay, and stay), with their com- 
pounds, are exceptions. Staid, however, is sometimes 
written stayed. Derivatives from words ending in uy, as 
.colloquies, from colloquy, are not exceptions to the rule, as 
u, in such cases, is not strictly a vowel, but stands for the 
consonant w. 

§ 15. Derivatives formed by appending a syllable begin- 
ning with a vowel to words ending with a vowel sound, gen- 
erally retain the letter or letters representing such sound : 
as, huzza, huzzaed; agree, agreeable, agreeing ; weigh, 
iveighing ; dough, doughy; echo, echoed ; woo, wooes; 
bow, bowed ; beau, beauish. 

Derivatives of words of this class ending in silent e, as 
also those formed from words ending in double e, by adding 
a termination beginning with e, drop the final e : as, hoe, 
hoed; sue, sued; owe, owed; free, freer, freest; agree, 
agreed. The cases mentioned in sections 11, 12, and 13 are 
also exceptions. 

§ 16. Derivatives formed by prefixing one or more sylla- 
bles to words ending in a double consonant commonly re- 
tain both consonants : as, tipstaff, rebuff, befall, inthrall, 
disinthrall, foretell, undersell, fulfill, enroll, emboss (from 
staff, buff, fall, thrall, tell, sell, fill, roll, boss). 

The word until is an exception, being always written with 
one I. Those words of this class which end in 11 are written 
by some authors, especially in England, with one I : as, be- 
fal, inthral, foretel, fulfil, enrol. The words distill and instill 



should be written with the I doubled, though they are often 
written distil and instil, with only one I. 

§ 17o Compound words formed by joining two or more 
words commonly retain all the letters of the simple words ; 
as, stiff-necked, well-bred, dull-eyed, save-all, ivide-moutlied. 

There are numerous exceptions to this rule, many of 
them compounds which by long use have acquired the force 
of single words. They are the following : namely, some 
compounds of all and well; as, abnighty, almost, alone, 
already, also, although, altogether, always, withal, there- 
withal, ivherewithal, welcome, welfare; — compounds of 
mass; as, Candlemas, Christmas, Lammas, Michaelmas, 
&c. ; — words of which the second part is the adjective 
full; as, artful, hateful, rueful, ivoeful ; — also, the words 
chilblain, fulfill, namesake, neckerchief, numskull, pastime, 
standish, and wherever. 

§ 18. The plural of nouns regularly ends in s, or, in 
certain classes of words, in es. 

When the noun in the singular ends with such a sound 
that the sound of s can unite with it, and be pronounced 
without forming a separate syllable, 5 only is added in form- 
ing the plural : as, sea, seas ; tree, trees ; woe, woes ; canto, 
cantos; virtue, virtues ; purlieu, purlieus ; claw, claws; cab, 
cabs; panic, panics ; bead, beads ; chief, chiefs ; bag, bags ; 
path, paths ; lock, locks ; bell, bells ; gem, gems ; fan, fans ; 
cup, cups ; ear, ears ; u,ct, acts. A few plurals from nouns 
ending in o preceded by a consonant, end in es ; as, echo, 
echoes; cargo, cargoes; embargo, embargoes ; motto, mot- 
toes ; potato, potatoes. Other nouns of this class gener- 
ally form their plurals regularly, though usage differs 
with regard to some of them. Those in which final o is 
preceded by a vowel form their plurals regularly. The 
plural of alkali is written alkalis or alkalies ; that of rabbi, 
either rabbis or rabbies. With regard to other nouns end- 
ing in i usage differs, though they are more properly writ- 
ten with the termination is. 

When the noun in the singular ends with such a sound 
(as that of ch, sh, j, s, x, or z) that the sound of s can not 
unite with it in pronunciation, but must form a separate 
syllable, e is inserted before s in forming the plural, unless 
the word ends with silent e, in which case the latter serves 
to form a separate syllable with s : as, church, churches'; 
rush, rushes ; age, ages ; lace, laces ; gas, gases ; case, cases; 
loss, losses ; box, boxes ; maze, mazes. 

To express the plural of a letter, figure, or any character 
or sign, or of a word mentioned without regard to its 
meaning, the letter 5, generally preceded by the apostrophe, 
is appended, as in the phrases, " The two Vs in all ; " " The 
two O's in 400 ; " " Two *'s in Orion ; " " The why's and 
wherefore's of the question." Some writers, however, omit 
the apostrophe in such cases, joining the s immediately to 
the letter, character, or word, as in the phrases " The two 
Is in all ; " " Two *s in Orion ; " " The pros and cons." 
Others still write the names of the letters with their proper 
plural endings, instead of the letters themselves ; as, the 
two ees, efs, ells, esses, and the like. The plurals of letters 
are also rarely expressed by simply doubling them, without 
adding any plural sign ; as, the two ee in bee, the two 11 in 
all ; but this practice is not to be commended, as ee, 11, &c, 
are properly read double e, double I, and the like. 

§ 19. Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant form 
their plural by adding es and changing y into i: as, mercy, 
mercies; lady, ladies; sky, skies; army, armies; pity, 
pities. This rule includes words ending in quy, in which u, 
being pronounced like w, is strictly a consonant ; as col- 
loquy, colloquies. The plural of. proper nouns ending in y 
preceded by a consonant, is formed by changing y into ies, 
according to the rule ; as, " The three Maries." Many 
writers, however, form the plural of such words by simply 
adding 5 : as, " The three Marys;" but for this practice 
there seems to be no good reason. 

When the singular of a noun ends in y preceded by a 

vowel (except u having the power of to), the plural Is regu- 
larly formed by adding s only : as, day, days; key, keys; 
money, moneys; attorney, attorneys; alloy, alloys; guy, 
guys. Some plurals of the latter class are often inaccu- 
rately written with the termination ies : as, monies, attor- 
nies, and the like. 

Note. — Nouns now ending in y formerly ended in is, 
and formed their plurals regularly by adding s : as, mem- 
orie, memories : mercie, mercies. Ywas finally substituted 
for ie in the singular, but the plural was not changed, and 
still retains its old form. 

§ 20. The plurals of a few nouns ending in/or/e are 
irregularly formed by changing/or 7% into ves. The fol- 
lowing words, with their compounds, are the principal ex- 
amples: namely, life, lives; knife, knives; wife, wives; 
leaf, leaves ; sheaf, sheaves ; loaf, loaves ; beef, beeves ; 
thief, thieves; calf, calves; half, halves; elf, elves; shelf 
shelves ; self, selves ; wolf wolves. The plural of staff is 
sometimes written staffs, but more commonly staves, ex- 
cept when it. means a corps of officers, either military or 
civil, in which sense it is always written staffs. The plural 
of wharf is generally written tvliarfs in England ; in the 
United States it is more commonly, but improperly, written 
wharves, as it is also by some recent English writers. The 
plurals of hoof and turf, formerly written hooves and turves, 
are now written hoofs and turfs. ' The plurals of other 
nouns ending in/, fe, or ff, are formed regularly by the 
addition of 5 only. 

§ 21. In the following nouns, the plural is distinguished 
from the singular only by a change of the vowel or vowel 
sound of the word : namely, man, men; woman, women; 
goose, geese ; foot, feel ; tooth, teeth; brother, brethren; louse, 
lice; mouse, mice. Compounds ending with these words 
form their plurals in the same manner: &s,foeman, foe- 
men; dormouse, dormice. Words which end in the sylla- 
ble man, and are not compounds, form then- plurals regu- 
larly, by adding s only: as, cayman, caymans; desman, 
desmans; firman, firmans ; talisman, talismans; Ger- 
man, Germans; Mussulman, Mussulmans. The plurals 
of talisman and Mussulman are sometimes, by a gross 
blunder, written talismen and Mussulmen. 

§ 22. A few plurals end in en : namely, brother, breth- 
ren; child, children; ox, oxen. To these may be added the 
obsolete forms eyne, kine, shoon, hosen, housen (from eye, 
cow, shoe, hose, house), the first three of which, though 
they have received a slightly different form, end, as pro- 
nounced, with the sound of n. 

§ 23. The words brother, die, pea, and penny, have each 
two plurals of different forms and with different significa- 
tions: as, brothers, male children of the same parent, also, 
members of the same society, association, class, or profes- 
sion ; brethren, members of the same religious or ecclesiasti- 
cal bod}", the word in this form being rarely used except in 
religious writings, or in scriptural language, where it also 
has the same meaning that brother has in ordinary lan- 
guage ; dies, implements for making impressions by stamp- 
ing, or for making screws, also the cubical parts of pedes- 
tals ; dice, the cubical blocks used in games of chance; 
peas, seeds of the pea -plant, when a definite number is 
mentioned ; pease, the same in bulk, or spoken of collect- 
ively ; pennies, the coins, especially when a definite num- 
ber is mentioned ; pence, the amount reckoned by these 
coins. See also these words in the Dictionary. The word 
acquaintance is written, in the plural, either acquaintance 
(supposed to be a corruption of acquaintants) or acquaint- 
ances, the two forms having little or no difference of mean- 

§ 24. A few words, mostly names of animals, have the 
same form in the plural as in the singular ; as, deer, sheep, 
trout, and the like. 

§ 25 . Many words adopted from foreign languages re- 
tain their original plurals: as, datum, data; criterion, 



criteria; genus, genera; larva, larvte ; crisis, crises; mat- 
rix, matrices ; focus, foci ; monsieur, messieurs. 

Many words of this class, while retaining the original 
plurals, have also a second, formed after the analogy of 
English words of similar termination : as, formula, form- 
ulae or formulas ; beau, beaux or beaus ; index, indices, or 
indexes; stratum, strata or stratums ; bandit, banditti or 
bandits ; cherub, cherubim or cherubs ; seraph, seraphim or 
seraphs. The plurals of the last two words are sometimes 
incorrectly written cherubims and seraphims, with double 
plural terminations, from ignorance or forge tfulness of the 
fact that, in Hebrew words, im is a plural ending. 

§ 26. In certain loose compounds consisting of a noun 
followed by an adjective or other qualifying expression, the 
plural is commonly formed by making the same change in 
the noun as when it stands alone : as, court-martial, courts- 
martial; cousin-german, cousins-german ; son-in-law, sons- 
in-law. When, however, the adjective is so closely joined 
to the noun that the compound has the force of a simple 
word, the plural of the compound is commonly formed hke 
that of any other word of the same termination: as, cupful, 
cupfuls ; handful, handfuls. 

§ 27. There are many words, besides those mentioned 
in the preceding paragraphs, in respect to which usage, even 
that of the best authors, is variable. The most important 
of these words are mentioned in this and the succeeding 

The derivatives of the word villain, as villainous, vil- 
lainy, &c, though often written villanous, villany, &c, 
properly retain the i, according to the practice of many 
writers, like those of other words similarly ending in ain: 
as, mountainous, from mountain; captaincy , from captain ; 
and the like. 

The words connection, deflection, inflection, and reflec- 
tion, follow the spelling of the words connect, deflect, inflect, 
and reflect, though often written, especially in England, con- 
nexion, deflexion, inflexion, and reflexion. See Note under 
Connection, in the Dictionary. 

The word woe, though often written without the final e, 
should retain it, like most other nouns of one syllable and 
of similar form; as, doe, floe, foe, hoe, sloe, toe, and the 
hke. Monosyllables other than nouns, and words of more 
than one syllable, having a similar termination, omit the 
e ; as, do, go, no, so, canto, motto, potato. 

The words defense, expense, offense, and pretense are 
properly written thus, though often spelled with c instead 
of 5, for the 5 belongs to the words from which they are 
derived, and is also used in all their derivatives. See Note 
under Offense, in the Dictionary. 

The words drought and height were formerly written 
drouth and hight, and are still very often thus written in 

The verb practice is thus written like the noun, in 
preference to the form practise, though the latter spell- 
ing is used by many writers, especially in England. The 
difference in spelling between the noun and the verb is 
properly observed, in words of this kind, only in such as 
are accented on the last syllable, as device, devise. See 
Note under Practise, in the Dictionary. 

Derivatives of the Greek eSpa (seat, base, side ; pro- 
nounced hed'ra), as polyhedron, tetrahedron, octahedral, 
and the like, are properly thus written with h before the e 
of the termination, but are sometimes written polyedron, 
tetracdron, octacdral, &c, without the h. 

§ 28. There is a class of adjectives ending either in 
able or in ible, of which a large majority have the termina- 
tion able- as, blamable, laudable, legible, mutable, naviga- 
ble, vendible. Many of them are from Latin words ending 
in abilis or ibilis ; some are from the French ; and not a 
few are formed by adding the termination to English words. 
Those from Latin words end respectively in able or ible, 
8ccording as they are derived from words ending in abilis or 

ibilis: as, mutable (Lat. mutabilis); potable (hat. potabilis); 
credible (Lat. credibilis) ; vendible (Lat. vendibilis). Those 
formed from English words generally end in able, ; as, avoid- 
able, eatable, for dable, laughable, liable, salable, serviceable. 
There are a few words respecting which usage is variable : > 
as, addible or addable ; conversable or conversible ; in'fer- 
able or infer 'rible ; referable, or refer'rible. 

§ 29. There is a class of words beginning with en or in, 
as enclose or inclose, enquire or inquire, ensure or insure, 
and the hke, many of which take either form of the prefix 
indifferently. They are chiefly derived from the Latin, 
either directly or through the French, the prefix in belong- 
ing to the former language, and en to the latter. In some 
of these words, en is to be preferred ; in others, in; in 
many of them, either may be used indifferently. See the 
List of Words Spelled in Two or More Ways, and the differ- 
ent words of this class in the Dictionary. 

§ 30. There was formerly considerable diversity of 
usage in respect to the terminations ant and ent, both of 
which were in certain cases used almost indifferently ; as in 
the words confidant or confident, dependant or dependent, 
and the hke. Present usage, however, is definitely settled 
in favor of one or the other form, in nearly or quite every 
word of this class, though not always upon uniform princi- 
ples. In the few words in which both these terminations 
are retained, it is the more general practice to write the 
adjective with ent, and the common noun with ant, while 
the corresponding abstract noun ends in ence, as in the 
adjectives confident and dependent, the common nouns con- 
fidant and dependant, and the abstract nouns confidence 
and dependence. In the case of very many words, however, 
the adjective ends in ant, as also the common noun ; while 
the abstract noun ends in ance, as in the adjectives attend- 
ant and repentant ; the common nouns attendant and re- 
pentant ; and the abstract nouns attendance and repent- 
ance. It may be remarked that the terminations ant and 
ance belong properly to words derived from the French or 
from Latin verbs of the first conjugation ; ent and ence to 
words derived from Latin verbs of the other three conjuga- 
tions. Ence and ance were also formerly confounded in 
some words, the one or the other being used indifferently. 

§ 31. There is a class of words ending in er, some of 
which are written by most authors with the termination re ; 
as, center, meter, theater, &c, which are often written cen- 
tre, metre, theatre, &c. Acre, chancre, lucre, nacre, massa- 
cre, and ogre, retain the termination re, in order to preserve 
the hard sound of the c and g. 

§ 32. There are two classes of chemical words ending 
respectively, as more commonly written, in ide and ine, in 
regard to which usage has been variable. Most of them 
were formerly written without the final e ; but it is now the 
almost universal practice to retain it : as, bromide, chloride, 
iodide, sulphide ; chlorine, fluorine, salicine, stearine; and 
the hke. The word tannin is always written without the 
final e. Oxide is now generally written with the termina- 
tion ide, though formerly by many written oxyd, from the 
supposition that the y of the last syllable represented the v 
of the Greek 6£vs, from which the word is derived ; whereas 
the last syllable is simply the same as the termination of the 
words bromide, sulphide, and the like. See Note under 
Oxide , in the Dictionary. 

§ 33. There is a class of words ending as pronounced, 
with the sound of long i, followed by z, some of which are 
differently written, by different authors, with either ise or 
ize to represent this sound : as, criticize or criticise ; civil- 
ize or civilise ; naturalize or naturalise ; patronize or pat- 
ronise. These words are mostly verbs, and are chiefly de- 
rived from Greek words ending in i£o, or from French 
words ending in iser or ise. There are a few from other 
sources, but formed in analogy with those derived from 
these languages. Those formed from Greek words have the 
termination ize; as anathematize, characterize, dramatize, 



tantalize. The words catechise and exorcise are exceptions. 
Those formed in an analogous manner from English words 
are likewise written with ize ; as, albumenize, bastardize, 
memorize, sensitize. Those derived from the French verb 
prendre (participle pris or prise) end in ise ; as, apprise, 
comprise, emprise, enterprise, surprise. Of those formed 
from French words other than prendre, or which have cor- 
responding forms in the French, a majority end in ize, 
though in respect to some of them usage is variable ; as, 
civilize, formalize, organize, satirize. The following are 
the principal English verbs ending in ise : namely, adver- 
tise, advise , affranchise, apprise, catechise, chastise, circum- 
cise, comprise, compromise, criticise, demise, despise, devise, 
disenfranchise, disfranchise, disguise, divertise, emprise, en- 
franchise , enterprise , exercise, exorcise , franchise , manumise, 
misprise, premise, reprise, revise, supervise, surmise, sur- 
prise. It may be remarked that most of those in respect 
to which usage varies are more frequently written in Eng- 
land with the termination ise, and in the United States with 
the termination ize. 
§ 34. The words mold and molt, and their compounds 

and derivatives, are written in this Dictionary with o in- 
stead of ou, in analogy with the words bold, bolt, colt, gold, 
&c, from which the u has been dropped. Most authors, 
however, write these words mould and moult, and their de- 
rivatives in like manner. 

§ 35. There is a numerous class of words almost uni- 
versally written, in the United States, with the termination 
or, many of which are written, in England, with the termi- 
nation our ; as, candor, favor, honor, labor, rumor, vigor. 
English usage, however, is not uniform with respect to 
these words, many of them being written with or in English 
books. See the Observations on Orthography, prefixed to 
these rules. 

§ 36. There is a small class of words ending with the 
syllable ped (from Lat. pes, pedis, foot), the termination 
of some of which was formerly, and is still frequently, 
written pede ; as, biped, centiped, milliped, palmiped, quad- 
ruped, soliped, and the like. The words biped and quadru- 
ped are universally written without the final e, and the 
others, according to the best usage, should be written in 
the same manner. 


The design of the following List is, in the first place, to 
present those words in reference to which present usage, in 
the United States or in England, sanctions more than one 
method of spelling the same word ; and, secondly, a consid- 
erable number of words, which, though not differently 
spelled by living reputable writers, yet are to be found in 
the orthography of the second column in the works of 
respectable authors of the last century, or the early part 
of the present century, and are, therefore, often presented 
to the eye of the modern reader. Such a list, it is thought, 
will be found very convenient for consultation. For any 
thing more full, a Glossary would be the appropriate resort. 
The first column, in the following List, presents the orthog- 
raphy recognized in the body of this Dictionary as the 
preferable one, or that in general use ; the second column, 
one less desirable, or the usage of former times. Those 
forms in the second column which a good writer at the 
present day would not probably employ, but which are 
found only in writings of the past, have a dagger prefixed. 
One class of words which might properly have been added, 

is, from their great number, omitted. It is that of words 
of more than one syllable ending in ic or ick ; as, music, 
musick, public, publick, &c. It is deemed sufficient to 
mention the class, and to state that the termination in ick 
is wholly disused. A similar remark is applicable to a por- 
tion of the words terminating formerly in our, now in or. 
Those of this class in the following List, in which both 
forms are given, are still sometimes used in both forms, the 
termination in or being that most favored in the United 
States, while our is the form generally preferred in England. 
Words of this class not given in the List are used only in or 
by living writers. Subject to a like remark is a class of 
words terminating in ise or ize ; as, systematise or systema- 
tize, &c, — the latter being the mode in which such words 
are spelled in America, and the former that adopted by 
English printers. When in this List the word in the first 
column is followed by or, as, " Abatis, or Abattis," it is im- 
plied that the second form is nearly, often quite, in as good 
use as the first. 

Abatis, or 





A.ccount, -ant, &c. 

Accouter, &c, or 

Acetimeter, or 







Adopter (Chem.), 

Adulterer, -ess, 

Adz, or 



iEolian, or 

Mrie, or Eyrie, 

^Esthetic, -s, or 



Aid-de-camp, or 

Ajutage, or 



Alcoran or Koran, 

Alkahest, or 






Accessary. [&c, 
tAccompt, -ant, 

Accoutre, &c. 

tAtchieve. [ment. 





fAdultrer, -ess. 






Esthetic, -s. 







Alleluia, or ) 

Alleluiah, J 




Ambassador, or ] 

Embassador, J 



Amend, -ment, 



Amortize, -ment, 



Ancient, -ly, 










Aposteme, or 

Apothegm, or 



( Allelujah, 
\ Halleluiah. 


( Ambassadour, 
( Embassadour. 
( tAmbergrease, 
{ Ambergrise. 

fEmend, -ment. 


Amortise, -ment. 


tAntient, -ly. 


( Anotta, Annatto, 
< Anota, Annotta, 
( Arnotta,Arnotto. 









Appareled, -ing, 

Appraise, -ed,&c.,o?- 

Apprise (to notify), 






Argol, or 

Armor, -er, &c, 




Asafetida, ) 

Asafoetida, j 

Asbestus, or 






Atheneum, or 

Attar, or 


Author, &c, 




Awm, or 

Ax, or 

Ay, or 

Apparelled, -ling. 

Apprize, -ed, &c. 

f Arbitrament. 





Armour, -er, &c. 

Arquebus, fHar- 
tArack. [quebuse. 











Authour, &c. 










Butt, or 



Chime, Chimb. 






Bakshish, Buk- 

Chiseled, -ing, or 

Chiselled, -ling. 

Bade (z.), 

tBad. [sheesh 




Baldrick, Baw- 




Baulk. [drick 


Camboose, Co- 



Balister, or 



Cazique. [boose 





Caddice, or 




Bandana, or 








Cag, or 





Bannerol, Band 

Caique, or 


Cimeter, ) 
Scimiter, J 

( Scimetar. 
( Scymetar. 

Banyan (Bot.), 

Banian. [rol 

. Caisson, or 







Cypher. [&e 





Clamor, -ous, &c. 

Clamour, -ous, 











Clarionet, or 


Bark, or 


Caliber, or 


Clew, or 

















' Callipers. 



Bass, or 



Calif, Kalif. 



Bass-viol, or 


Calk, or 

Caulk, Caique. 







Clothe, -ed, &c, 

fCloathe, -ed, &c 

Bastinade, or 


Caloyer, or 




Baton, or Batoon, 


Caltrap, or 







Calix. [let 

Cockswain, or 


Battledoor, or 



Camblet, Cham- 

Coeliac, or 






Cognizor, -zee, 

Cognisor, -see. 

Bazaar, or 



( Camphine, 
{ Camphogen. 















Candour. [&c 

. Color, 


Beldam, or 


Canceled, -ing, &c, 

or Cancelled, -hug, 

Comb, Combe, or 







Comfry, Cumfrey 

Benedict, or 


Cannoneer, or 












Canon ( Sp.), 




and similar 


Cantaloup, or 






Cantalever, or 


Contemporary, or 








Berth (Nav.% 




( Carbinier, Carabi- 
( nier,Carabineer 

Controller, -ship, 

( Comptroller, 

( -ship. [troul. 

Beveled, -ing, or 

Bevelled, -ling. 




tComptrol, Con- 

Bevile (Her.), 

Bevil, or Bevel. 


Caract, Carrat. 




Byzant. [-ses,&c 

Caravansary, or 


Cooly, or 


Biasing , -ed , -es , & c . 

, Biassing, -sed, 



Coomb, or 





Cornelian. [&c 

. Copaiva, or 



Bulge. [ards. Caroled, -ing, &c, 

or Carolled, -ling, 




tBalyards, Balli- 







Cask (a vessel), 


Coquette, n., 




Casque (helmet), 





tBinacle, Bittacle 

■ Cassava, 




Bister, or 


Cassimere, or 




Blende (Min.), 

Blend, Blinde. 





Blessed (a.), or 

Blest. [&c 

. Catchup, or ) 
Ketchup, J 


Cot, or 

Cote, (a hut). 

Blithesome, -ly,&c. 

, Blithsome, -ly, 

Cot, or 

Cott, (a bed). 



Catechise, -er, or 

Catechize, -er,&c 

Cotillon, or 


Blouse, or 




Councilor, or 






Counselor, or 


Boil, n.f 


Caviare, or 




Bombazet, or 


Caviler, -ed, &c, or Caviller, -led, &c 

. Courtesan, 


Bombazine, or 




Courtesy (Law), 

Curtesy, Curtsy. 



Ceil, -ing, -ed, 

fCiel, -ing, -ed. 

Cozen, -age, 

Cosen, -age. 

Bourgeois, or 










Cray-fish, or 

Craw -fish. 

Bouse, or 


Centimeter, or 


Creak (v.), 


Bousy, or 

Boozy. [&c 

. Centiped, 


Creosote, ) 
Creasote, ) 

( Kreosote, 
( Kreasote. 

Boweled, -ing, &c, 

or Bowelled, -ling, 

Ceroon, or 




Cess-pool, or 



Critic (a criti- 





Croup (buttocks), 

Crup. [cism). 

Brahman, ) 
Brahmin, j 

( Brachman, 
{ Bramin. 


Cameleon. [my 

. Cruet, 



Shamois, Sham 

- Crupper, 


Brake ( Railways), 




Cruse (bottle), 





tChampane. [&c 

. Cucurbit, or 





or Channelled, -ling 

, Cudgeled, -er, -ing 

, or Cudgelled, -ler, 



Chant, -er, -ed, &c 

, Chaunt, -er, -ed 

, Cue (def. 1), 

Queue. [-ling. 


Broach, Broche 


Chop. [&c 

. Cuerpo, 






Cuneiform, or 




Check (n.), 


Curb (def. 3), 

tKerb, Kirb. 

Buddhism, or 


Checker, -ed, &c, 

Chequer, -ed,&c 

. Cursed (imp.), 

Curst. [lasse. 

Buffet, or 




. Curtal-ax, 

Curtle-axe, Curte- 

Bun, or 



| Chymistry, 
( Chimistry. 

Cutlass, or 
Cyclopedia, or 




Cherif, 1 
Scherif, ) or 

f Sheriffe, 
( Schereef. 


Chimere, Simar. 

Bur, or 




Burden, -some, 

tBurthen, -some 



Czar, -ina, 

Tzar, -ina. 



Chevron, or 


Burned (imp.), 





Burganet, or 




But-end, or 

















Embassador, or \ 
Ambassador, j 

( Embassadour, 
( Ambassadour. 





Epaulet, or 

Epaulette (Fr.). 

Danegelt, or 




Epauleted, -ing, 



Debarcation. [&c 

. Embassage, 


Equaled, -ing, or 

Equalled, -ling. 

Debonair, -ly, -ness, Debonnaire, -ly, 

Embed, -ded, &c, 

Imbed, -ded, &c 





Embezzle, &c, 

tlmbezzle, &c. 

Equivoque, or 


Defense, -less, &c, 

or Defence,-less,&c 

. Emblaze, 






Emblazon, -ed, &c 

, tlmblazon,-ed,&c 

.Error, &c, 

Errour, &c 



Embody, -ied, &c, 





Delft, Delph. 

Embolden, -ed, &c 

, Imbolden,-ed,&c. Escapement, or 


Delphin, or 


Emborder, &c, 

flmborder, &c. 

Escarp {Fort.), or 

Scarp. [ote. 



Embosom, or 



Shallot, or Shal- 



Emboss, -ed, &c, 

•flmboss, -ed, &c. 


tExcheat. [toir. 



Embowel, -ed, ) 
-ing, J 

fEmbowellj -ed, 


Escritoir, Scru- 

Demesne {Law), 




( Escocheon, 
( Scutcheon. 



flmbowel, -ed,&c 



Emboweler, ) 
-ment, j 

Emboweller, &c 

Estafet, or 




flmboweller, &c. 

Esthetics, or 

^Esthetics, [pie. 



Embower, -ed, &c, 

tlmbower, -ed,&c 


tEstopel, Estop- 

Desert {n.), 


Embrace, -ed, &c, 

jlmbrace, -ed, &c.Estrich, 




Embracer, -ment, 

flmbracer, -ment 

. Etiology, or 






Etui, or 










Embroil, -ed, &c, 

flmbroil, -ed, &c 

Expense, [&c, 

fExpence. [&c. 


Deuse, Duse. 

Emerods, or \ 
Emeroids, J 


Exsiccate, -ed, -ing 


Develop, -ment, 

Develope, -ment. 





Emir, or 




Diaeresis, or 


Empale, -ed, &c, 

Impale, -ed, &c. 



Diarrhea, or 



Empanelled , & c . 

Exude, &c, 

tExsude, &c- 

Diarrhetic, or 


Empaneled, -ing, 


, Eyrie, or ) 
Eyry, J 




&c, 1 

fEmpannel, -led, 





Disheveled,-ing, or 

Dishevelled,-ling. Emperor, 



Disk, or 

Disc. [-ing 




Dispatch, -ed, -ing, 

or Despatch, -ed, 

Empower, -ed, &c, 

tlmpower, -ed,&c 

. Faeces, 

Feces, [-ting. 

Disseize, -in, -or, 

Disseise, -in, -or. 



Fagot, -ed, -ing, 

Faggot, -ted, 

Distention, or 





fFaerie, Faery. 

Distill, or 



Emeu. [&c 

Fakir, or 




Enameled, -ing, &c. 

or Enamelled, -ling 

, Falchion, 




Enamor, -ed, -ing, 

( Enamour, -ed, 
1 -ing- 

Falcon, -er, -ry, 

JFaulcon, -er, -ry. 

Divest, -ed, &c, 

Devest, -ed, &c. 



Docket {Law), 


Encage, -ed, &c, 

Incage, -ed, &c. 



Doctress, or 


Encamp, -ed, &c. 

flncamp, -ed, &c 



Dolor, -ous, 

Dolour, -ous. 




fFatner. [&c. 



Enchiseled, -ing, or 

Enchiselled, -ling 

. Favor, -er, -ed, &c. 

, Favour, -er, -ed, 







Dory, or 

Doree, Dorey. 

Encounter, &c, 

tlncounter, &c. 





Encroach, &c, 

flncroach, &c. 

Feldspar, ) 
Feldspath, j 

( Felspar, 
{ Felspath. 



Encumber, -ed, 

1 tlncumber, -ed, 
\ &c. 








Encyclopedia, or 


Feoffor, or 





flndear. [&c 





Endeavor, -ed, &c. 

Endeavour, -ed, 



Dram, and 


Endow, &c, 

tlndow, &c. 





Endue, or 




Draft, and 


Endure, -ance, 

flndure, -ance. 





Enforce, -ed, &c, 

flnforce, -ed, &c. 

Feud, -al, -atory, 

fFeod, -al, -atory. 

Dribblet, or 


Engage, -ed, &c, 

jlngage, -ed, &c. 

Feudalize, -ism, 

tFeodalize, -ism. 


Dryer. [&c 





Driveler, -ing, or 

Driveller, -ling, 

Engorge, -ed, &c, 

flngoi'ge, -ed, &c 


Filberd. [bustier. 





Filigree, ) 
Fillagree, ) 

Fillibuster, Fli- 





( Filigrane, 
( Filigrain. 






Dutchess, [-list. 

Enjoin, &c, 

tlnjoin, &c. 

Fillibeg, or 


Dueler, -ing, -ist, or Dueller, -ling, 

Enkindle, -ed, &c, 


Finery {a forge), 



Dulness. [geon. 

Enlarge. &c, 

jlnlarge, &c. 




Donjon, fDon- 

Enlist, ' 


Fishgig, or 





Enrol, or Inroll. 

Fives, or 



fDuresse {Fr.) 


f fEnrolment, In- 
( rolment. 



Dye, &c. {color), 

Die, &c. 

Flavor, -ed, &c, 

Flavour, r ed, &c 

Dyke. See 








Floatage {Law), 





Flotsam, or 




Flour {of grain), 




Entail {Arch.), 



j Fleur-de-lis, 
{ Flower-de-lis. 

Eccentric, -al, &c, 


. Entangle, &c, 

flntangle, &c. 




Enterprize. [&c. 

Fluke {Naut.), 




Enthrone, -ed, &c. 

, flnthrone, -ed, 

Fluke (Zool.), 

Flowk, Flooc. 



Entire, -ly, &c, 

Intire, -ly, &c. 


Fogie, Fogey- 

Ecumenic, -al, 

(Ecumenic, -al. 

Eti title, -ed, &c, 

flntitle, -ed, &c. 



Edematous, or 


Entrance, -ed, &c, 




Edile, -ship, 

iEdile, -ship. 

Entrap, -ed, &c, 

Intrap, -ped, &c. 

Foray, or 


Eloign, -ment, 

Eloin, -ment. 

Entreat, -ed, &c, 

Intreat, -ed, &c. 







Founderyj or 


Embalm, -ed, &c, 

tlmbalm, -ed, &c 

. Entresol, 


Franc {coin), 

Frank. [etic. 

Embalmer, -ment, 

flmbalmer, -ment 

. Entwine, -ed, &c, 

Intwine, -ed, &c. 


Frenetic, Phren- 

Embank, -ed, &c, 

Imbank, -ed, &c 

. Envelop {v.), 






Envelope («.), or 


Frieze {Arch.), 

Frize, Freese. 

Embark, -ed,&c. 

tlmbark,-ed, &c 









Furmenty, Fru 

- Haggess, 

tHaggis, Haggiss. Imbibe, 



Frustrum. [mety. Ha-ha, 

Haw-haw. Imbitter, 


Fueled, -ing, or 

Fuelled, -ling. 


Hyke. Imbosom, 


Fulfill, -ment, 

Fulfil, -ment. 


Haak. Imbrue, 





Halbert. Imbue, -ed, -ing, 

Embue, -ed, -ing. 

FurtheV, and 



Holibut. Immarginate, or 

Emarginate. [&c. 




Halleluiah, -luia. T , , . 
Hollo, Holloa. ^Panel, -ed, -mg, 

| Impannel, -led. 
| Empannel,-led. 



Halloo, Hallo, or 

Furthest, and 



Halhdome. Imparlance, 

Emparlance. [&c. 




Halliard. Impassion, 

Em passion. 

Fusil ( Gun.), 



fHandcraft. Impeach, 

Empeach. [ling. 

Fusileer, or 



fHandwork. Imperiled, or 

Imperilled, -ing, 


fHandsom. Implead, 

tEm plead. 



fHansel. Imposthume, 


Handseled, or 

Handselled. Impoverish, 


Gabardine, or 


Harbor, -ed, &c. 

Harbour,-ed,&c. Imprint, 

fEm print. 




Hairbell. Incase, 


Garish, or 



Hairbrained. Inclasp, 


Gallias, or 



Haram. Inclose, -ure, &c. 


Gamboled, -ing, or Gambolled, -ling 

. Haricot, 

Harricot. Increase, 





Harier. Incrust, 


Gang (Min.), 



Harrow (def. 4). Incumbrance, 


Gantlet, or ) 
Gantlope, J 

t Gauntlet. 


Harslet. Indefeasible, 


Hasheesh, or 

Hashish. Indelible, 





Hatti-scherif. Indict (Law.), 

tEndict, Endite. 

Gargoyle (Arch.), 

Gargoil, Gargle. 

Haulm, Halm, 

Haum, Hawm. Indictment 

( fEndictment. 
( fEnditement. 




■fHale. inuiciiueni, 

Gault, or 



Hanch. Indite, -er, 

jEndite, -er. 

Gauntlet {Her.), or Gantlet. 


fHoboy. Indocile, 





Halser. Indoctrinate, 





fHeadach. Indorse, -ed, -ing, 

Endorse, -ed, -ing. 




Herse. Indorser, -ment, 

Endorser, -ment. 

Genet, or 


Hectoliter, or 

Hectolitre. Induce, -ment, 

tEnduce, -ment. 



Hectometer, or 

Hectometre. Inferior, 



Germain, Ger- 


Hejira. Inferable, or 



Germe. [man 

Height, -en, he, or 

Hight, -en, &c. Inflection, 




Heinous, -ly, -ness, 

tHainous ,-ly , -ness .Infold , 





Haematite. Infoliate, 

Enfoliate. [-ment. 




Haematology. Ingraft, -er, -ment 

Engraft, -er. 




tHemistick. Ingrain, 


Girasole, or 



fEmerods. Ingulf, 


Girt, or 


Heretoch, or 

Heretog. Inkle, 




Hermit, -age, 

tEremite, -age. Innuendo, 

Inuendo. [&c. 



Herpetolog} 7 , 

Erpetology. Inquire, -er,-y,&c. 

Enquire, -er,-y. 




fHexaedron. Inscribe, 



Glose. [ed. 


Hybernate. Inscroll, 



tKnarled, Knurl- 


Hiccup, Hickup. Insnare, 




Hinderance, or 

Hindrance. Install, 


Good-by, or 


Hindoo, -ism, or 

Hindu, -ism. Installment, or 




Hip (of dog-rose), or Hep. Instate, 


Gormand, or 



Hip-roof. Instill, 





Hippogryph. Instructor, 


Graft, -ed, 

tGraff, -ed. 


Hippocrass. Insure, -ed, -ing, 

Ensure, -ed, -ing. 




fHoa. Insurer, -ance, 

Ensurer, -ance. 




Horehound. Intenable, 





Hookey. Intercessor, 


Graveled, -ing, 

Gravelled, -ling. 

Hodge-podge, or 

Hotch-potch. Interior, 


Gray, -ish, &c, 

Grey, -ish, &c. 

Hoiden, -ish, 

Hoy den , -ish . Inthrall , 

Inthral, Enthral. 


Grenado, Gran- 

Holiday, and 

Holyday. Intrench, 



tGranadier. [ade 

Hollo, Holloa, or 

Hollow. Intrust, 


Greyhound, or 



Holdster. [mony. Inure, 


Grewsome, or 



Homony, Horn- Inurement, 


Griffin, or 


Homeopathy, or 

Homoeopath y. Inveigle, 


Grisly, or 



Homony me. Inventor, 



Grits, Grouts. 


Honied. Inwheel, 




Honor, -ed, &c, 

Honour, -ed, &c. Inwrap, 




Hoop (v.), or 

Whoop. Inwreathe, 


Grotesque, -ly, &c 

. tGrotesk, -ly, &c 

Hooping-cough, or 

Whooping-cough.Isocheimal, or 


Groundsel, or 


Hoopoe, or 

Hoopoo. Ixolite, or 


Groveled, -er, -ing 

, or Grovelled, -er, 



Group, v., 

tGroupe. [-ling. 




Guaranty, or 







Ostler. Jacobin, and 


Guelf. or 



Hock. Jaconet, 





tHuswife. Jail,-er, &c. 

Gaol, -er, &c- 

Guilder (coin), 



Houdah. Jalap, 





Houlet. [moc. Jam (Min.), 



Hummock, or 

Hommock,Hom- Janizary, 


Gunwale, or 


Humor (def. 1), 

Humour. Jasmine, 


Gurnard, or ) 
Gurnet, J 


Hurra, or 

Hurrah. Jaunt, -y, -ily, 

Jant, -y, -ily. 


Hydrangia. Jean, 

Jane. [ating. 


Gipsy, Gypsey. 


Hypethral. Jenneting, 

fJuneting, June- 



Hyperstene, or 

Hypersthene. Jeremiad, or 





Hypothenuse. Jetsam, or Jetson, 



Hysop. Jet tee, or Jetty, 



Jeweled, -er, or 

Jewelled, -er. 

Hackle, Hatchell, 

or Heckle, Hetchel 

J^ Jewelry, 





tlsicle. Jonquil, or 




fllness. Jostle, or 






Jole. Mamma, 

Mama. Nombles, 



Judgement. Mandatary (ra.), 

Mandatory. Nonesuch, 


J upon, er 

Juppon. Manikin, 

Mannikin. Novitiate, 

Noviciate, [ghau. 


Joust. Maneuver, or 
Mantel (Arch.), 

Manoeuvre. Nylghau, 

Nylgau, Neel- 

-rr Mantel-piece, 
■**■• Marc (coin.), 





Kaffre, or Kafir. Margaron, or 

Margarone. Oaf, 

Auf, Ouph. 


Kayle. Marquee, 

Markee. Ocher, or Ochre, 



Keel, Keil. Marque (letter of), 

Mark. Octahedron, 



Keelhale. Marquess, or 

Marquis, [eschal. Octostyle, 



Kelson . Marshal , 

tMariscbal, Mar- Odalisque, 


Keg, or 

Cag. Marshaled, -ing, or 

Marshalled, -ling. Odor, 


Kenneled, -ing, or Kennelled, -ling. Martin {Ornitk.), 

Marten. Offense, or 



Kaun, Kan. Martinet (Naut.), 

Martnet. Olio, 


Kiln (n.), 

Kill. [Ohilogram. Martingale, 

fMartingal. [&c. Omber, or 


Kilogram, or 

Kilogramme, Marveled,-ing,&c, 

or Marvelled, -ling, Omer, 


Kiloliter, or 

Kilolitre. Mark, 

Marque (Fr.). Oolong, 


Kilometer, or 

Kilometre. ,, ,. 
tKnap(n.,rf C /.2). Mashn ' 

(Meslin, Mislin, Opaque, 
( Mastlin. Opobalsam, 




Koran, or Alcoran, Alkoran. Mastic, 

Mastich. Orach, or 



Cyanite. Matrice, or 

SaltiL, £T Orang-outang, 

f Orang-utan, 
( Ourang-outang. 


t Mauger, or 

Maul n.(mallet) & v 

Maugre. Orchestra, 


. Mall. Oriel, 


Labeled, -ing, or 

Labelled, -ling. Mayhem, and 

Maim. Oriflamb, or 


Labor, -ed, -ing, &c, or Labour, -ed, -ing, Meager, -ly, &c, or 

Meagre, -ly, &c. Orison, 



Lacrymal. [&c. Merchandise, 

fMerchandize. Osier, 


Lac (coin), 

Lack. Meter, and 

Metre. Osprey, or 



Lacquey. Mileage, 

Milage. Otolite, or Otolith 

, Otohtte. 

Lacquer (n.), 

Lacker. Milleped, 

Millepede. Ottar (of roses), 

Otto, Attar. 

Lacquer, -ed, -ing 

, Lacker,-ed,-ing. Milligram, or 

Milligramme ( Fr. ) Outrageous, 



Lagune. Milliliter, or 

Millilitre. Oxide, 

Oxid, Oxyd, Ox- 

Lambdoidal, or 

Lamdoidal. Millimeter, or 

Millimetre. Oyes, 

Oyez. [yde. 


Landaw. Milrea, Millrea, ) 
fLandskip. Millreis, j 





tLantkorn. Misbehavior, 



Laniard. Miscall, 

fMiscal. Packet, 



Lobsided. Misdemeanor, 

Misdemeanour. Painim, 


Larum, or 

„ Alarum. Misspell, 

fMisspel, fMispel. Palanquin, or 



Lanch. Misspend, 

fMispend. Palestra, 


Leaven , 

tLeven. Misspent, 

fMispent. Palet, ) 
fMistate. [toe. Palette, j 


Lecher, -y, -ous, 

-j-Letcher, -y, -ous. Misstate, 


Lectern, Lettern. Mistletoe, 

Misseltoe, Misle- Palmiped, 



( Ledgment, Lege- Miter, -ed, or 
\ ment, Lige- Mizzen, 

Mitre, -d. Panada, Panade, 


Mizen. Pander, 



Leger. [ment. Mizzle, 

Misle, Mistle. Pandore, 



Ledger-line. Moccasin, 

Moccason, Mog- Pandour, 


Leggin, or 

Legging. Mode ( Gram.), 

Mood. [gason. Panel (Laiv), 



Leming. Mocha-stone, 

Mocho-stone. Paneled, -ing, or 

Pannelled, -ling. 


Lettice. [-ler. Modeled, -ing, or 

£&£**: i-**-*. 

{ Pantagraph, Pen- 
( tagraph. 

Leveled, -ing, -er, 

or Levelled, -ling, Modillion, 

Libeled, -ing, &c. 

, or Libelled, -ling, ., . , 
Licence.' [&c. Mohammedan, 

i Mahomedan, Ma- Papoose, or 
\ hometan. Paralyze, 





Lickerous. Mohawk, or 

Mohock. [ses. Parceled, -ing, or 

Parcelled, -ling. 


Liquorice. Molasses, 

Melasses, fMolos- Parcenary, 



Lieve. Mold, or 

Mould. Parlor, 



Lilach. Molt, or 

Moult. Parol (a.), or 



Linguaform. Moneyed, 

Monied. Parquet, or 


Linnaean, or 

Linnean. Mongrel, 

tMungrel. Parsnip, or 

Parsnep. [quito. 


tLintseed. Moresque, 

fMoresk. Parrakeet, 

Paraquet, Para- 

Linstock, or 

Lintstock. Morris, 

Morrice. Partible, 


Liter, or 

Litre. Mortgageor, or ) 
( Lithonthriptic, Mortgager, j 
( Lithonthryptic. Mosque, 

, , , Partisan , 
Mortgagor. Pashaj Pacha( 



Pashaw, Bashaw. 

tMosk. Pashalic, 


Llama (Zoo I.), 

Lama. „.. 
Lodestar, -stone. Mosquito, 

( Musketo,Musqui-Pask, or 
\ to, Musketoe. Patrol («.), 


Loadstar, -stone, 


Loath (a.), 

Loth. Mustache, 

Moustache. Paver, Pavior, 

Paviour, Pavier. 

Lode (Min.), 

Load. Mullein, 

Mullen. Pawl, 



Lodgement. Multiped, 

Multipede. Pean, 



Logogryph. Mummery, 

Mommery. Peart, 



Longirostre. Murder, &c, 

Murther, &c. Pedicel, 


Louver, or 

Louvre, Loover. Murky, 

Mirky. Peddler, 

Pedler, Pedlar. 


Lour. Murrhine, 

Myrrhine. Pedobaptist, 



fLoof. Muscadel, 

Muscatel. Pemmican, 


Lunet, and 

Lunette. Muscle (a shellfish), 

Mussel. Penciled, -ing, or 

Pencilled, -ling. 


Longe. Musket, 

Musquet. Pennant, 


Lustring, or 





Ley. JJ\ Peony, 

Paeony, Piony. 

Periled, -ing, or 

Perilled, -ling. 

]yr Nankeen, 

Narwal, or Narwhal, 

Nankin. Peroxide, 


Narwhale. Persimmon, 



Macao. Naught, 

Nought. [&c Persistence, 



Maccoboy. Negotiate, -or, &c, 

Negociate, -or, Pewit ( Ornith.), 



Maggotty. Neighbor, -ing, &c, 

Neighbour, -ing, Phantasm, 


Maim, and 

Mayhem (Law.), Net (a.), 

Nett, Neat. [&c. Phantom, 



Male- (prefix). Neb ( On.), or 

Nib. Phenomenon, 


Mall, or 

Maul. Niter, or 

Nitre. Phenix, 



Maukin. Nobless, or 

Noblesse. Phial, or 


Mamaluke, or 

Mameluke. Nomads, or 

Nomadea. Philter, -ed, or 

Philtre, -d. 





fTisic. Rabbi, 

Rabbin. Sciagraphy, or 


Piaster, or 

Piastre. Raccoon , or Racoon 

, Rackoon. Scion, or 


Picked, or 

Peaked, Piked. Ruddock ( Ornith.), 

or Ruddock. Scirrhosity, 



Piquet. Ramadan 

( Ramazan, Scirrhus, 
{ Rliamadan. [-ly. Scissors, 



tPye. ' 



Pyebald. Rancor, -ous, -ly, 

Rancour, -ous. Sconce, 


Piepoudre, or 

Piepowder. Ransom , 

tRansoiue. Scot-free, 



Pimenta. Rare {adj. ), 

fRear. Scow, 



Pimpinel. Rarefy, 

Rarify. Scrawny, 

Scrauny, [Scythe. 

Pinchers, or 

Pincers. Raspberry, 

fRasberry. Scythe, 

tSithe, Sythe. 

Pistoled, -ing, or 

Pistolled, -ling. Rattan, 

Ratan. Seamstress, 

tSemstress, Semp- 


fPlacart. Raveled, -ing, or 

Ravelled, -hng. Sear, 

Sere. [stress. 

Plaice (Ichth.), 

Plaise. [senses. Raven (plunder), 

Ravin. Sedlitz, 



Plane, in some Raze, -ed, -ing, 

Rase, -ed, -ing. Seine, 



Plain-sailing. Rasure, 

Razure. Secretaryship, 



fPlaister. Real (coin), 

Rial, Ryal. Seethe, ' 


Plait (t\), 

Plat. Rearward, 

tRereward. Seignior, 

Signior, Signor. 

Plat (».), or 

Plot. Recall, 

Recal. Seigniorage, -ory, 

Seignorage, -ory. 

Plethron, or 

Plethrum. Recompense, 

Recompence. Seizin, 



fPlyers. Reconnoiter, or 

Reconnoitre. Seleniuret, 


Plow, or 

Plough. Redoubt, 

fRedout. Sellender, 



fPlummer. Referable, or 

Referrible. Selvage, or 



Plumipede. Reflection, 

Reflexion. Sentinel, 



Pluviameter. Reglet, or 

Riglet. [deer. Sentry, 

fCentry, Sentery. 

Point-device, or 

Point-devise. Reindeer, 

Raindeer, Rane- Sepawn, orSupawr 

, Sepon. 


fPoize. Re-enforce, 

Re-inforce. Sepulcher, or 



Polacre. Re-install, -ment, 

Re-instal, -ment. Sequin, 

Chequin, Zechin. 

Pole-ax, or 

Pole-axe. Relic, 

fRelique. Sergeant, or 



fPoltron. Remiped, 

Remipede. Set, (n.), 


Polyhedron, -drous 

, Polyedron,-drous.Renard, or 

Reynard. Sevennight, or 

Se : nnight. 

Polyglot (n.), 

Polyglott. Rencounter, or, 

Rencontre. Shad, 



Polype. Rennet, or 

Runnet. Shah, 



Pummel. Replier, 

Replyer. Shawm, or 


Pommeled, -ing, 

Pomelled, -hng. Reposit, 

Reposite. Shampoo, 


Ponton, or 

Pontoon. Resin, and 

Rosin. Shard (def. 1), 



Poney. Resistance, &c, 

fResistence. [&c. Sheathe {v.), 

tSheath. [Sheikh. 


Poignard. Restive, -ly, -ness, 

tRestiff, Resty, Sheik, 

Shaik, Scheik, 

Porgee,Porgy(IcA/A.),Paugie. Retch (to vomit),' 

Reach. [-ler. Sherbet, 

Scherbet, Sarbot. 


( Porpus, Porpess, Reveled, -ing, -er, or Revelled, -ling, Sherry, 


( Porpesse. Reverie, or 

Revery. Shill-I-Shall-I, or 



tPourtray. Ribbon, 

Riband, Ribband. Shore (n.), 


Porteress, or 

Portress. Reversible, 

Reversable. Shorl, or 

Schorl. [-hrjg. 


tPossessour. Rigor, -ous, &c, 

Rigour, -ous, &c. Shoveled, -er, -ing 

or Shovelled, -ler. 


tPostillion. Risk, 

tRisque. Show, 



fPotatoe. [share. Rivaled, -ing, or 

Rivalled, -ling. Shrillness, 



Potshard, Pot- Riveted, -ing, 

Rivetted, -ting. Shriveled, -ing, or 

Shrivelled, -ling. 

Powter ( Ornith.), 

Pouter. Rcc ( Ornith.), 

Rock, Rukh. Shuttlecock, 


Pozzolana, or 

Pozzuolana. Rodomontade, 

fRhodomontade. Shvly, -ness, 

Shilv, -ness. 

Practice (v.), or 

Practise. Rondeau, 

Rondo. Sibyl, 



Premunire. Rony on , 

Runnion. [quelo. Sidewise, 



Prenomen. Roquelaure, or 

Roquelaur, Ro- Silicious, or 



Praedial. Rotunda, 

Rotundo. Sillabub, or 



Premiss. Route, 

Rout. Simoom, or 


Pretense, or 

Pretence. Ruble (coin), or 

Rouble. Siphon, 


Pretermit, or 

Praetermit. Ruche, or 

Rouche. Siren, 



Praetor. Rummage, 

fRomage. Sirloin, or 



fProphane. Rumor, &c, 

Rumour, &c. Sirup, or Syrup, 

Sir op. 


Protecter. Rye, 

fRie. Sizar, 



Program, [-yde. 


fSkain, Skean. 


Protoxid, -yd, c! Skeptic, 


Prunella, or 

Prunello. [ion. ' 

Skillful, -ly, -ness, 

or Skilful, -ly, -ness 


Pompion, Pump- Sabian, 

Sabean, Sabaean. Skill-less, 



fPoppet. Saber, -ed, &c, or 

Sabre, -d, &c. Skull (cranium), 


Purblind, or 

Poreblind. Sackbut, 

Sacbut. Slabber, 



Pur. Sainfoin, 

Saintfbin. Sleight, 

Slight (def. 2), 


Purslain. Salam, 

Salaam. Slyly, -ness, 

Slily, -ness. 


fPutrify. Salep, Saleb, 

Salop, Saloop. Smallness, 



Pigmy. Salic, 

Salique. Smolder, or 



Pix. Saltpeter, or 

Saltpetre. Smooth, 



Samestre. Snapped, (imp.), 

Snapt. [-ling. 

O Sandaled^ or 

Sandalled. Sniveled, -er, -ing, 

or Snivelled, -er, 


"" Sandarac, or 

Sandarach. Socage, 



Quateron. Sandever, or 

Sandiver. Socle, 



( Quarantain. Sanskrit, or 
\ Quarantaine. Sapajo, 

sSajSf: [dilla. Solan-goose („.,, 

'. Soland-goose, and 
\ Solund-goose. 

Quarrel, or 

Can-el (an arrow). Sapodilla, 

- Sapadillo, Sappo- Solder, &c, or 

Soder, &c 

Quarreled, -ing, or 

Quarrelled, -hng. Sarcenet, or 

Sarsenet. Soliped, 


Quartet, Quartette, 

Quartett. Sat, 

Sate. Solvable, 


Quaterfoil, ) 
Quaterfeuille, j 

Quatrefofl. Satchel, 

Sachel. Somber, o" 


Satinett. [krout. Somers?, ) 
Sour-crout, Sour- Somerset, j 

( Summersault, 
\ Summerset. 

Quay, -age, 

Key, -age. Sauer-kraut, or 


Quaestor. Savanna, 

Savannah. Sonneteer, 



Quinzy, Quinsey. Savior, or 

Saviour. Soothe (v.), 



Quintin, [tetto. Savor, 

Savour. Sorrel, and 


Quintette, Quintet, 

Quintett, Quin- Scallop, -ed, -ing, 

Scollop, -ed,-ing. Souchong, 



Coin. Scath, or 

Scathe. Spa, 

tSpaw, fSpaa. 

Scepter, -ed, or 

Sceptre, -tred. Spelt, 


P„ Scherif, Cherif, 

Shereef, Sherif. Specter, or 



Shist. Spew, 


Rabbet <* Carp.), or 

Rebate, &c. Schorl, or 

Shorl. Spinach, or 







Tetrahedron , 

Tetraedron. Verderer, or 





Tetrastic. Verdigris, 




Theater, or 

Theatre. Vermin, 





Thowl, Thowle. Verst, 





Thorpe. Vertebra, Vertebei 

, Vertebre. 

Spirt, or 


Thralldom, or 

Thraldom. Vervain, 




Thrash, or 

Thresh. Vial, 





Threshhold. Vicious, -ly, -ness, 

tVitious, -ly,-ness. 

Stanch, or 


Throe («.), 

Throw (def. 6.). Victualed, -er, 

( Victualled, -ler, 
( -ling. 



Ticking (n.), 

Ticken. -iug, or 




Titbit. Vigor, -ous, &c, 

Vigour, -ous, otc. 



Tie (n. & v.), 

tTye. Villain (def. 1.), 





Tire (n., def. 1). Villainy, -ous, or 

Villany, -ous. 




Terce. Vise, 


Story (a floor), 



-f-Tyger. Visitor, 


Strait (n., def. 2). 



Tinkal. "Visor, 





Tythe. Vitiate, 




Toll (v.t., def. 2), 

Tole. Vizier, 

Visier, Vizir. 

Strop, n. 



Tolbooth. Volcano, 




Ton, and 




Tonnage, and 










j Tourmalin, Tur- Wadsett, 
\ maline. Wagon, 


Subtile (thin), 


Toweling, or 

Towelling. Waive, 

Wave (v. t.). 

Subtle (artful), 


Trameled, -ing, or 

Tramelled, -ling. Wale, (n., def. 2), 




Tranquilize, or 

Tranquillize. Walrus, 





Transferable. Warranter, and 

Warrantor ( Law\ 




Transference. Warrior, 




Transship, -ment, 

Tranship, -ment. Warwhoop, 




Trapan (a snare), 

Trepan. [-ling. Waucht, 


Sumac, or Sumach 


Traveler, -ed, -ing, 

or Traveller, -led, Waywode, 





Travers. Waul (as a cat), 





Travestie. Wear (v., Naut.), 

Ware, Veer. 




Treddle. Wear, (n.), 

Weir, Wier. 

Surprise, &c, 

Surprize, &c. 

Trebuchet, or 

Trebucket. Weasand, 


Survivor, -ship, 

Surviver, -ship. 


Trenail, Trennei. Welsh, 



1 Sweinmote, 
{ Swanimote. 

Trestle, Tressel, 

Trussel. Whang, 



Tricker. Whelk («.), 

Welk, Weal. 

Swale (v.), or 


Trevet, or 

Trivet. Whippletree, 



Swart (adj.), or 



%££• ™ P po„nni,, 

( Whippowill. 
} Whipperwill. 

Swathe (band- ) 
age,) or j 



Trode. Whisky, or 


Trousers, or 

Trowsers. Whoop, 



Swipel, Swipple. 

Troweled, or 

Trowelled. Whooping-cough, 


Swob, -ber, &c.,or 

Swab, -ber, &c. 


Trundle-bed. Whortleberry, 





Trist. Widgeon, 




Tumbrel, or 

Tumbril. Willful, -ly, -ness 

or Wilful, -ly, -ness. 




Tumour. Windlass, 

Windlas, Wind- 



Tunneled, -ing, or 

Tunnelled, -ling. Wintery, 

Wintry, [laca 




Turkois, Turcois. Wiry, 





Turnep. Witch-elm, 



Turnsol. Witch-hazel, 

Wych -hazel. 



Tutenague. Withe, 

With (n.). 

* • 


Twiddle. Wivern, or 


Tabard, Tabert, 



Twibill. Wizard, 





Timbal. Wizen, 

Wizzen, Weazen. 

Tabor, &c, 

Tabour, &c. 


tTiro. Woe, 


Taffeta, or 


Woful, or 




•wj Wondrous, 


Tailage, Talliage, 

Taillage, Tallage 

* Woodbine, 



Talk, Talck. 


Umbre. Woolen, -ette, or 

Woollen, -ette. 




Unbiassed. Worshiper ,-ed, &c 

., or Worshipper, -ped. 



Unboweled, or 

Unbowelled. Wrack, 

Wreck (rfe/. 4). 

( Tambourin, Tarn- and others of the same class. Wye, or 



X borine, Tam- 



( barine. 







{ Tarpauling, 
( Tarpawling. 

tt Yataghan, 
v * Yaup, 


Tasseled, -ing, or 

Tasselled, -ling. 

Vaivode, or 

Waiwode. lawl(w.), 


Tasses, Tassets, 



Vallise. [-ously.Yelk, or 


Taut (IVav.), 


Valor, -ous, -ously 

Valour, -ous. Yttria, -urn, 

Ittria, -um. 




Vantbrass, Vam- 




Vapour. [brace. 



Teasle, Teazle. 






Vail. Zaffer, Zaffar, 

Zaffir, Zafifre. 




Vidette. Zinc, 




Vender, or 

Vendor. Zinciferous, or 





•jVenemous. Zonnar, 





Verandah. Zymometer, 





Aj a prefix to many English words, is in some cases a 
contraction of the prepositions on, in, at, of, to, for ; as 
in ttsleep for in sleep or on sleep, ablaze for in a blaze, 
aboard for on board, afoot for on foot, aground for on the 
ground, adays for on days, ado for to do, await for wait 
for. In other cases, it is contracted from the A.-S. in- 
separable particle ge- (in Gothic ga-), which forms verbs 
from verbs, substantives, adjectives, and is a sort of aug- 
ment to the past participle. Jn some cases, it only in- 
creases the force of the word, without any essential addi- 
tion of meaning, as in afar. — In some words of Greek 
origin, a is privative, giving to them a negative sense ; as 
in apathetic : before a vowel it becomes an ; as in an- 
onymous, from ovofia, name. In a few words of Latin 
origin, it is another form of the prefix ab (q. v.) ; as in 

Ab, a prefix to words of Latin origin, and a Latin preposi- 
tion, as in abduct, is the same as the Greek oltto, Skr. 
apa, Goth, af, A.-S. and Eng. of. It denotes from, sep- 
aration, or departure. Before c and t, it is generally 
changed into abs, as in abscess, abscond, abstain, abs- 
temious. See A. 

Ad. [Cf. W. at, to, toward, Goth., Icel., and Eng. at.] 
A Latin preposition, signifying to, as in adhere. — In 
composition, the last letter is usually changed into the 
first letter of the word to which it is prefixed. Thus for 
adclamare, the Romans wrote acclamare ; for adgrediere, 
ag-grediere ; for adfirmare, a/firmare ; for adlegere, al- 
legere ; for adponere, apponere ; for adripere, ampere ; 
for adseribere, ascribere ; for adtinere, aftinere. 

Al. 1. In Arabic, an article or inseparable prefix, an- 
swering to the Italian il, and the Sp. el. Its use is to 
render nouns definite, like the English the; as. Alk.oran, 
the Koran, or the Book, by eminence ; alcove, alchemy, 
alembic, almanac, &c. 

2. A form of the Latin prefix ad. See Ad. 

Amb. [Lat. ambi, amb, am, an (as in an?bidens, am- 
bages, araicire, anhelare), Gr. ajui^t, A.-S. emb, ymb, N. 
H. Ger. um.] About; around; — a prefix used in com- 
position in words derived from the Latin ; as in ambient, 
ambition, &c. 

Am'phi, n. [Gr. a\x^>C. See supra.] A prefix in words 
of Greek origin, signifying about, around, on both sides, 

_on all sides, &c. ; as in amphibious, amphitheater. 

A'na. [Gr. avd.] A prefix in words from the Greek, 
denoting on, upon, upward, up to, throughout, backward, 
back to, again, previously, or against; as in analogy, 
analytic, anatomy. 

Ant-, I [Gr. avTL, against.] A prefix in many words 

An'ti-. ) from the Greek, meaning against, over against, 
or opposed to ; as in antarctic, antidote, antipathy, an- 

An'te. A Latin preposition, the Gr. avri, A.-S. & Goth. 
and (cf. Answer) ; much used in the composition of 
English words, especially in words from the Latin and 
Greek languages. It signifies before in place, in front; 
and figuratively, before in time. Examples are ante- 
_chamber, antecedent, antediluvian. 

A'po. [Gr. ano. See Ab.] A Greek preposition used in 
composition, and signifying from, away from, off, or 
asunder; as in apoplexy, apothecary, apologue. 


Be prefix, a3 in because, before, beset, bedeck, become, is 
originally the same word as by; A.-S. be and b\ or big, 
Goth. bi. It denotes nearness, closeness, about, on, at, 
and generally has an intensive force, though it is some- 
times apparently insignificant. 

Bl. [From Lat. bis, twice, which in composition drops 
the 5.] 1. In most branches of science, bi in composi- | 

tion denotes two, twice, doubly ; as, bi dentate, two- 
toothed ; biternate, doubly ternate, &c. 

2. (Chem.) Bi in composition denotes that the com- 
pound contains two parts or equivalents of the first- 
mentioned ingredient to one of the other; thus, a bi- 
chromate of potash contains two parts of chromic acid to 
one of potash. 
Bis, adv. [Lat. bis, twice, for duis, from duo, two, like 
bellum from duellum.] Twice. See Bi. 

Cat/a. [Gr. Kara..] The Latin and English form of a 
Greek preposition used in composition to signify down,' 
downward , down upon, downright, completely , &c. ; as 
in cataclysm, catacomb, catalogue, cataract. It some- 
times drops the final vowel, as in catoptric ; and is some- 
times changed to cath, as in cataartic, cataolic. 

Qir'-eum« [Accusative of circus, a circle, Gr. /ctp/cos.] A 
Latin preposition, used as a prefix in many English 
words ; as in circumscribe, circumsnect, circumvent. In 
circuit, circuitous, &c, the m is dropped. 

•Com- or -Con-. [The same as cum, which is akin to Gr. 
o-uv, old Attic £vv.] A Latin preposition signifying with 
or against, used in composition as an inseparable prefix. 
The form com is used before the labials b, p, and on, and 
con before the other consonants. Before I, however, con 
or com is changed into col, as in collect, from colligere; 
before r into cor, as in corrupt, from corrumpere, cor- 
ruptum ; while before a vowel or h, the n or m is dropped, 
as in co-operate, coalesce, cohabit, &c. 

Con'tra. A Latin preposition, signifying against, in op- 
position, entering into the composition of some English 
words : as, contradict, contravene, &c. It is properly 
the ablative of an adjective, conterus (formed from con, 
with), which is not in use. In old English, it took the 
form counter ; as in counteract. 

Co. See Con. 

Coun'ter. See Contra. 


De. A Latin prefix denoting a moving from, separation ; 
as in debark, decline, decease, deduct, decamp. Hence, 
it often expresses a negative, as in arrange. Sometimes 
it augments the sense, as in deprave, despoil. It coin- 
cides nearly in sense with the French des and Latin clis. 

Di. 1. [Gr. Sis, twice.] In chemistry, a prefix denoting 
two equivalents of the substance indicated by the noun 
following that of which the prefix forms a part ; as, bi- 
chloride of mercury ; i. e., a compound formed of two 
equivalents of mercury and one of chlorine. 
2. See DIS. 

Dl'a. [Gr. did, akin to Lat. dis.] A prefix denoting 
through, right through; as in diameter, diagram, dia- 

Dis (91). A prefix or inseparable preposition, from the 
Latin (whence Fr. des), denoting separation, a parting 
from, as in distribute, disconnect ; hence it generally has 
the force of a privative and negative, as in disarm, dis- 
oblige, disagree. It sometimes passes into the forms di 
and dif; as in divert, differ, diffuse. 

Dys-. An inseparable prefix, from the Greek 8v<r-, hard, 
ill, and signifying ill, bad, hard, difficult, unlucky, 
dangerous, and the like ; as in dysentery, dysnensy. 


See Ex. 

E. A Latin prefix ; the same as Ex. 
Em. See En. 

En. A prefix to many English words, chiefly borrowed 
from the French ; as in enchant, enamor, encore, &c • It 


coincides -with the Latin in, Gr. ev ; and some Euglish 
words are written indifferently with en or in. For ease 
of pronunciation, it is changed to em, particularly be- 

^fore a labial, as in employ, empower. 

Ep, I [Gr. int. See OB.] A prefix, signifying on, above, 

fip'I. J toward, by, to, among, near, &c. ; as in epi- 
logue, epithet, &c. 

Eu. A prefix from the Gr. ev, well, used very frequently 
in composition, signifying well, easy, advantageous, 

^good, and the like ; as in ewlogy, ewphony, &c. 

Ex. A Latin preposition or prefix, Gr. e£ or e/c, signifying 
out of, out, proceeding from. Hence, in composition, it 
signifies sometimes out of, as in exhale, exclude ; some- 
times off, from, or out, as in exscind ; sometimes beyond, 
as in excess, exceed, excel. In some words; it intensifies 
the meaning ; in others, it has little effect on the signi- 
fication. The x regularly remains only before the vowels 
and before c, A, p, q, s, t (example, exert, excel, exhaust, 
expend, exquisite, exsiccant, extort) ; it is assimilated to 
a following /(e/fusion), and drops away altogether before 
the other consonants (elect, event, edition, &c.) In a few 
words it changes into ec (eccentric). Prefixed to names of 
office, it denotes that a person has held that office, but 
has resigned it, or been left out, or dismissed ; as, ex- 

w chancellor, ex-president, and the like. 

Ex'tra. [Contracted from extern (parte), from exter, be- 
ing on the outside, from ex, out of, from. J A Latin 
preposition, denoting beyond or excess, often used in 
composition as a prefix signifying outside of, or beyond 
the limits or jurisdiction of that denoted by the word to 
which it is joined ; as in extradition, extravagant. 


For. [A.-S. for, fore, Goth. faur,faura, allied to, 
Gr. irpo, Skr. pra-.] As a prefix to verbs, for has usually 
the force of a negative or privative, denoting before, that 
is, against, or away, aside ; as in forhid, forsake, for- 
swear, forego. In a few cases, it is merely intensive, as 

Fore. [A.-S. fore. See For.] An adjt ive much used 
in composition, to denote advancement in place or time ; 
as in/brebode, forefather, /breshorten. 


Hy'per. [Gr. vire'p, allied to Lat. super, Skr. vpare, Ger. 
iiber, Eng. over.] A prefix used in composition to denote 
excess, or something over or beyond ; as in %perbolical, 
hypertrophy. Sometimes it is used in the composition 
of chemical terms, instead of super, to denote excess, or 
that the substance first mentioned in the name of the 
compound enters in a greater proportion than the other ; 
as, hyper-oxide, one containing an excess of oxygen. 

Hy'po. A prefix from the Greek preposition vw6 [allied 
to Lat. sub, Skr. upar], under, beneath, and frequently 
used in composition to signify a less quantity, or a low 
state or degree of that denoted by the word with which it 
is joined, position unutr or beneath it, and the like ; as 
in A^pochondriac, hypostatic, hypothesis. In chemical 
language, prefixed to the name of a compound contain- 
ing oxygen, it designates another compound containing 
less oxygen ; as, hypo-nitrous acid, which coutains less 
oxygen than nitrous acid. 

II. A prefix, the form of in when used before words be- 
ginning with I. See In. 

Im. A prefix from the Lat. in, n being changed to m, for 
the sake of easy utterance, before a labial, as in imbibe, 
immense, impartial. The same prefix is sometimes used 
in compounds not of Latin origin, as in imbank, imbit- 
ter. For im, the French write em, which is used in 
words introduced into the English from the French 
language. See Em. 

tn. 1.. [Allied to Gr. iv, Skr. ina.] A prefix from the 
Latin in, often used in composition, and signifying with- 
in, into, or among, as in -inbred, mease, or serving to 
render emphatic the sense of the word to which it is 
prefixed, as in inclose, increase. — In, before I, is changed 
into il, as in illusion ; before r } into ir, as in irregular ; 
before a labial, into im, as in imbitter, immaterial, im- 

ti. [Allied to Eng. un. See UN.] A Latin particle of 
negation ; as in inactive, incapable. Before b and p, it 
becomes im; before I, m, r, the n assimilates itself to 


these consonants. In a few words in is changed into ig,- 

„ as in ignoble, ignorant. 

In'ter. [From in, with an adverbial ending.] A Latin 
preposition, signifying among or between; — used as a 

w prefix ; as in intercept, interfere, interrupt. 

In'tro. [Lat., contr. from intero (loco)]. A prefix signi- 
fying within, into, in, and the like ; as in introduce, in- 


Met/a. [Gr. ^era, allied to jueVos. Lat. medius, Eng. 
mid, middle.] A prefix in words of Greek origin, signi- 
fying in the midst of; also, beyond, over, after, behind 
ivith, between, reversely; as in metaphor, metaphysics' 

Mis. [A.-S., Icel., and Goth, missa-, having the same ori- 
gin with the verb to miss.] A prefix denoting error, 
wrong, defect, unlikeness, and the like j as in mistake, 
mismanage, mispronounce, mistrust. 

N6n, adv. [Lat. non, 0. Lat. ncenu, nenu, ncenum, nen- 
um, from ne-anum, or ne-vnum, not one.] Not ; — used 
in English as a prefix, generally and properly to sub- 
stantives and verbs only, giving them a negative sense, 
ordering and varying their meaning, as do the prefixes 
un and in those of adjectives; as, non-residence, non- 
performance ; also, in some cases, prefixed to adjectives ; 
as, non-acid, non-electric. 


Ob. [Kindred with Gr. int.] A Latin preposition, signi- 
fying, primarily, in front, before, and hence against, 
toward ; as in oojicere, to object, i. e., to throw against. 
In composition, the letter 6 is often changed into the 
first letter of the word to which it is prefixed ; as in oc- 
casion, offer, oppose. It means reversed or back in obo- 
vate, occiput, &c, and often on or in. 

Par'a. [Gr., prob. akin to Lat. prse and prseter.] A prep- 
osition, used in composition, and signifying beside, to 
the side of, to, amiss, wrong (like for in /erswear, &c), 
beyond, contrary to, &c. ; as in paradox, paragon, paral- 
ysis, parasite. It is sometimes contracted into par; as 
in parody, paroxysm, &c. 

Per. A Latin preposition often used in composition as a 
prefix denoting through, passing, or over the whole ex- 
tent; as in perambulate, perfunctory, persecute. It is 
used, in chemistry, with the signification very, fully, or 
to the utmost extent ; as in peroxide, a substance oxidated 
to the utmost degree. 

Per'i. [Gr. wept, Skr. pari.] A prefix used in many 
words derived from the Greek, and signifying with, 
around, about, near, and the like ; as in pericarp, period, 

Post. A Latin preposition, much used in composition as 
a prefix, signifying after ; as in postpone, postscript. 

Pre. An English form of the Latin prefix prse, before, 
originally dat. f., answering to pro, as dat. m., of per, 
through. It expresses priority of time, place, or rank ; 
as in preclude, predict, prefer, preponderate. It some- 
times signifies beyond, and may be rendered very, as in 

Pre'ter. A prefix, from the Lat. prseter (from prrn, with 
the adverbial termination ter), used in the composition 
of some English words, and having the signification of 
past, beyond ; hence, beside, more ; as, preterit, pretermit, 

Pro. [Originally neuter dative for proi, Gr. npo.] A 
Latin preposition, used in composition as a prefix, and 
denoting fore, forth, Jorward ; as in produce, project, 
profess, promise, protract. 

Pros. [Gr. 7rpo9, Cf. Skr. prati.] A Greek preposition, 
used in composition, and signifying motion towards, a, 
being on, at, by, or beside, a remaining beside, and hence 
connection and engagement with any thing ; as in pros- 
elyte, prosody, &c. 

Pseu'clo (su'do). [From Gr. \pev$rj<;, lying, false, from 
^/evSeLv, to belie.] A prefix used in words from the Greek, 
and signifying false, counterfeit, pretended, or spurious ; 
as, pseitao-martyr, psewdo-philosophy, pseudonym. 




Ba. See RE. 

Ee. A prefix or inseparable particle in the composition 
of words, denoting return, repetition, iteration; as in 
recur, reduce, refrain. It is abbreviated from red, which 
the Latins retained in words beginning with a vowel, as 
in reeftmere, redlre, reolntegrare. From the Latin the 
Italians, Spanish, and French have also the prefix ra, 
which is found in some English words derived from these 

Ke'tro. [Lat., from re and the adverbial termination 
ter.] A prefix in words from the Latin, signifying back 
or backward; as in retrocede, retrospect. 


So. [Orig. form of sine.] An inseparable preposition used 
in some words from the Latin, and signifying without, 
aside, by itself; as in secure, seduce, seclude, &c. 

Si'ne. A Latin preposition, signifying without:, and used 
in composition; as, sinecure. It drops the final e in 
sincere, and also changes the n into m in simple. 

Step. [A.-S. steop, from steopan, stepan, 0. H. Ger. 
stiufan, to bereave.] A prefix used in composition be- 
fore father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter, child, 
&c, to indicate that the person thus spoken of is not a 
blood-relative, but is a relative by the marriage of a 

Sub. [Allied to Gr. vno.] A Latin preposition, denoting 
under or below, used in English as a prefix, to express an 
inferior position or intention, and also a subordinate de- 
gree, or imperfect state of a quality. Before c, f, g, p, r, 
and m, the b is changed into those letters, as in succeed, 
suffer, suggest, suppose, surrogate, and summon. 

iKf- When prefixed to the name of a chemical compound, 
stib denotes that this, if an oxysalt, contains a less number of 
equivalents of the acid than of the base, or that the base is a 
sub-oxide; or, if it is a haloid suit, or analogous compound, 
that the electro-negative is in a smaller proportion than the 
electro-positive constituent, or is combined with it in the 
smallest proportion possible; as in SM&-bromide, s«6-iodide, &c. 

Sub'ter. [From sub and the adverbial termination ter.] 
A Latin preposition, signifying under, used as a prefix in 
English with the same meaning as sub ; but it is less 
general in its application ; as in subterfuge. 

Su'per. A Latin preposition (same as Greek virep), used 
as a prefix, and signifying above, over, or in excess; as in 
superfine, superintend, supervise. 

Sii'pra. [Orig. supera, from super.] A Latin preposition, 
signifying above, over, or beyond; used in composition ; 
as in supr alapsarian. 

Sur. A prefix, from the French, contracted from the 
Latin super, supra, and signifying over, above, beyond, 
upon ; as in surcharge, surmount, surprise. 

Syn. A prefix from the Greek preposition trdv ( the Lat. 
cum, akin to Lat. simul, Skr. sa-, sam), with, along 
with, together with, at the same time ; as in synonym, 
syntax, synthesis. Before b, m, p, ph, it changes into 
sym (symbol, symmetry, sympathy, symphony); before 
I into syl (sytlogism) ; and sometimes the n is dropped, 
as in system. 


Tran§. A Latin preposition, used in English as a prefix, 
signifying over, beyond, through, on the other side ; as in 
transalpine, beyond the Alps. Hence, in a moral sense, 
it denotes a complete change ; as, to transform. It some- 
times drops the two last consonants ; as in traduce. 

TrI. A prefix, signifying three, thrice, from Gr. Tpi'?, 
thrice, rpets, rpia, Lat. tres, tria, three ; as in triangle, 
trident, triennial. 


Ul'tra. [Lat., orig. fem. of ulter, being beyond, from uls t 
beyond.] A prefix from the Latin, having in composition 
the signification beyond, on the other side, chiefly when 
joined with words expressing relations of place ; as, ultra- 
marine, ultra-m on tane, &c. In other relations, it has 
the sense of excessively, exceedingly , beyond what is com- 
mon, natural, right, or proper ; as, uttra-conservative, 
uZtra-despotic, &c. 

ttn. [A.-S. un, and sometimes on, Goth, tin, Icel. d, allied 
to Gr. av, a, Skr. an, a, Lat. in.] A negative prefix at- 
tached at will to almost any English adjective, or parti- 
ciple used adjectively, and to less numerous classes of 
nouns and verbs. See UN in the Dictionary. 


With. [See in Dictionary.] An English preposition, 
sometimes used in composition, and signifying opposition, 
privation, separation, or departure ; as in wuf/idraw, 
withstand, withhold. 


A«. [Gr. -0x6?.] A suffix signifying of or pertaining to ; 
as in demoniac, hypochondriac. 

Age. [Fr.] A termination of nouns having a collective 
or abstract meaning; as, advantage, average, herbage, 
foliage, pillage. 

Al. [Lat. -alls.] A termination of words from the Latin 
denoting of or pertaining to ; as, annual, cordial, final, 
legal, martiat. See CAL. 

An. [Lat. -anus.] A termination of some nouns and ad- 
jectives from the Latin, denoting office, profession, or 
character, as, Christian, commedian, tragedian, elysian, 

Ance, ) [Lat. -antia.] Terminations of nouns having 

An-cy. J an abstract signification ; as, elegance, abund- 
ance, brilliancy, vacancy. 

Ant. [Lat. -ans, -antis.] A termination of adjectives 
from the Latin, as, vagrant ; and of nouns denoting the 
doer of a thing ; as, assistant, commandant. 

Ar. [Lat. -aris. ] A termination of adjectives derived from 
the Latin, and denoting of or pertaining to ; as, angular, 
Jocular, perpendicular, similar. 

Ard, the termination of many English words, is taken 
from the Goth, hardus, A.-S. heard, Icel. & Eng. hard, 
and appears in proper names ; as, Renard, strong in 
counsel: Goddard, strong in, or through, God ; Bernard, 
strong like a bear, &c. We find it also in appellatives, 

usually with a bad signification ; as in drunkaro", dotara*, 
bastard, niggard, braggart, &c. 

A-ry. [Lat. -arius.] A termination of adjectives from 
the Latin, denoting of or pertaining to; as, auxiliary, 
military, &c. ; and of nouns, denoting the doer of a 
thing ; as, adversary, mercenary, &c. 

Ate. [Lat. -atus.] A termination, 1. Of verbs, as, de- 
liberate, initiate ; 2. Of adjectives, as, moderate, ulti- 
mate ; 3. Of nouns, denoting (a.) office or dignity, as, 
pontificate; (b.) the possessor of such office or dignity, 
as, magistrate, delegate/ (c.) salts containing more than 
one degree of oxygen, as, sulphate, phosphate. 


Ble. [Lat. bilis.] A termination of adjectives derived 
from the Latin, or formed on the same model, and signi- 
fying capable of being or worthy to be ; as, flexiWe, mu- 
t&ble, sensiWe, warrantao/e. 


-€al. [Lat. -cus.] A termination of adjectives derived 
from the Latin or following the analogy of such, and sig- 
nifying of or pertaining to ; as, anatomicat, comical, mag- 
ical, practical, technical. 




Dom. A termination denoting jurisdiction, or property 
and jurisdiction. It was originally doom (q. v.), judg- 
ment ; as in kingdom, earldom. Hence it is used to de- 
note state, condition, or quality ; as in wisdom, freedom. 


E-an. [Gr. -aios, or -eios, Lat. -seus, -eus.] A termina- 
tion of adjectives derived from Greek adjectives, or formed 
on the pattern of such adjectives ; as, cerulean, hercule- 
an, hyperborean. 

Ee. A termination of nouns, denoting one on or to ivhom 
something is done ; as, appellee, donee, referee, trustee. 

Eer. See Ier. 

En. A plural termination of nouns and of verbs formerly 
in use, as, iu housen, escapen; and retained in oxen 
and children. It is also stiil used as the termination of 
some verbs, as in hearken, from the Saxon infinitive. It 
is also used to form from nouns adjectives expressing the 
material of which a thing is made; as, leaden, wooden, 

£nce, 1 [Lat. -entia.] A termination of abstract nouns 

En-cy. .1 from the Latin, or of nouns that follow the 
analogy of nouns so derived; as, abstinence, circumfer- 
ence, reticence, agency, contingency. 

Ent. [Lat. -ens, -entis.] A termination of nouns from 
the Latin, denoting the dotr of a thing ; as, dependent, 
recipient, student; or of participial adjectives ; as, ferv- 
ent, ardent. 

Er. A termination of many English words, and the 
Teutonic form. of the Latin cr. It denotes an agent, and 
was originally of the masculine gender, but is now ap- 
plied to men or things indifferently ; as in hater, farmer, 
heater, grater. At the end of names of places, er signi- 
fies a man of the place ; thus, Londoner is the same as 

w London man. 

Es'cent. [Lat. -escens, -escentis.] A termination of par- 
ticipial adjectives from the Latin, denoting jirogression, 
growing, or becoming ; as convalescent, putrescent, qui- 


Ess. [Fr., from Lat. ix.] A termination of nouns fem- 
inine, distinguishing them from correspondent nouns 
masculine ; as, authoress, lioness, negress, shepherdess. 


Eul. [The same as full.] A termination of adjectives 
denoting plenitude, and generally formed from substan- 
tives; as, artful, beautiful, -peaceful. 

Ey. [Lat. facere, fieri, i'r.Jier.] A termination of verbs, 
denoting to make, to become ; as, amplify, deify, grati/i/, 
liquefy, rarefy. 


Hood. [A.-S. had, from had, state, sex, order, degree, 
person, form, manner, Goth, haiitus.] A termination 
denoting state or fixedness, condition, quality, character, 
totality ; as in manhood, childhood, knighthood , brother- 
hood. Sometimes it is written head; as in maiden/ieac/, 

te. [Gr. -i/co?, Lat. -icus.] A termination of adjectives 

denoting of or pertaining to; as, authentic, concentric, 
^ magnetic, seraphic, 
les. A termination of nouns, plural in form but singular 

in signification, applied to certain arts or sciences; as, 

optics, mathematics. 
Id. [Lat. -idus.] A termination of adjectives denoting 

quality ; as, acid, liquid, rigid, sordid. 
Ier, ) [Fr. -ier, -iere.] A termination of nouns denoting 
Eer. ) men from their occupations or employment ; as, 

brigadier, cavalier, mountaineer, volunteer. 
lie. [Lat. -His.] A termination of adjectives from the 

Latin, denoting of or pertaining to; as agi7e, dociVe, 

fragile, versatile. 
Ine. [Lat. -inus ] A termination of adjectives from the 

Latin, denoting of or pertaining to ; as, adamantine, fem- 

inine, pristine. 
Ion. [Lat. -io, gen. -ionis.] A termination of abstract 

nouns derived from the Latin, or formed after the same 
apology ; as in ambition, conception, probation, eva- 

w sion, version, crucifixion. 

Ish. [A.-S. isc, Goth, isk, N.II. Ger. isch.] A termination 
of English words denoting diminution, or a small degree 
of the quality ; as, -whitish, from white; jellowis/i, from 
yellow. Ish annexed to proper names forms a possessive 
adjective, as in Swedish, Banish, huglish. Annexed to 
common nouns, it forms an adjective denoting a partici- 
pation of the qualities expressed by the noun ; as foolisn, 

w from fool; roguish, from rogue; hrutish, from brute. 

I§m. [Gr. -io-/ao5.] A termination of nouns from the 
Greek, or of nouns formed on the same model as these, 
denoting action or an active faculty, biing, or a slate of 
being, viewed abstractly; as, atheism, catechism, hero 

w ism, mechanism, sophism. 

1st. [Gr. -icrrrjs.] A termination of nouns denoting men 
from their occupations, pursuits, or principles ; as, bap- 
tist, chemist, eulogist, theist. 

Ite. [Lat. -itus.] A termination of nouns and adjectives ; 
as, appetite, exquisite, favorite. It is often used to form 
collective or gentile names ; as, bedlamite, Jacobite. In 
names of minerals it is derived from the Gr. At'tfos, a 
stone ; as, steatite. 

T-ty. See Ty. 

Ive. -[Lat. -it'MS.] A termination, denoting ability , pow- 
er cr activity, of nouns and adjectives from the Latin ; as, 

_ authoritative, incentive, persuasive, vindictive. 

Ize, I [Gr. -i£eii>.] A termination of verbs from the Greek, 

Ise. ) or of verbs formed on the same model, and de- 
moting to make, to cause to be, to become ; as, agonize, 
characterize, tantalize, criticise, exorcise. 


Kin. [A.-S. cyn, cynd, kin, kind, offspring, race ; Goth. 
kuni, Icel. kyn, aliied to Lat. genus, Gr. ■y e '" s> yovog.] 
A diminutive termination of English words, denoting 
small, from the sense of child ; as in lamb&in, manmirin, 
napkin, pipkin. 


Ee. A diminutive termination; as in crumbZe, bundle, 
girdie, joggle, fondle, dinip/e, throttle. 

Less. A terminating syllable of many nouns and some 
adjectives. It is the A.-S. leas, Goth. Idus, allied to Eng. 
loose, fr. A.-S. leosan, Goth, liusan, Eug. lose. Hence 
it is a privative word, denoting destitution ; as, a witZess 
man, a man destitute of wit ; childless, without children ; 
fatherless,' faithless ; penniless; lawless. 

Eet. [French dim. termination et, as in islet, eaglet, cir- 
clet, goblet, floweret, baronet, with I inserted, as in stream- 
let, branchlet, ringlet.] A termination of diminutives ; as, 
hamlet, a little house ; rivulet, a small stream. 

Eing. [A.-S.] A termination denoting state, condition, 
offspring, or progeny ; as iu hire^in^-, earthling, world- 
Zing-, foundling, darling, firstling, underling, starling, 
ground-ling, gosling, sapling. 

Ey . [0. Eng. lich, being an abbreviation of A. Sax. lie, like, 
Goth, leiks, Icel. ligr, I'kr.] A termination of adjectives ; 
as in lovely, manly, that is, loxe-like, man-like. It is 
also a termination of adverbs [0. Eng. liche, A.-S. lice, 
Goth. Itiko, Icel. liga]. 


Ment. A termination of nouns (formed often from verbs) j 
as, engagement, management, impediment. 

Mo-ny. [Lat. -monium, -monia.] A termination of 
nouns from the Latin, signifying action or an active fac- 
ulty, being, or a state of being, viewed abstractly ; as, ali- 
mony, matrimony, testimony. 


Ness. [A.-S. ness, niss, Goth, nassus.] A termination of 
abstract names, denoting state or quality ; as in blindness, 
goodness, greatness, sweetness. 


Oek. [A.-S. ca or -uca.] A diminutive termination of 
nouns ; as in bullock, hillock, mattock, paddock. 

Or. A termination of Latin nouns, denoting an agent; 
as in actor, creditor. It is annexed to many words of 



English origin ; as in lessor. In general, or is annexed 

to words of Latin, and er to chose of English, origin. See 

O-ry. [Lat. -onus.] A termination of words from the 

Latin, denoting of, or pertaining to; as, amatory, conso- 
latory, promissory, satisfactory. 

Ose, I [Lat. -o.sus, -us.] A' termination of English adjec- 
Ous. ) tives, many of which are derived directly from 

the Latin ; as, dubious, conscious, atrocious, operose, 



Ki-e. [Goth, reiki, dominion, A.-S. rice, or ric ; from the 
same root as Lat. regere, to rule, and region.] A termi- 
nation signifying jurisdiction, or a district over which 
government is exercised ; as, bishopric. 


Ship. [A.-S. scipe, scype, from scyppan, sceppan, to 
mold, form, shape.] A termination denoting state, office, 
dignity, profession, or art ; as in lordship, friendship, 
chancellors/*//*, stewards/*?/), horsemans/n/>. 

Some. [A.-S. sum, Goth, sama, like, the same.] A ter- 
mination of certain adjectives. It indicates a considera- 
ble degree of the thing or quantity ; as, mettlesome, full 
of mettle or spirit ; gladsome, very glad or joyous. 

Ster. [A.-S. estre, istre.] A termination, as in drugs^er, 
gamesfer, songster, spinster, denoting skill or occupation. 
It was originally applied to denote the female agent in 
an action. Thus, songster signified, at first, a female 
who sings; but the ending ster having at length, in a 
measure, lost its peculiar force, the feminine termination 

ess was appended to it ; thus, songster became songs*re« 
with a double ending. 

T, ) [A.-S.] A termination of abstract nouns of Anglo- 

Tli. ) Saxon origin ; as, depth, growth, strength, weaftA, 
drift, gift, theft. 

Tion. See ION. [Lat. -tudo.] A termination of abstract nouns 
from the Latin, signifying action or an active faculty, 
being, or a state of being; as, amplitude, fortftutfe, grati- 
tude, solitude. 

Ty. [Lat. -tas, -tatis, Fr. te.] A termination of words 
denoting action or an active faculty, being, or a state of 
being, viewed abstractly; as, antiquity, difficulty, hu- 
mility, necessity. 


Ure. [Lat. -ura.] A termination of words derived from 
the Latin (often through the Italian or French), and 
denoting action or an active faculty, being, or a state of 
being, viewed abstractly ; as, creature, fracture, legis- 
lature, nature, superstructure. 


"Ward, or Wardg. [A-S. -weard, -weardes ; Goth. 
v'airlhs, allied to Lat. vertere, to turn, versus, toward.] 
A suffix used in the composition of a large class of words, 
and denoting direction, or tendency to, motion toward, 
and the like ; as, in upward, onwards. 


§ 1. Anglo-Saxon, Teutonic, Indo-European. The 
English language is the descendant and representative of 
the Anglo-Saxon. It has lost very much of the inflection, 
and very many of the words, which belonged to the parent 
language ; and, on the other hand, it has borrowed words 
very largely, to the extent even of half its vocabulary, 
from other languages, especially the French and the Latin. 
Yet all the inflections that remain in it, and most of its 
formative endings, the pronouns and particles, and, in gen- 
eral, the words which are in most freauent and familiar 
use, have come to it from the Anglo-Saxon. With all its 
mixture of foreign elements, it is still a Teutonic language, 
like the German, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, and others. 
These again make one branch in that great family of lan- 
guages, which, as it extends from India westward, and cov- 
ers nearly the entire area of Europe, is called Indo-Euro- 
pean. Among all families of kindred tongues, the Indo- 
European is pre-eminent, both for the perfection of its or- 
ganic structure, and for the value of its literary monuments. 
The parent of the whole family, the one primitive Indo- 
European language, has left no such monument of itself; 
but its forms and roots may be made out, to a great ex- 
tent, by the scientific comparison of the languages which 
are descended from it. The main branches of the Indo- 
European family are the following : — 

§ 2. I. The Indian. The Sanskrit of the four Vedas, 
the sacred books of the Brahman religion, is more ancient 
than the common or classical Sanskrit. Even the latter 
had ceased to be the language of common life as early as 
the third century before Christ. It was succeeded by the 
Prakrit dialects, one of which, the Pali, is the sacred lan- 
guage of the Buddhists in Ceylon and Further India. 
These, in their turn, were succeeded by the modern idioms 
of Northern Hindustan, the Bengali, Marat hi, Guzerathi, 
and others. The Hindustani (or Urdu), formed in the 
camps and courts of the Mohammedan conquerors of India, 
is largely intermixed with Persian and Arabic. The widely- 
scattered Gypsies speak, with great diversity of dialect, a 
language which is clearly of Indian stock. 

§ 3. II. The Iranian. To this branch belong, 1. The 
Zend, which is believed to have been the language of an- 
cient Bactria, and is preserved in the Avesta, or sacred 
writings of the Parsis. 2. The Old Persian, which is seen 
in the cuneiform (or arrow-headed) inscriptions of Darius 

and Xerxes. The modern Persian has lost nearly all the 
ancient inflection, and with the Mohammedan religion has 
adopted a multitude of words from the Arabic. Other lan- 
guages belonging to this branch are those of the Kurds, the 
Afghans, the Ossetes (in the Caucasus), and the ancient and 
modern Armenians. The Indian and Iranian are often 
classed together as forming the Indo-Persian or Aryan 
branch of our family. 

§ 4. III. The Greek. Of its numerous dialects, the 
first to receive literary culture was the Old Ionic or Epic, 
followed by the JEolic, the Doric, the New Ionic, and finally 
the Attic, which became at length, though with some change 
of form, the common language of literature and society. 
It is represented now by the Romaic or Modern Greek. 
The Albanian, spoken in a large part of modern Greece, is 
supposed to be a descendant of the ancient Illyrian. 

§ 5. IV. The Latin. This is often joined with the 
preceding, as the Greco-Latin, or Classical branch. Closely 
akin to Latin were the other Italian languages — the Os- 
can, Umbrian, etc. — in Central Italy. The modern de- 
scendants of the Latin are called the Romance languages. 
They are the Italian, the Spanish, the Portuguese, the Pro- 
vencal (of Southern France, used in the middle ages as a 
literary language), and the French (originally the popular 
dialect of Northern France). All these contain a small 
proportion of Teutonic words, brought in by the barbarian 
conquerors of the Western Roman Empire. But another 
Romance language — that of the Wallac/iians, the descend- 
ants of the Romanized Dacians — is largely intermixed 
with borrowed words, taken chiefly from the neighboring 
Slavonic tribes. 

§6. V. The CELTIC. This branch is divided by strong- 
ly-marked differences into two sections: 1. The Gaelic, 
including the Irish (or native language of Ireland), the 
.Erse (or Highland Scotch), and the Manx (the corrupt id- 
iom of the Isle of Man). The last two are little more than 
dialects of the Irish. 2. The Cymric, including the Welsh 
(or native language of Wales), the Cornish (which was 
spoken in Cornwall, but went out of use in the last cent 
ury), and the Armorican (spoken in the French province 
of Britanny, the ancient Armorica). The oldest manuscript 
specimens of the Gaelic belong to the close of the eighth 
century : for the Cymric , the oldest which are at all copi- 
ous, aiv "Miree or four centuries later. 



§ 7. VI. The Slavonic. The earliest monument is the 
version of the Bible, made in the ninth century, by the 
Greek missionaries Cyril and Methodius, into the Old 
Slavonic, the idiom spoken by the Bulgarians of that time. 
This widely-diffused class of languages divides itself into 
two principal sections : 1. The eastern and southern Sla- 
vonic, including the Russian, the Bulgarian, and the three 
lllyrian idioms, Servian, Croatian, and Slovenic. 2. The 
western Slavonic, including the Polish, the Bohemian ( with 
the Moravian and Slovack dialects), the Lusatian or Wen- 
dish, and the extinct Polabian. 

§ 8. VII. The Lithuanian. The language of Lithu- 
ania has no monuments older than the middle of the six- 
teenth century ; but it has preserved in a surprising degree 
the ancient inflection and structure. To the same stock 
belong the Lettish of Courland and Livonia, which is much 
less ancient in its form, and the Old Prussian, which was 
once spoken on the coast of the Baltic east of the Vistula, 
but became extinct in the seventeenth century. The con- 
nection between this and the preceding branch is such 
that they are often classed together as the Letto-Slavic 

§9. VIII. The Teutonic. Here again the earliest 
monument is a version of the Bible, made by Ulfilas, an 
Arian bishop of the fourth century, into his native Gothic 
(or Mceso- Gothic), the language spoken at that time by ttie 
Goths on the Lower Danube. This work is preserved only 
in fragments, but these are of considerable extent, and are 
of inestimable value to the philologist. Among the Teu- 
tonic languages we distinguish, — 

§ 10. 1. The High Germanic, in upper or Southern 
Germany. The Old High German is seen in Otfrid's Krist. 
Notker's Translation of the Psalms, and other monuments, 
most of them in verse, from the eighth century to the end 
of the eleventh. The Middle High German, from the 
twelfth to the fifteenth century, has a rich poetical litera- 
ture, including the Nibelungen Not with its attendant 
epics, and the lyric poetry of the Minnesinger. The Nero 
High German is the language of Luther's Bible-version 
and of all German literature since the Reformation. 

§ 11. 2. The Low Germanic, in Northern Germany and 
the Netherlands. Here belong, (a.) The Friesic, which was 
once spoken along the whole northern coast of Germany, 
from the Elbe westward. Its early monuments consist 
almost wholly of laws, beginning with the fourteenth cen- 
tury. For a long time it has existed only as a popular 
idiom, and is now confined to a few small and scattered 
localities, (b.) The Anglo-Saxon (sometimes called simply 
Saxon), which in the fifth and sixth centuries was trans- 
planted from North-eastern Germany to Britain, and has 
had its subsequent development and history in that island, 
(c.) The Old Saxon, which was spoken in Northern Germany 
between the Rhine and the Elbe, south of the narrow sea- 
coast region, which was occupied by the Friesic. It is known 
almost solely from the Heliand (i. e., Savior), a metrical 
narration of the gospel history, preserved in manuscripts of 
the ninth century. The language of the Netherlands in 
the same period can not have differed much from the Old 
Saxon, which may be regarded as the common parent of 
the two following idioms, (d.) The Dutch, or Low Dutch, j 
spoken in Holland, and used in literature since the last 

part of the thirteenth century. The Flemish, spoken in 
Flanders, is a dialect of the Dutch, (e.) The Low German, 
strictly so called (or Plattdeutsch), the idiom of the com- 
mon people in Northern Germany. In the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, it was used as a literary language ; but 
political circumstances, giving ascendency to the High Ger- 
man, have reduced it to the inferior position of a popular 

§ 12. 3. The Norse, or Scandinavian. The Old Norse 
is also called Old Icelandic, as most of its abundant litera- 
ture (Eddas, Sagas, etc.) was composed in Iceland. Ihe 
oldest manuscripts in which it is preserved are of the thir- 
teenth century ; but many of its productions are of earlier 
origin, going back even to the heathen tines of Scandina- 
via. The modern Icelandic has adhered with rtmaikable 
fidelity to the forms of the ancient language. But the 
modern idioms of the Scandinavian mainland, the Kurdish, 
and, still more, the Danish (of which the Norwegian is 
only a dialect), have undergone extensive changes. 

§ 13. Languages not kindred to the English. The 
Indo-European family has no isolated domain, but comes 
in contact with various other families of languages. It is 
bounded along its v\hole northern frontier by the Tartaric 
(or Tataric) family (called also the Turanian, or the Altaic), 
which includes the numerous and widely-different languages 
of the Manchoos, the Mongols, the Turks (in Asia and 
Europe), the Magyars (in Hungary), the Finns, and a 
multitude of other tribes. To the south-east, it touches on 
the so-called Dravidian family, the Tamil and its sister 
idioms in Ceylon and Southern India. In South-western 
Asia it is in contact with a more remarkable family, — the 
Semitic, — including the Hebrew, fcyriac, Arabic, and 
Ethiopic, with their ancient and important literatures. 
Even in Scuth-western Europe, it is doubtful whether the 
ancient Etruscan belonged to our family. It is perfectly 
clear that the ancient Iberian did not belong to it, which 
was once the prevailing language of the Spanish peninsula, 
and which still lives, on the two sides of the Pyrenees, in 
the strange language called Basque (Biscayan, or Euscarra). 
Whether the Indo-European has a primitive connection 
with any of the adjacent families, is a question which has 
not been, and perhaps never will be, decided by philologi- 
cal evidence. At all events, it is certain that between 
Welsh and Sanskrit, distant as they are in space and time, 
there is an infinitely closer connection than between the 
neighboring pairs of Russian and Finnish, German and 
Hungarian, or Greek and Hebrew. It is true that some 
languages of our family have borrowed particular words 
from languages pf other families. The English, for ex- 
ample, has taken from the Hebrew such words as shekel, 
cherub, seraph, jubilee, pharisee, cabala, etc. ; and from 
some of them has formed derivatives, such as seraphic, 
jubilant, pharisaical, pharisaism, cabalist, cabalistical, etc. 
But this borrowing can only occur where there are histori- 
cal conditions that favor it: even then it has its limits and 
its distinctive marks, and must not be confounded with a 
radical affinity between two languages. All etymologizing 
which assumes or implies a radical affinity between English 
°.nd Hebrew, English and Finnish, or the like, is, in the 
present state of philology, unscientific and illusory. 


a. . stands for adjective. 

abbrev abbreviated. 

abl ablative. 

ace accusative. 

adv adverb. 

Agric Agriculture. 

Am., Amer. . . .America, American. 

Anat Anatomy. 

Antiq Antiquities. 

aor aorist. 

Ar Arabic. 

Arch Architecture. 

Arith Arithmetic. 

Armor Armorican. 

A.-S Anglo-Saxon. 

Astrol Astrology. 

Astron Astronomy. 

aug augmentative. 

Bib Biblical. 

Bot Botany. 

Braz Brazilian. 

Carp Carpentry. 

Catal Catalan. 

Celt Celtic. 

Cf. Confer (compare). 

Chald Chaldee. 

Cliem Chemistry. 

Chin Chinese. 

Ckron Chronology. 

Civ Civil. 

Colloq., coll. . .Colloquial, colloquially. 

Com Commerce, Common. 

comp compound, compound- 

compar comparative. [ed. 

Conch Conchology . 

conj conjunction. 

conlr contracted, contraction. 

Corn Cornish. 

corrupt corrupted, corruption. 

Copt Coptic. 

J> .....Butch. 

Dan Banish. 

dat dative. 

def. definition. 

dim diminutive. 

Eccl. . . . .Ecclesiastical. 

Eccl. Hist. . . .Ecclesiastical History. 

e. g exempli gratia (for ex- 

Elec Electricity. [ample). 

Eng England, English. 

Engin Engineering. 

Entom Entomology. 

equiv equivalent. 

esp especially. 

etym etymology. 

f. feminine. 

Fig Figurative, figuratively. 

Fort Fortification. 

fr from. 

Fr French. 

freq frequentative. 

fut future. 

Gael Gaelic. 

Galv Galvanism. 

gen generally, genitive. 

Geog Geography. 

Geol Geology. 

Geom Geometry. 

Ger German. 

Goth Gothic. 

Gr Greek. 

Gram Grammar. 


H. stands for High. 

Heb Hebrew. 

Her Heraldry. 

Hist History. 

Hort Horticulture. 

Hung Hungarian. 

hypoth hypothetical. 

Ichth Ichthyology. 

Icel Icelandic. 

i. e id est (that is). 

imp 4 m P ei, f ec *- 

inf. infinitive. 

intens intensive. 

inter j interjection. 

Ir Irish. 

It Italian. 

Join Joinery. 

L Low. 

hat Latin. 

Lit. , lit Literally, literally. 

Lit Literature. 

M. Middle. 

m masculine. 

Mach Machinery. 

Malay Malayan. 

Math Mathematics. 

Mech ■ Mechanics. 

Med Medicine. 

Metal Metallurgy. 

Metaph Metaphysics. 

Meteor Meteorology. 

Mil Military. 

Min Mineralogy. 

Mus .Music. 

Myth Mythology. 

N. New. 

n noun. 

Nat. Hist Natural History. 

Naut Nautical. 

neut neuter. 

Norm. Fr. ...Norman French. 
Numis Numismatics. 

O Old. 

Obs Obsolete. 

Opt Optics. 

orig original, originally. 

Ornith Ornithology. 

p participle. 

p. a participial adjective. 

Paint Painting. 

Paleon Paleontology. 

pass passive. 

Pathol Pathology. 

Per Persian. 

perh perhaps. 

pers person. 

Pg Portuguese. 

Philos Philosophy. 

Photog Photography. 

Phren Phrenology. 

Physiol Physiology. 

pi plural. 

Poet Poetry, poetical. 

Pol Polish. 

Polit. Econ. . .Political Economy. 

p. p participle past. participle present. 

Pr Provencal. 

pref. prefix. 

prep preposition. 

pret preterit. 

prin. stands for principally. 

Print Printing. 

priv privative. 

Prob., prob. ..probably. 
Pron.,pron... \ Pronunciation, pro- 
'•* I nounced; pronoun 

prop properly. 

Pros Prosody. 

Prov Provincial. 

q. v quod vide (which see). 

Rhet Rhetoric. 

Rom. . Roman. 

Rom. Cath. . B.oman Catholic. 
Russ Russian. 

Sax Saxon. [stood) 

sc scilicet (being under- 

Scot Scotland, Scottish. 

Script Scripture, scriptural. 

Sculp Sculpture. 

sing singular. 

Skr „... Sanskrit. 

Slav Slavonic. 

Sp Spanish. 

superl superlative. 

Surg Surgery. 

Surv Surveying. 

Sw Swedish. 

Syn S3 nonyms. 

Syr Syriac. 

term termination. 

Theol Theology. ' 

Trans Translation. 

Turk Turkish. 

Typog Typography. 

U.S United States. 

v verb. 

vb. n verbal noun. 

v.i verb intransitive. 

v. t .verb transitive. 

W. Welsh. 

Zo'dl Zoology. 

*#* In this Bictionary, words from 
foreign languages, both ancient and 
modern, are usually printed in Italics, 
though many of them are not ordi- 
narily so printed in other works ; as, 
Addendum, Alguazil, Alibi. 

%* Compound words, which in or- 
dinary writing and printing have their 
constituent parts separated by a hy- 
phen, are here distinguished from those 
which are usually and properly written 
and printed without one, by the use 
of a heavier hyphen than that em- 
ployed for the mere division of words 
into syllables ; as, Able-bodied. Words 
having prefixes or initial syllables which 
are commonly separated from the other 
syllables by a hjphen, are distinguished 
in the same way ; as, Re-enforce, 

%* For the " KEY TO THE PRO- 
NUNCIATION ," see page vi. It is de- 
sirable that those who use this Bic- 
tionary should make themselves famil- 
iar with the Key, as they will then find 
it easy to understand the notation by 
which the pronunciation of every word 
is expressed. 




Al. The first letter of the alphabet in most of the 
• known languages of the earth. It is naturally the 
first letter, because it represents the first Tocal sound 
naturally formed by the organs of speech ; namely, that 
heard in far, mast, &c. See Prin. of Pron., §§ 2-8, 44, 
45. 2. An adjective, commonly called the indefinite 
article, and signifying one or any, but less emphatically. 
It is placed before nouns of the singular number denot- 
ing an individual object, before collective nouns, and also 
before plural nouns when the adjective few or the phrase 
great many is interposed. It is a contraction of the 
Anglo-Saxon an, or ane, one, and is substituted for an, 
for the sake of euphony, before all words beginning 
with a consonant sound, except words beginning with 
the sound of k and having the accent on any other 
syllable than the first ; as, a table, a woman, a year, a 
unit, a eulogy, a oneness, &c. Formerly, an was used 
before both vowel and consonant sounds. 3. (Mus.) The 
nominal of the sixth tone in the model major scale ( that in 
C), or of the first tone of the minor scale, which is named 
after it the scale in A minor. A sharp (A {), the name 
of a musical tone intermediate between A and B.— A fat 
(A \y), the name of a tone intermediate between A and G-. 

Aa-ron'i«, \ a. Pertaining to Aaron or to his priestly 

Aa-ron'ie-al, j office. 

A-baclt', adv. ( Naut. ) Backward, against the mast ; — 
said of the sails when pressed by the wind. 
Taken aback, taken by surprise ; unexpectedly baffled. 

Ab'a~eus, n. "[Lat.] (Arch.) 
1. The upper plate upon the 
capital of a column, support- 
ing the architrave. 2. An in- 
strument for performing arith- 

metical calculations by means of sliding balls or counters. 

A-baft' (6), prep. (Naut.) Towards the stern from; 
back of ; farther back than. 

Ab-al'ien-ate (-al'yen-), v. t. [imp. & p. p. ABAEIEN- 
ATED ; p. pr. & vb. n. ABALIENATING.] [Lat. abalie- 
nare ; ah and alienus, foreign. See Alienate.] (Law.) 
To_transfer the title of from one to another. 

Ab-aFien-a'tion, n. (Laio.) Act of abalienating. 

A-ban'don, v. t. [imp. & p. p. abandoned ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ABANDONING.] [Fr. abandonner, fr. Lat. ad, and 
Low Lat. bandum, proclamation, interdiction.] To give 
up wholly and finally, or with a view never to resume. 

Syn. — To relinquish ; forsake ; desert ; surrender ; leave ; 
forego. — We leave what we may again resume, as an employ- 
ment; we abandon what we give up finally, as vice; we relin- 
quish what we have prized or sought, as a claim or hopes; we 
desert what we ought to adhere to, as duty ; we surrender (usu- 
ally under a necessity) what we have held as our own or in 
trust, as a fortress ; we renounce a thing publicly or as a duty, 
as allegiance or the world; we forego an enjoyment; we/or- 
sake what we have frequented, as society. 

A-ban'doned, p. a. Given up entirely, as to a vice. 

Syn. — Forsaken; deserted; profligate; depraved; corrupt; 
reprobate. — A reprobate is one so utterly abandoned as to 
leave no hope of his recovery; a profligate is one who is 
openly and shamelessly wicked; a man may be corrupt or de- 


id in heart without showing it in his outward life, and 
ience he may not be forsaken or deserted by the virtuous. 

A-ban'don-ee', n. (Law.) One to whom a thing is 

A-ban'don-er, n. One who abandons. 

A-ban'don-ment, n. Act of abandoning, or state of 
being abandoned ; entire desertion or relinquishment. 

A-base', v. t. [imp. & p. p. abased (a-basf) ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ABASING.] [Fr. abaisser, from Lat. basis, base.] 
To bring low, as to the ground ; to cast down. 

Syn.— To depress; degrade; reduce; humiliate; humble. 

A-base'ment, n. Act of abasing, or bringing very low. 

Syn. — Humiliation ; depression; degradation. — Abasement 

is a humbling, as of the proud ; debasement is a corrupting; as 

of coin ; depression is a sinking down, as of spirits; degradation 

is a bringing down from a higher rank or grade, as of a peer. 

A-bash', v. t. [imp. & p. p. abashed (a-bash t') ; 
& vb. n. ABASHING.] [Fr. abaisser. See ABASE.] T» 
destroy the self-possession of, as by exciting suddenly a 
consciousness of guilt, error, inferiority, or the like ; 
to strike with sudden shame or fear. 

Syn. — To confuse; confound. — We are confused when we 
lose our self-possession ; we are confounded when our faculties 
are overwhelmed and brought to a stand. 

A-bash'ment, n. Confusion from shame, fear, or the 

A-bat'a-ble, a. Capable of being abated. [like. 

A-bate', v. t. [imp. & p. p. abated ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ABATING.] [Fr. abattre, from Lat. ab and batuere, to 
strike.] Literally, to beat or batter down ; hence, to 
bring down or reduce from a higher to a lower state, 
number, degree, or the like ; to diminish ; to lessen ; 
specifically (Law), (a.) to cause to fail, as a writ ; (b.) 
to destroy, as a nuisance ; (c.) to enter into a freehold 
after the death of the last possessor, and before the heir 
or devisee takes possession. 

A-bate', v.i. 1. To decrease ; to become less in strength 
or violence. 2. To be defeated ; to fail, as a writ. 

Syn.— To decline; subside; diminish. — Lessen, decrease, 
diminish, refer to quantity or size; decline is to fall off; abate 
supposes previous violence, as the storm abates; subside previ- 
ous commotion, as the tumult subsides. 

A-bate'ment, n. Act of abating, or state of being 
abated; decrease; specifically, (a.) a remitting, as of a 
tax ; (b.) failure, as of a writ ; (c. ) removal, as of a nui* 
sance ; (d.) entry of a stranger into a freehold after the 
death of the last possessor, before the heir or devisee. 

Syn. — Lessening; decline; deduction; reduction; mitiga- 
tion; diminution; discount. 

Ab'a-tis, \n. [Fr. See Abate.] (Fort.) A row of 

Ab'at-tis, J sharpened branches of trees turned outward 
for defense. 

A-bat'or, n. One who, without right, enters into a free- 
hold on the death of the last possessor, before the heir 
or devisee ; one who prostrates or removes a nuisance. 

Abattoir (a'batfwor'), n. [Fr.] A public slaughter- 
house in a city. 

Abb, n. [A.-S. ab, ob.] Among weavers, yarn for the 
warp. Hence, abb-wool is wool for the abb. 

a, e, &c, long; a, e, &c, short ; care, far, ask, all, what ; ere, veil, term ; pique, firm ; son, 6r, do, wolf , 
food, fdbt; urn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise", -eall, e"eho ; gem, get; a§; ejist ; linger, link"; this- 




Ab'bd, n. A Syriac word meaning father, used to denote 
a religious superior. 

AbHoa-cy, n. The condition or privileges of an abbot. 

Ab-ba/tial, a. Pertaining to an abbey. 

AJbbd (ab'ba), n. [Fr.] Originally, an abbot ; but now 
an ecclesiastic without charge, devoted to teaching, liter- 
ature, &c. 

AbHbess, n. The governess of a nunnery. 

AbHbey, n. ; pi. AB'BEYg. 1. A residence of monks or 
nuns. 2. The dwelling of an abbot. 3. A church at- 
tached to a monastery, as Westminster Abbey. 

Syn.— Monastery; cloister; convent; nunnery; priory.— 
The distinctions will be found under the several words. 

AbHbot, n. [Lat. abba, gen. abbatis. See ABBA.] Head 
of a society of monks ; superior or governor of an 
AbHbot-sliip, n. The state or office of an abbot. 
Ab-bre'vi-ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. abbreviated ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. ABBREVIATING.] [Lat. ab and breviare, to 
shorten.] To bring within less space ; to make briefer ; 
to reduce by contraction or omission. 
Syn.— To abridge; contract; curtail; compress; condense. 
Ab-bre'vi-a'tion, n. 1. The act of abbreviating. 2. 
The form to which a word or phrase is reduced by con- 
traction or omission; as Gen. for Genesis. 3. (Mus.) 
One dash, or more, through the stem of a note, di- p 
viding it respectively into quavers, semiquavers, or ^J 
demisemiquavers. ^ 

Ab-bre'vi-a/tor, n. One who abbreviates or reduces to 

a smaller compass. 
Ab-bre'vi-a-to-ry, a. Abbreviating ; shortening. 
Ab-bre'vi-a-tftre (53), n. 1. An abbreviation, 2. An 

abridgment or compend. 
A, B, C. The first three letters of the alphabet, used for 

the whole alphabet. 
Ab'di-eant, n. One who abdicates. 
Ab'di-eate, v. t. [imp. &p.p. abdicated ; & vb. 
n. ABDICATING.] [Lat. abdicare, from ab and dicare, 
intensive form of dicer e, to say.] To give up right or 
claim to ; to withdraw from (as an office) with or with- 
out formal resignation. 

Syn. — To relinquish; renounce; forsake; quit. 
Ab'di-eate, v. i. To relinquish an office, right, power, 

trust, or the like, with or without resigning. 
Ab'di-ea'tion, n. The abandonment of a public office 
or of a right or trust, with or without a formal surrender. 
Ab'di-ea'tive, a. Causing, or implying, abdication. 
Ab'di-to-ry, n. [Low Lat. abditorium.] A place for 

secreting or preserving goods. 
Ab-do'men, n. [Lat.] 1. (Anat.) The belly, or the 
upper part of the belly. 2. (Entom.) The most pos- 
terior of the sections into which the body is divided. 
[The Lat. pi. Abdom'ina is sometimes used.] 
Ab-dom'i-nal, a. Pertaining to the abdomen. 
Ab-dom/i-mal, n. A kind of fish, like salmon, &c, 

with ventral fins back of the pectoral. 
Ab-dom'i-nous, a. Having a big belly ; pursy. 
Ab-duce', v. t. [imp. Ikp.p. abduced ; & vb. n. 
ABDUCING.j [Lat. abducere, from ab and ducere, to 
lead.] To draw away ; to draw to a different part. 
Ab-diiet', v. t. [imp. & p. p. abducted ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ABDUCTING.] [Lat. abductus, p. p. of abducere. See 
ABDUCE .] To take away by stealth or by unlawful force. 
Ab-diie'tion, n. The act of abducing or abducting ; a 
drawing or carrying away, especially of a person, by 
fraud, or stealth, or force. 
Ab-tTiie'tor, n. 1. A person guilty of abduction. 2. 
{Anat.) A muscle which serves to draw a part out or 
from the median line of the body. 
A-beam', adv. (Naut.) On the beam ; at right angles 

to the ship's keel. 
A-bear'ance, n. (Law.) Behavior ; demeanor. 
A'be-ce-da'ri-an, n. One who teaches or who learns 
the a, b, c, or letters of the alphabet ; an alphabetarian. 
A -bed', adv._ In bed ; on the bed. 
A-bele', or A'bel-tree, n. The white poplar. 
AHbel-mosk, n. The musk-mallow, or Syrian mallow. 
Ab-er'rance, n. [Lat. aberrare, aberrans, from ab and 

errare, to wander.] Deviation from rectitude. 
Ab-er'rant, a. 1. Straying from the right way. 2. 

Exceptional; abnormal. 
Ab'er-ra'tion, n. 1. Act of wandering ; deviation, es- 
pecially from truth or moral rectitude, or from the 
natural state. 2. [Med.) Alienation of mind. 3. 
(Astron.) A small periodical change of position in a 
star or other heavenly body. 

A-bet', v. t. [imp. & p. p. abetted ; p. pr. & vb. n 
ABETTING.] [0. Fr. abeter, from the root of bait. See 
Bait.] 1. To encourage or incite by aid or counte- 
nance; — used chiefly in a bad sense. 2. (Law.) To 
encourage to commit a crime, or assist in a criminal act. 

Syn. — To aid; support; sustain; help; assist; favor; fur- 
ther; succor; promote. 

A-bet'ment, n. Act of abetting or encouraging; support. 
A-bet'ter, I n. One who abets, aids, or encourages ; an 
A-bet'tor, j instigator. 

Syn. — Accomplice; accessary. — An abettor incites to a 

crime; an accomplice takes part in it; an accessary is involved 

in it by giving countenance or aid. 

A-bey'ance, n. [Fr. bayer, Old Fr. baer, beer, to gape, 
tarry.] 1. A state of suspension or temporary extinc- 
tion with the expectation of a revival. 2. (Law.) Ex- 
pectation or contemplation of law. 

Ab-hor', v. t. [imp. & p. p. abhorred ; & vb. n. 
abhorring.] [Lat. abhorrere, from ab and horrere, to 
bristle, shiver.] 1. To regard with horror or detesta- 
tion. 2. To dislike or hate extremely. 
Syn.— To detest; loathe; abominate; shudder at. 

Ab-h.5r'rence, n. Detestation ; great hatred. 

Ab-hor'rent, a. 1. Abhorring, detesting ; hating ; 
struck with abhorrence. 2. Contrary ; repugnant ; in- 
consistent ; — with to. 

Ab-hor'rer, n. One who abhors or detests. 

A'bib, n. The first month of the Jewish year. 

A-bide', v. i. [imp. & p. p. ABODE ; p. pr. & vb. n. 

abiding.] [See Bide.] 1. To continue in a place. 

2. To continue firm or stable, as to abide by a contract. 

Syn.— To sojourn; reside; dwell; stay; tarry; remain; 

hold to; persist. 

A-bide', v.t. 1. To stand firm under ; to endure or bear 
without shrinking, or patiently. 2. To await firmly. 

A-bid'er, n. One who abides, dwells, or continues. 

Ab'i-gail (42), n. A lady's waiting-maid. 

A-bll'i-ty, n. [Lat. habilitas, from habere, to have, to 
hold.] Quality, state, or condition of being able ; power 
to act, whether bodily, moral, inteUectual, conventional, 
or legal ; — in the plural, inteUectual capacity. 

Syn. — Force; might; potency; capability; faculty; talent; 
skill; dexterity; efficiency; address. — As to mental powers, 
ability is the generic term; capacity is the power of easily gain- 
ing or retaining knowledge; talent is the power of executing; 
dexterity, skill, and address relate to ease of execution. 

Ab'in-tes'tate, a. (Law.) Inheriting the estate of one 
dying without a will. [ity. 

Ab'ir-ri-ta'tion, n. (Med.) Want of strength ; debil- 

Ab'jeet, a. [Lat. abjectus, p. p. of abjicere, to throw 
away, from ab and jacere, to throw.] Sunk to a low 
condition ; hence, low in estimation ; despicable. 
Syn. — Mean; worthless; base; groveling; debased. 

Ab'jeet, n. One in a miserable state. 

Ab-jee'tion, n. Meanness of spirit ; baseness. 

Ab'jeet-ly, adv. -Meanly ; wretchedly ; basely. 

Ab'jeet-ness, n. State of being abject ; baseness. 

Ab-ju'di-eate, v.t. To give away in judgment. 

Ab-ju'di-ea'tion, n. Act of abjudicating. 

Ab'ju-ra'tion, n. The act of renouncing under oath, 
or solemnly. [tion. 

Ab-jil/ra-to-ry, a. Containing, or relating to, abjura- 

Ab-jiire', v. t. [imp. & p. p. abjured ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ABJURING.] [Lat. abjurare, from ab and jurare, to 
swear.] To renounce under oath, or with great solemnity. 

Ab-jur'er, n. One who abjures or renounces. 

Ab'lae-ta'tion, n. [Lat. ab and lac, milk.] 1. A wean- 
ing of a child from the breast. 2. A method of grafting 
by approach or inarching. [of a tree. 

Ab-la'que-ate, v. t. To lay bare or expose, as the roots 

Ab-la'que-a'tion, n. [Lat. ablaqueatio.] The act or 
process of laying bare the roots of trees. 

Ab'la-tive, a. [Lat. ablativus, fr. ablatus, p. p. of avferre, 
to carry away, fr. ab and ferre.] Taking away or remov- 
ing ; — applied to the sixth case of Latin nouns, in which 
case are used words when the actions of carrying away 
or taking from are signified. 

Ab'la-tive, n. The sixth case of Latin nouns. 

A-blaze', adv. 1. On fire ; in a blaze. 2. In a state of 

_ ardent desire ; highly excited. 

A'ble (a'bl), a. [comp. abler ; superl. ABLEST.] [Lat. 
habilis. See Ability.] Having ability or competency 
of any or every kind ; possessing sufficient physical or 
mental power for the accomplishment of some object ; 
having property, means, skill, or the like, rendering 
competent for some end. 

a,e,&c.,fongv a, 6, kc, short; care, far, ask, all, what ; ^re, veil, term ; pique,firm; s6n, 6r,dft,w9lf, 




Syn.— Strong; powerful; efficient; effective; mighty; skill- 
ful; dexterous. 

A'ble-bod'ied (-bod'id), a. Having a sound, strong 
body; robust. 

Ab'lep-sy, n. [Gr. a/3Aei//ia.] Want of sight ; blindness. 

Ab'lu-ent, a. Washing clean ; cleansing ; purifying. 

Ab'lu-ent, n. ( Med. ) Something reputed to have the 
power of purifying the blood ; a detergent. 

Ab-lu'tion, n. [Lat. ablutio, fr. abluere, to wash away.] 
1. Act of cleansing or washing. 2. Religious purifica- 
tion. 3. Water used in cleansing. 

A'bly, adv. In an able manner ; with ability or skill. 

Ab'ne-gate, v. t. [Lat. abnegare.] To deny and reject. 

Ab'ne-ga'tion, n. Denial and renunciation. 

Ab-ndrm'al, a. [Lat. ab and norma, rule.] Contrary 
to rule, law, or system ; irregular. 

Ab-norm'i-ty, n. State or quality of being abnormal 
or irregular. [board of. 

A-board', adv. In a vessel ; on board. — prep. On 

A-bode', imp. & p. p. of abide. See Abide. 

A-bode', n. [From abide.] State or place of residence. 
Syn. — Dwelling ; continuance ; habitation ; domicile. 

A-bol'ish, v, t. [Lat. abolescere, abolere, fr. ab and oles- 
cere, olere, to grow.] To do away with utterly ; to put 
an end to ; hence, to annul or destroy ; to make void. 

Syn. — To subvert ; overturn ; destroy ; nullify ; abrogate ; 
annul ; repeal. — Abolish, subvert, overturn, and destroy, ex- 
press under different images the same idea, that of doing 
wholly away with. We abrogate and annul by an authorita- 
tive act, as customs or a treaty, &c. ; we repeal by a legislative 
act, as laws ; we nullify when we set laws, &c, aside, without 
their being repea'.ed. 

A-b51'ish-a-ble, a. Capable of being abolished. 

A-bol'ish-er, n. One who abolishes. 

A-bol'ish-ment, n. Act of abolishing ; abolition. 

Ab'o-H'tion, (-lish'un), n. Act of abolishing, or state 
of being abolished ; a doing away with finally and for 

w ever ; — applied particularly to slavery. 

Ab'o-li'tion-igm (-lish'un-izm), n. The principles or 
measures of an abolitionist. 

Ab'o-li'tion-ist, n. One who favors abolition, especially 
the abolition of slavery. [abolitionism. 

Ab'o-li'tion-ize, v. t. To imbue with the principles of 

Ab'o-ma'sum, I n. [Lat.] The fourth stomach of a 

Ab'o-ma'sus, j ruminant animal. 

A-bom'i-na-ble, a. Worthy of, or causing, impreca- 
tion or abhorrence ; odious in the highest degree. 

Syn.— Execrable; detestable; loathsome; hateful; shocking. 

A-bom'i-na-bly, adv. In an abominable manner ; de- 
testably ; execrably. 

A-bom'i-nate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. abominated ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. ABOMINATING-.] [Lat. abuminare, abomi- 
nari, from ab and otnen, foreboding.] To turn from as 
ominous of evil ; to hate in the highest degree, as if with 
religious dread. 

Syn. — To hate ; detest ; loathe ; abhor. 

A-bSm/i-na'tion, n. 1. Act of abominating ; strong 
aversion or loathing. 2. An object of hatred and dis- 

Ab'o-rig'i-nal, a. First, original, or primitive. 

Ab'o-rig'i-nal, n. A first or original inhabitant. 

Ab'o-rig'i-ne§, n. pi. [Lat., from ab and origo, origin.] 
The original inhabitants of a country. 

A-bor'tion, n. [Lat. abortio, from ab and oriri, to rise, 
to be born.] 1. The act of miscarrying ; expulsion of 
an immature product of conception. 2. The immature 
product of an untimely birth. 3. Any thing which fails 
to come to maturity. 

A-b6r'tive, a. 1. Immature ; rudimentary ; failing in 
its effect. 2. Pertaining to abortion. 3. Causing or 
procuring abortion. 

A-bound', v. i. [imp. & p. p. abounded; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ABOUNDING-.] [Lat. abundare, from ab and unda, 
wave, stream, crowd.] 1. To be in great plenty ; to be 
prevalent. 2. To be copiously supplied; to possess in 
abundance ; — usually with in or with. 

A-bout', prep. [A.-S. abutan, from butan, without, com- 
pounded of prefix be and u tan, outward.] 1. On every 
side of; all over or around. 2. Over or upon different 
parts of; through or over in various directions. 3. In 
contiguity or proximity to ; in connection with ; near, in 
place, time, quantity, or the like. 4. In concern with ; 
occupied upon ; hence, ready to ; on the point of; also, 
relating to ; touching. 

A-bout', adv. 1. On all sides ; around. 2. In circuit ; 
around the outside. 3. T ere and there ; in one place 

A B K A 


A B 

and another. 4. Nearly ; approximately. 5. To a re- 
versed position ; in the opposite direction. 

A-bove' (a-buv'J^re^. [A.-S. abufan, from bufan, above, 
compounded of prefix be, and ufan.] 1. Higher in place 
than. 2. Surpassing or superior to in any respect ; more 
in number, quantity, or degree than. 

A-bove', adv. 1. Overhead ; in a higher place. 2. Be- 
fore in order of place. 3. Higher in rank or power. 

A-bove'-board, adv. Above the board or table ; not 

^ concealed ; without trick or deception. 

Ab'ra-ea-dab'ra, n. Aabracadabka 
combination of letters with- abracadabb 
out sense , formerly used as \ \ \ \ c c A A \ \ B 
a charm against fevers, and a b b a c a d 

arranged as in the margin ; a b b a c a 

hence, unmeaning babble. a b e a c 

Ab-rade', v. t. [imp. & p. 
p. abraded ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ABRADING.] [Lat. abrad- a 

ere, from ab and radere, to scrape, shave.] To rub or 
wear off. 

Ab-ra'§ion, n. 1. A rubbing or scraping off. 2. Sub- 
stance worn off by attrition. 

A -breast', adv. Side by side ; on a line. 

AJbreuvoir (a'broo'vwor'), n. [Fr.] A joint between 
stones in a wall. 

A-bridge', v. t. [imp. & p. p. abridged ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. abridging.] [Fr. abreger. See Abbreviate.] 1. 
To bring within less space ; to make shorter, especially 
by using fewer words. 2. To deprive ; to cut off ; — with 
of. 3. (Math.) To reduce to a more simple expression, 
as a compound quantity or expression. 

Syn. — To contract ; shorten ; condense ; compress ; cur- 
tail ; lessen; reduce; diminish. 

A-bridg'ment, n. 1. A cutting off, curtailing, or short- 
ening ; contraction or diminution. 2. A work abridged 
or epitomized. 

Syn. — Reduction ; restriction ; restraint ; compend ; com- 
pendium ; epitome ; summary ; abstract ; synopsis. — A com- 
pendium or epitome is a condensed abridgment ; an abstract or 
summary is a brief statement of a thing in its main points ; a 
synopsis is a bird's-eye view of a subject or work in its several 

A-broach', adv. 1. Broached ; letting out liquor, or 
in a condition to do so. 2. In a state to be diffused or 

A-broad', adv. 1. At large ; without confinement, within 
narrow limits ; over a wide space. 2. Beyond or out of 
a house, camp, or other inclosure. 3. Beyond the bounds 
of a country ; in foreign countries. 4. Before the public 

w at large ; extensively. 

Ab'ro-gate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. abrogated ; & 
vb. n. ABROGATING.] [Lat. abrogare, from ab and 
rogare, to ask, propose.] To annul by an authoritative 
act; to abolish by the authority of the maker or his 
successor; — applied to the repeal of laws, decrees, ordi- 
nances, the abolition of established customs, &c. 

Syn. — To abolish; repeal; revoke; rescind; cancel; annul. 

Ab'ro-ga'tion, n. The act of abrogating, annulling, or 
setting aside.', a. [Lat. abruptus, p. p. of abrumpere, to 
break off, from ab and rumpere, to break.] 1. Broken, 
steep, craggy, as rocks, precipices, and the like ; precipi- 
tous. 2. Without notice to prepare the mind for the 
event; sudden. 3. Having sudden transitions from one 
subject to another ; unconnected. 

Syn. — Sudden; bold; broken; unconnected; unceremo- 

Ab-riip'tioii, n. A sudden breaking off; a violent sep- 
aration of bodies. i 

Ab-rupt'ly, adv. In an abrupt manner ; suddenly. 

Ab-riipt'ness, n. S-tate of being abrupt; steepness; 

w suddenness ; great haste. 

Ab'scess, n. [Lat. abscessvs, from abscedere, to depart, 
separate.] A collection of pus or purulent matter in an 
accidental cavity of the body. 

Ab-sclnd', v. t. [Lat. abscindere, from ab and scindere, 
to rend, cut.] To cut off. 

Ab'sciss, n. ; pi. AB-scis'SEg. See ABSCISSA. 

Ab-s^Is'sa, n. ; pi. Lat. AB-spls's^E, Eng. 
AB-scls'SAg. [Lat. abscissas, p. p. of ab- 
scindere.] ( Geom.) One of the elements of 
reference by which a point, as of a curve, 
is referred to a system of fixed rectilineal s ~ 
coordinate axes. 

In the diagram, OX or PY is the abscissa of the point P of 
the curve, O Y or PX its ordinate, ihe intersecting lines OX and 

food, foot ; urn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, call, echo ; gem, get ; a§ ; e$ist ; linger, link ; this. 



OY being the axes of abscissas and ordinates respectively, and 
the point O their origin. 

Ab-scis/gion (-sizbyun), n. [Lat. abscissio. See Ab- 
scind.] 1. Act or process of cutting off. 2. The 
state of being cut off. 3. (Rhet.) A figure of speech, 
when, having begun to say a thing, a speaker stops ab- 
ruptly, as supposing the matter sufficiently understood. 

Ab-s«6nd', v. i. [imp. & pp. absconded ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ABSCONDING.] [Lat. abscondere, from ab, abs, 
and condere, to lay up.] To secrete one"s self; — used 
especially of persons who withdraw to avoid a legal proc- 

Ab-seond'er, n. One who absconds. [ess. 

Ab'sence, n. [Lat. absentia, from absum, abesse, to be 
away from.] 1. A state of being absent or withdrawn 
from a place or from companionship. 2. Want ; destitu- 
tion. 3. Inattertion to things present ; heedlessness. 

Ab'sent, a. 1. Withdrawn from, or not present in, a 
place. 2. Inattentive to what is passing ; heedless. 

Ab-sent', v. t. [imp. & p. p. absented; & vb. 
n. absenting.] To take or withdraw to such a dis- 
tance as to prevent intercourse ; — used with the recipro- 
cal pronoun. 

Ab'sen-tee', n. One who absents himself from his coun- 
try, office, post, or duty, and the like ; especially a land- 
holder who fives at a distance from his estate ; as, an 
Irish absentee. 

Ab'seii-tee'igm, n. State or habit of an absentee; the 
practice of living at a distance from one's estate. 

Ab-sSnt'er, n. One who absents himself. 

Ab-sintbe', n. [Pr., from Lat. absinthium, Gr. av|/tv- 
6iov, wormwood.] A cordial of brandy tinctured with 

Ab-siu'thi-an, a. Of the nature of wormwood. 

Ab-sin'tbi-ate, v. t. To impregnate with wormwood. 

Ab'so-lute, a. [Lat. absolutus, p. p. of absolvere. See 
Absolve.] 1. Freed or loosed from any limitation or 
condition ; uncontrolled ; unconditional. 2. Completed, 
or regarded as complete ; finished; perfect ; total. 3. Pos- 
itive ; clear ; certain ; authoritative ; peremptory. [Rare.] 
4. Loosed from, or unconnected by, dependence on any 
other being ; self-existent ; self-sufficing. In this sense 
God is called the Absolute by the Theist. The term is also 
applied by the Pantheist to the universe. 5. (Philos.) 
Capable of being thought or conceived by itself alone ; 
unconditioned ; unrelated. 6. ( Chem.) Pure ; unmixed. 
7. (Gram.) Not immediately dependent on the other 
parts of the sentence in government. 

Syn. — Unlimited; arbitrary; despotic; tyrannical; uncondi- 
tional; positive; peremptory; certain; unerring; infallible. 

Ab'so-lute-ly, adv. In an absolute manner ; positively ; 

Ab'so-lute-ness, n. Quality of being absolute ; com- 
pleteness ; arbitrary power. 

Ab'so-lu'tion, n. 1. (Civ. Law.) An acquittal, or 
sentence of a judge declaring an accused person innocent. 
2. (Rom. Cath. Church.) A remission of sin pronounced 
in favor of one who makes due confession thereof. 

Ab'so-Lu/tism, n. Absolute government or its princi- 

Ab'so-lu-tist'i-e, a. Belonging to absolutism. 

Ab-sol'u.-to-ry, a. Absolving ; that absolves. 

Ab-solv'a-ble, a. Capable of being absolved. 

Ab-solv'a-to-ry, a. Containing absolution, pardon, or 
release ; having power to absolve. 

Ab-§olve', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ABSOLVED ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ABSOLVING.] [Lat. absolvere , from ab and solvere, 
to loose.] To set free or release from, as from some obli- 
gation, debt, or responsibility, or from that which sub- 
jects a person to a burden or penalty. 

Syn. — To release; set free; exonerate; acquit. — We speak 
of a man as absolved from something that binds conscience, as 
guilt or its consequences; exonerated from some load, as an 
imputation or debt ; acquitted with reference to a trial and 
a decision thereon. 

Ab-§olv'er, n. One who absolves. 

Ab-sorb', v. t. [imp. & p.p. absorbed; & vb. 
n. ABSORBING.] [Lat. absorbere, from ab and sorbere, 
to suck in.] 1. To drink in ; to suck up ; to imbibe as 
a sponge. 2. Hence, to swallow up, or overwhelm ; to 
engross or engage wholly. 

Ab-sorb'a-bil'i-ty, n. Capacity of being absorbed ; 
quality of being absorbable. 

Ab-sorb'a-ble, a. Capable of being absorbed. 

Ab-sorb'ent, a. Sucking up ; imbibing. 

Ab-sorb'ent, n. A substance or a bodily organ which 

Ab-sorp'tion (-sorp/shun), n. 1. Act or process of be- 
ing absorbed and made to disappear by mechanical 

means. 2. Process or act of being made passively to dis- 
appear in some other substance, through molecular or 
other invisible means ; as, the absorption of light, heat 
electricity, &c. Also, in living organisms, through the 
vital processes of nutrition and growth ; specifically , (a.) 
The imbibition by the tissues of nutritive material ; (b.) 
the removal from them of excrementitious substances by 
the blood-vessels and lymphatics; (c.) the passage from 
without into the blood-vessels or lymphatics of any 
liquid whatever. 3. Entire engrossment or occupation 
of mind. 

Ab-sorp'tive, a. Having power to absorb. 

Ab sorp-tiv'i-ty, n. Power or capacity of absorption. 

Ab-stain', v. i. [imp. & p.p. ABSTAINED \ Scvb. n. 
ABSTAINING.] [Lat. abstinere, from ab, abs, and tenere, 
to hold.] To forbear, or refrain, voluntarily, and espe- 
cially_from an indulgence of the passions or appetites. 

Ab-ste'mi-ou.s, a. [Lat. abstemius, from ab, abs, and 
temetum, strong wine.] 1. Sparing in diet ; refraining 
from a free use of food and strong drinks ; temperate ; 
abstinent. 2. Sparingly used, or used with temperance. 
3. Devoted to, or spent in, abstinence. 

Ab-ste'mi-oiis-ly, adv. Temperately ; sparingly. 

Ab-ste'mi-oils-ness, n. Quality of being abstemious ; 
a sparing use of food or strong drink. 

Ab-sterge' (14), v. t. [Lat. abstergere, from ab, abs, and 
tergere, to wipe.] To make clean by wiping ; to cleanse 
by lotions or similar applications. [Rare.] 

Ab-ster'gent, a. Serving to cleanse ; detergent. 

Ab-sterse', v. t. To cleanse by wiping. 

Ab-ster'sion, n. Act of wiping clean, or a cleansing by 
lotions or similar applications. 

Ab-ster'sive, a. Having the quality of cleansing. 

Ab'sti-nence, n. [See ABSTAIN.] The act or practice 
of abstaining ; voluntary forbearance of any action, es- 
pecially the refraining from an indulgence of appetite, or 
from customary gratifications of animal propensities. 

Syn. — Temperance. —Abstinence is shown in refraining, 
. temperance in a moderate and guarded use. 

Ab'sti-nent, a. Refraining from indulgence, especially 
in the use of food and drink ; temperate. 

Ab-stra«t', v. t. [imp. Sep. p. abstracted ; &vb. 
n. ABSTRACTING.] [Lat. abstractus, p. p. of abstrahere , 
to draw from or separate, from ab, abs, and trahere, to 
draw.] 1. To draw from or separate. 2. To draw off 
in respect to interest or attention. 3. To separate, as 
ideas, by the operation of the mind; to consider by it- 
self; to contemplate separately. 4. To epitomize or re- 
duce. 5. To take secretly for one"s own use from the 

w property of another ; to purloin. 

Ab'straet, a. 1. Distinct from something else ; sepa- 
rate. 2. Withdrawn from the concrete, or from particu- 
lars ; separate ; hence, difficult ; abstruse ; refined. 

Abstract idea, the idea of some quality as distinct from the 
object in which it inheres, as whiteness. — Abstract term, one 
expressing an abstract idea, as beauty, roundness. 

Ab'stra-et, n. 1. That which comprises or concentrates 
in itself the essential qualities of a larger thing, or of sev- 
eral things ; specifically, an inventory, summary, or epit- 
ome. 2. A state of separation from other things ; as, 
to consider a subject in the abstract. 

Ab'itra«t'r*" ly ' } adv - By itself > ^ a ^Parat 6 state . 

Ab-straet'ed-ness, n. The state of being abstracted. 

Ab-strac'tion, n. 1. Act of abstracting or separating, 
or the state of being separated. 2. (Metaph.) Act or 
process of leaving out of consideration one or more prop- 
erties of a complex object, so as to attend to others; 
analysis. Thus, when the mind considers the form of a 
tree by itself, or the color of the leaves as separate from 
their size or figure, the act is called abstraction. So, also, 
when it considers ivhiteness. softness, virtue, existence, as 
separate from any particular objects. 3. An idea or no- 
tion of an abstract or theoretical nature. 4. A sepa- 
ration from worldly objects ; a recluse life. 5. Absence 
of mind ; inattention to present objects ; heedlessness. 
6. The taking surreptitiously for one's own use part 

_of the property of another. [Recent usage.] 

Ab'strae-ti'tioiis (-tlsh'us), a. Drawn from other sub- 
stances, particularly from vegetables, without fermenta- 

Ab-straet'ive, a. Having the power of abstracting. 

Ab'stra-et-ness, n. State of being abstract.' (32), a. [Lat. abstrusus, p. p. of abstrudere, 
to thrust away.] Literally, thrust away ; hidden ; hence, 
hard to be understood. 

Ab-striise'ly, adv. Not plainly ; darkly. 

H,e,8tc.,long: a,e,&c, short; care, far, ask, all, what; 6re,, term; pique, firm; son, 6r, dt>, wolf, 



Ab-struse'ness, n. State or quality of being abstruse. 

Ab-surd/, a. [Lat. absurdus, proceeding from one tbat 
is deaf, or from that which is dull-sounding ; hence, in- 
congruous ; from ah and surdus, deaf.] Opposed to 
manifest truth ; inconsistent with reason, or tne plain 
dictates of common sense ; logically contradictory. 

Syn, — Foolish ; irrational; preposterous; ridiculous. — .46- 
surcl is stronger than foolish or irrational, but not so strong as 
preposterous, which supposes a total inversion of the order of 

Ab-siird'i-ty, n. 1. The quality of being absurd, or 
inconsistent with obvious truth, reason, or sound judg- 
ment. 2. That which is absurd. 
Syn. — Folly; unreasonableness; preposterousness. 

Ab-siird'ly , adv. In an absurd manner ; preposterously. 

Ab-siird'ness, n. Absurdity ; inconsistency. 

A-bmi'dance, n. [Lat. abundantia. See ABOUND.] 
An overflowing fullness ; ample sufficiency ; great plenty ; 
— strictly applicable to quantity only, but sometimes 
used of number. 

Syn. — Exuberance; plenteousness ; riches; wealth; afflu- 
ence. — We have a. plenty when we have enough ; but abundance 
is more than enough, it is an overflowing. Exuberance is still 
stronger, it is a bursting forth. 

A-biui'dant, a. Fully sufficient ; being in great quan- 

Syn.— Plentiful; plenteous; exuberant; overflowing; co- 
pious; ample. 

A-bun'dant-ly, auv. Plentifully ; amply. 

A-biige', v. t. [imp. & p.p. abused; & vb. n. 
ABUSING.] [Lat. abiisus, p. p. of abuti, from ab and 
uti, to use.] 1. To make an ill or improper use of; to 
use ill ; to misuse ; to use with bad motives, to wrong 
purposes, or in a wrong way. 2. To treat rudely, or with 
reproachful language ; to maltreat ; to revile. 3. To 
deceive or impose on. 

A-buse', n. 1. Ill use ; improper treatment or employ- 
ment ; application to a wrong purpose. 2. A corrupt 
practice or custom. 3. Rude or reproachful language 
addressed to a person ; contumely. 

Syn. —Misuse; maltreatment; reproach; derision; insult. 

A-bu'sive, a. 1. Practicing abuse ; offering harsh words 
or ill treatment. 2. Containing abuse, or being the in- 
strument of abuse. 3. Perverted; misapplied ; improper. 
Syn. — Scurrilous; insulting; reproachful; opprobrious; 
insolent; rude. 

A-bu/sive-ly, adv. In an abusive manner. 

A-bu'sive-ness, n. Quality of being abusive ; ill usage. 

A-biit', v. i. [imp. & p. p. ABUTTED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ABUTTING.] [Fr. aboutir, from bout, end^ extremity. 
See But, n.] To terminate or border ; to be contiguous ; 
to meet. 

A-but'ment, n. That on which a thing abuts, or that 
which meets or abuts on any thing; hence, the solid 
part of a pier or wall, &c, which receives the thrust or 
lateral pressure of an arch, or from which it immediately 

A-bu.t'tal, n. The butting or boundary of land. 

A-by§'mal, a. Pertaining to, or resembling, an abyss ; 
bottomless; unending. 

A-byss', n. [Gr. a^vcrcros, bottomless, from a priv. and 
/3i>a-cr6?, depth, bottom.] A bottomless depth; a gulf; 
hence, any deep, immeasurable space, and, specifically, 
hell, or the bottomless pit. 

A-byss'al, a. Belonging to, or resembling, an abyss. 

A-ea'ci-a (a-ka'shl-a), n. [Gr. anania, from a*??, point, 
originally the name of a thorny tree, found in Egypt.] 
1. (Bot.) A genus of leguminous trees and shrubs, usu- 
ally with thorns and pinnate leaves, and of an airy, ele- 
gant appearance. 2. ( Med.) The inspissated juice of the 
unripe fruit of the Mimosa Nilotica. 

A-e'a-dem'i-e, \a. 1. Belonging to the school or 

Ae'a-dem'ic-al, ) philosophy of Plato. 2. Belonging 
to an academy or other institution of learning. 

le'a-dem'ie, n. 1. One holding the philosophy of 
Socrates and Plato. 2. A student in a college or uni- 

Ae'a-dem'ic-al-ly, adv. In an academical manner. 

A-e'a-de-mi'cian (-mlsh'an), n. A member of an acad- 
emy, or society for promoting arts and sciences ; partic- 
ularly, a member of the French Academy. 

A-ead'e-my, n. 1. A garden or grove near Athens, be- 
longing originally to a person named Academus, where 
Plato and his followers held their philosophical confer- 
ences ; hence, the school of philosophy of which Plato 
was the head. 2. A school, or seminary, holding a rank 

between a university, or college, and a common school 

3. A place of education of high rank ; a college or uni- 
versity. 4. A society of men united for the promotion 
of arts and sciences in general, or of some particular art 
or science ; as, the French Academy. 5. An institution 
for the cultivation and promotion of the fine arts, or some 
branch of science. 

A-e'a-leph, \n.; pi. Xc'a-lephs, a€'a-le'ph&, 

Ae'a-le'pha, S and AC'A-LE'PHANg. [Gr. a/caArj^ij, 

Ac'a-le'phan, ) a nettle.] (Zool.) A radiate animal 
of the class Medusae, or jelly-fishes ; — so called from the 

^ stinging or nettling power they possess and exercise. 

Ac'an-tha'ceou.s (-tha/shus), a. Armed with prickles, 
as a plant. 

A-ean'tlius, n. ; pi. Eng. A-CAN'THUS-Eg, Lat. a-€aN'- 
THI. [Gr- UKavflos, from a-KYj, point, and ai>0os, flower.] 
1. (Arc/i.) An ornament resembling the foliage or leaves 
of the acanthus ; — used in the capitals of the Corinthian 
and Composite orders. 2. (Bot.) A genus of herbaceous 
prickly plants. 

A-eat'a-lee'tie, n. [Gr. d/caTaArj/cro?, not defective at 
the end.] (Pros.) A verse which has the complete num- 
ber of syllables without defect or superfluity. 

A-eat/a-lec'ti-e, a. (Pros.) Not defective ; complete. 

A-eat/a-lep'tie, a. [Gr. dKa.Ta\r)irTo<; , from a priv. and 
KaTaXaixfiaveiv , to seize, comprehend.] Incapable of 
being certainly comprehended or discovered. 

A -can/line, 1 a. [Gr. a/cauAo?, from a. priv. and KavAd?, 

A-cau/loiis , j stalk.] Having no stem, but flowers rest- 
ing" on the ground. 

A-e-cede', v. i. [imp. & p. p. ACCEDED ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ACCEDING.] [Lat. accedere, from ad and cedere, to 
move.] To agree or assent, as to a proposition, or to 
terms proposed by another ; hence, to become a party, by 
agreeing to the terms of a treaty or convention. 

A-e-cel'er-ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. accelerated ; & vb. n. ACCELERATING.] [Lat. accelerare, from 
ad and celerare, to hasten.] 1. To cause to move faster ; 
to quicken the motion or action of. 2. To add to the 
natural or ordinary progression of. 

Syn. To hasten; expedite; further; dispatch. 

A-e-cel/er-a'tion, n. The act of accelerating, or the 
state of being accelerated ; increase of motion or action. 

A-e-cel'er-a-tive, ) a. Accelerating; quickening mo- 

A-e-cel'er-a-to-ry, j tion. 

A-e-^el'er-a'tor, n. One who, or that which, acceler- 
ates ; specifically, in English usage, a light van for car- 

w rying mails between the post-office and railway stations. 

A-e'cent, n. [Lat. accentus, from ad and cantus, song.] 
1. A superior force of voice or of articulative effort upon 
some particular syllable of a word, distinguishing it from 
the others. (See Prin. of Pron. § 110.) 2. A mark used 
in writing to regulate the pronunciation. 3. A peculiar 
or characteristic modulation or modification of the voice. 

4. Words , language, or expressions in general. 5 . ( Mus. ) 
A slight stress upon a tone to mark its position in the 
measure. 6. (Math.) A mark placed at the "right hand 
of a letter or number and a little above it, to distinguish 
magnitudes of a similar kind, but differing in value. 

A«-cent', v . t. [imp. & p. p. accented; & vb. 
n. accenting.] To express or note the accent of; to 
pronounce, utter, or mark with accent. 

A-e-ceiit'n-al, a. Relating to accent. 

A«-cent'u-ate, v. t. To mark or pronounce with an 
accent or accents. 

A-e-cent/u.-a/tion, n. Act of placing accents in writing, 
or of pronouncing them in speaking. 

A-e-cept', v. t. [imp. & p. p. accepted ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ACCEPTING.] [Lat. acceptare, from ad and capere, 
to take.] 1. To take or receive with a consenting mind, 
as an offer or present. 2. To receive or admit and agree 
to. 3. (Com.) To receive as obligatory and promise to 
pay ; as, to accept a bill of exchange. 

A-e-cept'a-ble, a. Capable, worthy, or sure of being ac- 
cepted or received with pleasure ; hence, pleasing to a 
Syn. — Agreeable; welcome; gratifying. 

A-e-£ept'a-ble-ness, j n. The quality of being accept- 

A-e-^gpt'a-bll'i-ty, j able or agreeable. 

A«-cept'a-bly, adv. In an acceptable manner. 

A-e-cept/ance, n. 1. The act of accepting ; favorable 
reception. 2. (Com.) (a.) An assent and engagement 
by the person on whom a bill of exchange is drawn, to 
pay it when due according to the terms of the acceptance. 
(b.) The bill itself when accepted. 3. An agreeing to 
terms or proposals by which a bargain is concluded and 

food, foot; urn, rude, pxill . ; cell, chaise, -eall; echo; gem, get; ag; ejist ; linger, link ; this. 



the parties bound ; the receipt or taking of a thing bought 
as that for which it was purchased, or as that agreed to 
be sent or delivered, or as owner. 4. (Law.) An agree- 
ing to the act or contract of another, by some act which 
binds the person in law. 5. Signification ; meaning ; 
acceptation. [ Obs.] 

Ae'cep-ta'tion, n. 1. Kind reception ; acceptance. 
[ Obs.] 2. Meaning or sense. 

Ae-cept'er, n. A person who accepts ; specifically, who 
accepts or receives a bill of exchange so as to bind him- 
self to pay it. See Acceptance. 

Ae-cess f ,or A-e'cess,w. [Lat. accessus. SeeAccEDE.] 
1. A coming to, or near approach ; admittance ; admis- 
sion. 2. The means or way by which a thing may be 
approached. 3. Increase by something added ; addition. 

Ae-ces'sa-ry, a. 1. Additional ; accessory. 2. (Law.) 
Uniting in, or contributing to, a crime. 

Ae-ces'sa-ry, n. (Law.) He who is not the chief actor 
in the perpetration of an offense, nor present at its per- 
formance, but in some way accedes to or becomes con- 
cerned therein, either before or after the deed is com- 

Ae-ces'si-Dil'i-ty, n. Quality of being approachable. 

Ae-ces'si-lble, a. Easy of access or approach; ap- 

Ae-ces'sion (-sesh'un), n. 1. Act of acceding and be- 
coming joined. 2. Increase by something added ; that 
which is added. 3. (Law.) A mode of acquiring prop- 
erty, by which the owner of a corporeal substance, which 
receives an addition by growth, or by labor, has a right 
to the part or thing added, or the improvement, provided 
the thing is not changed into a different species. 4. 
Act of arriving at a throne, an office, or dignity. 5. 
(Med.) The commencement of a disease. 
Syii. — Addition; augmentation. 

A«-ces'sion-al (-sesh'un-), a. Additional. [Rare.] 

Ae'ces-so'ri-al, a. Pertaining to an accessory. 

Ae-ces'so-ri-ly, adv. In the manner of an accessory. 

Ae-ces'so-ri-ness, « • State of being accessory. 

Ae-ces'so-ry , a. 1. Aiding in producing some effect, or 
acting in subordination to the principal agent ; contrib- 
uting ; — used in a bad sense. 2. Additional ; accompa- 

Ae-ces'so-ry, «. [See Accessary.] 1. (Law.) One 
who is guilty of a felonious offense, though not present 
at its perpetration. 2. That which belongs to some- 

_ thing else as its principal ; an accompaniment. 

Ae'ci-dence, n. A small book containing the accidents 
or rudiments of grammar. 

Ae'ei-dent, n. 1. An event which proceeds from an 
unknown cause, or is an unusual effect of a known 
cause, and therefore not expected ; chance ; casualty ; 
contingency. 2. pi. ( Gram.) The properties and quali- 
ties of the parts of speech, as gender, number, and case. 
3. (Log.) A property or quality of a being which is not 
essential to it, as whiteness in paper. 

Ae'ci-dent'al, a. 1. Happening by chance, or unex- 
pectedly. 2. Non-essential; not necessarily belonging. 

Syn.— Casual; fortuitous; contingent; incidental.— A thing 
is accidental when it comes without being planned or sought, 
as a meeting; it is incidental when it comes in as secondary or 
out of the general course, as a remark; it is casual orfortwtous 
as opposed to what is constant and regular, as an occurrence ; 
it is contingent as opposed to what is settled and fixed, as an 

Ae'ci-dent'al, n. 1. Any thing happening accident- 
ally ; a casualty. 2. (Mus.) A sharp, flat, or natural, 
occurring not at the commencement of a piece of music 
as the signature, but before a particular note. 

Ae'ci-dent'al-ly, adv. By chance ; unexpectedly. 

A-e-elaim', v. t. [Lat. acclamare, from ad and clamare, 
to cry aloud.] 1. To honor or meet with applause. 2. 
To declare by acclamation ; to salute. 

Ae-elaim% ) n. A shout, expressive of assent, 

Ae'ela-ma'tion, ) choice, or approbation. 

Ae-elam^a-to-ry, a. Expressing applause. 

Ae-eli'mate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. acclimated ; 
& vb. n. acclimating-.] To habituate to a climate 
not native 

Ae'eli-ma'tion, n. The process of becoming, or the 
state of being, acclimated. 

Ae-eli'ma-tize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. acclimatized; 
p. pr. & vb. n. ACCLIMATIZING.] To acclimate. 

Ae-eli'ma-ture, n, Act of acclimating. 

Ae-eliv'i-ty, n. [Lat. acclivitas, from ad and clivus, as- 
cent.] A slope or inclination of the earth, as the side <^f 
a hill, considered as ascending ; — opposed to declivt.y ; 
rising ground ; ascent 

Ae-eli'voiis, a. Rising with a slope, as a hill. 

Ae'eo-lade', n. [Lat. ad and co Hum, neck.] A cere- 
mony formerly used in conferring knighthood, consisting 
of an embrace and a blow on both shoulders, with a form 
of words. 

Ae-eom'mo-date, v. t. [imp. & p. p. accommo- 
dated ; p. pr. & vb. n. ACCOMMODATING.] [Lat. ac- 
commodare, from ad and commodare , to make fit.] 1. 
To render fit, suitable, or correspondent ; to adapt ; to 
conform. 2. To furnish with something desired, needed, 
or convenient. 3. To bring into agreement or harmony ; 
to reconcile. 4. To apply by way of analogy. 

Syn. — To suit ; conform ; harmonize ; compose ; adjust ; 

Ae-eom'mo-dat-ing, a. Affording, or disposed to af- 
ford, accommodation ; kind ; helpful. 

Ae-eom/mo-da'tion, n. 1. The act of fitting, or the 
state of being fitted; — followed by to. 2. Whatever 
supplies a want or affords ease, refreshment, or conven- 
ience ; — chiefly in the plural. 3. An adjustment of dif- 
ferences ; reconciliation. 4. Application of a writer's 
language, on the ground of analogy, to something not 
originally referred to or intended. 5. (Com.) (a.) A 
loan of money which is often a great convenience, (b.) 
A note or a fictitious bill drawn and accepted to raise 
money on, not bona fide given in payment of a debt, but 
lent merely to accommodate the borrower. 

An accommodation coach, or train, one running at such 
times, and making such stoppages, as best to accommodate 
igers. — An accommodation ladder, a light ladder hung 

over the side of a ship at the gangway. — An accommodation 
bill, or note, one to which a party has put his name without 
consideration, for the purpose of benefiting or accommodating 
some other person who is to provide for the bill or note when 

Ae-eom'uio-da'tor, n. One who accommodates. 

Ae-eom'pa-iii-meiit, n. That which accompanies; 
something that attends as a circumstance, or which is 
added by way of ornament to the principal thing, or for 
the sake of symmetry; specifically (Mus.), a part per- 
formed by instruments, accompanying another part or 
parts performed by voices ; also, the harmony of a fig- 
ured bass. 

Ae-eom'pa-nist, n. The performer in music who takes 
the accompanying part. 

Ae-eom'pa-ny (-kum'-), v. t. [imp. & p. p. accompa- 
nied; p. pr. & vb. n. accompanying.] [See Com- 
pany.] To go with or attend as a companion or asso- 
ciate ; to keep company with. 

Ae-eom'plice, n. 1. A co-operator or associate in gen- 
eral. 2. (Law.) An associate in a crime. 

Ae-eoni'plish, v. t. [imp. & p. p. accomplished ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. ACCOMPLISHING.] [Fr. accomplir, from 
Lat. ad and complere, to fill up.] 1. To finish entirely 
in time ; to complete. 2. To bring to pass ; to perform. 
3. To furnish with whatever may serve to render a per- 
son or thing complete, &c. 

Syn.— To execute; fulfill; effect; realize. 

Ae-eom'plislied (-kom'plisht), p. a. Complete and 
perfected ; specifically, complete in acquirements, as the 
result usually of training. 

Ae-eom'plisli-ment, n. 1. Act of accomplishing. 
2. That which constitutes excellence of mind, or ele- 
gance of manners, acquired by education ; acquirement ; 

Ae-eompt'ant (-komnV-), n. See Accountant. 

Ae-eord', n. [From Lat. cor, cordis, heart, after the an- 
alogy of concordia, discordia, &c] 1. Agreement or 
concurrence of opinion, will, or action; consent. 2. 
Harmony of sounds; concord; chord. 3. Agreement; 
just correspondence of things. 4. Voluntary or sponta- 

- neous motion ; — preceded by own. 5. (Laiv.) An agree- 
ment between parties in controversy, by which satisfac- 
tion for an injury is stipulated, and which, when execut- 
ed, bars a suit. 

Ae-eord', v. t. [imp. & p. p. accorded ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ACCORDING.] 1. To make to agree or correspond. 
2. To bring to an agreement, as persons, or to settle, ad- 
just, harmonize, or compose, as things. 3. To grant as 
suitable or proper ; to concede. 

Ae-eord', v. i. 1. To be in accordance; to agree. 2. 
To agree in pitch and tone. 

Ae-e6rd'ance, n. Agreement ; conformity. 

A-e-eord'ant, a. Corresponding ; consonant ; agreeing ; 

Ae-eord'ant-ly , adv. In accordance .or agreement. 

Ae-e6rd'ing, p. a. In accordance or harmony with ; 
agreeable ; suitable. 

!, &c.,long; a,6, &c, short; care, far, ask, all, what; 6re,veil, term; pique, firm; son, 6r, do, wolf, 


Kf- According to has been called a prepositional phrase, but 
seems rather to have the participial sense of agreeing, followed 
by to, as in the line, " Hath honored me according to his will." 
— According as is an adverbial phrase, of which, the propriety 
has been doubted; but good usage sanctions it. 

Ae-eord'ing-ly, adv. In accordance with. 

A-e-eor'di-on, n. A small keyed wind-instrument, 
whose tones are generated by the play of wind upon 
metallic reeds. 

A«~eost' (21), v. t. [imp. & p. p. ACCOSTED ; & 
vb. n. accosting.] [Lat. ad and costa, rib, side.] To 
address ; to speak first to. 

Ae-e6st'a-»le, a. Easy of access ; affable. 

jLccouchement (ak'koosh'mong'), n. [Fr.] Delivery in 

A.ccoucheur (ak'koosh'ur'), n. [Fr.] A man who as- 
sists women in childbirth ; a man-midwife. 

Ae-eount', n. 1. A reckoning, enumeration, or record 
of some reckoning. 2. A detached written or printed 
statement of debts and credits in pecuniary transactions, 
and also of other things subjected to a reckoning or re- 
view. 3. A statement in general of reasons, causes, 
grounds, &c, explanatory of some event. Hence, the 
word is often used simply for reason, ground, considera- 
tion, &c. ; as, on no account, on every account, on all 
accounts. 4. A statement of facts or transactions ; a 
relation, narrative, or description. 5. A statement and 
explanation or vindication of one's conduct with refer - 
enca to judgment thereon. 6. An estimate or estima- 
tion. 7. Importance ; value ; advantage ; profit ; that 
is, a result worthy of estimation. 

Syn.— Narrative; narration; recital; description; detail.— In 
giving an account of a thing, if we make it a continuous story, 
it is a narrative or narration; if we dwell on minute particu- 
lars, it is a. recital or detail; if we picture a thing out, it is a 

Ae-eount', v. t. [imp. & p. p. accounted ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ACCOUNTING.] [Lat. ac, ad, and computare, to 
reckon. See Count.] 1. To recKon or compute. 

2. To hold in opinion ; to estimate. 
Syn.— To consider; regard; estimate; esteem. 

Ae-eount', v. i. 1. To render an account or relation 
of particulars. 2. To constitute a reason ; — with for. 

3. To render reasons or answer for in a reckoning or 

A-e-eount'a-lbil'i-ty, n. The state of being accounta- 
ble, or liable to give account, and to suffer punishment 
or pay damages for wrong or injury done. 

Ae-eount'a-ble, a. Liable to be caUed to account, and 
to suffer punishment or pay damages for wrong or injury 

Syn. — Amenable; responsible. 

A-e-eount'a-lble-ness, n. Accountability. 

Ae-eount'ant, n. One who keeps, or is skilled in, ac- 

A-e-eoiip'le (-kfip'l), v. t. [See Couple.] To join 
together ; to unite ; to couple. 

A-e-eou'ter, ) v. t. [imp. & p. p. ACCOUTERED, or 

A-e-equ'tre, j accoutred ; p. pr. & vb. n. accou- 
TEr'Ing or ACCOUTRING.] [Fr. accoutrer, from Lat. 
ac, ad, and consuere, to sew together.] To furnish with 
dress, equipage, or equipments, especially those of a sol- 

A-e-eou'ter-ments, ) n. pi. Dress ; equipage ; trap- 

Ae-eou'tre-ments, ) pings ; specifically, military 
dress and arms ; equipage for military service. 

Ae-ered'it, v. t. [imp. & p. p. accredited; 
& vb. n. ACCREDITING.] [Lat. accreditus, p. p. of ac- 
credere, to assent to, from ad and credere to believe.] 
1. To give trust or confidence to ; to credit. 2. To 
receive, as an envoy, in his pub he character, and give 
him credit and rank accordingly. 3. To send with cre- 
dentials, as an envoy. 

Ae-eres'cence, n. Gradual growth or increase. 

Ae-eres'cent, a. [See infra!] Growing, increasing. 

Ae-ere'tion, n. [Lat. accretio, Fr. accretion, from Lat. 
accrescere, to increase (Eng. accrue), from ad and crescere, 
to grow.] 1. An increase by natural growth, especially 
the increase of organic bodies by the internal accession 
of parts. 2. An increase by an accession of parts ex- 
ternally. 3. A growing together of parts naturally 
separate, as of the fingers or toes. 

A-e-eroaeh', v. i. [Fr. accrocher, from croc, crochet, 
hook, Eng. crook.] To hook, or draw to one's self as 
with a hook. ; 

Ae-erue' (32), v. i. [imp. & p. p. ACCRUED ; p. pr. & 
vb. n.'ACCRUlNG.] [Fr. accrue, increase ; acerb, p. p. 


of accroitre. See Accretion.] To increase; to aug- 
ment ; to arise, proceed, or spring ; to be added, as in- 
crease, profit, or damage. 

Syn. — To spring up; follow ; arise. 

Ae-eru'ment, n. Addition ; increase ; augmentation. 

A-e'-eu-ba'tion, n. A lying or reclining on a couch, as 
practiced by the ancients at their meals, with the head 
resting on a pillow or on the elbow, and the feet of one 
extended behind the back of another. 

Ae-eum'Den-cy, n. State of being accumbent. 

Ae-eum'bent, a. Leaning or reclining, as the ancients 
did at their meals. 

A-e-cu/mu-late, v. t. [imp. & p. p. accumulated ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. ACCUMULATING.] [Lat. accumulatus, 
p. p. of accumulare, from ad and cumulare, to heap.] 
To heap up in a mass; to collect or bring together. 
Syn. — To pile up ; amass; gather; collect. 

A-e-eu/mu-late, v. i. To grow to a great size, number, 
or quantity ; to increase greatly. 

A-e-eu. / m.u-la'tion, n. Act of accumulating, state of 
being accumulated, or that which is accumulated. 
Syn. —Pile; mass; heap. 

A-e-eu/mu-la-tive, a. Causing accumulation; accu- 
mulating ; cumulative. 

A«-eu'mu-la / tor, n. One who accumulates. 

Ae'eu-ra-cy, In. State of being accurate; pre- 

A-e'-eu-rate-ness, J cision which results from care ; 
exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model ; exact- 
ness ; correctness. 

Ae'eu-rate, a. [Lat. accuratus, p. p. and adj., from 
accurare, from ad and curare, to take care, from cura, 
care.] In careful conformity to truth, or to a standard, 
rule, or model; free from failure, error, or defect. 

Syn. — Correct; precise; just; nice. — A man is accurate or 
correct when he avoids faults; exact when he attends to all the 
minutise, leaving nothing neglected; i»'ecise when he does 
any thing according to a certain rule or measure. 

Ae'eu-rate-ly, adv. Ln an accurate manner. 

Ae-eurse', v. t. [imp. & p. p. accursed; p. pr. & 
vb. n. accursing.] To devote to destruction; to im- 
precate evil or misery upon ; to curse. 

A-e-eurs'ed,p..p. or a. (part, pronounced ak-kfirst', a. 
ak-kurs'ed). 1. Doomed to destruction or misery. 
2. Worthy of a curse ; detestable ; execrable. 

Ae^eu-ga'tion, «. 1. Act of accusing. 2. That of 
which one is accused. 

A«-eu'ga-tive, a. 1. Producing or containing accusa- 
tions. 2. ( Gram.) Applied to the fourth case of Greek 
and Latin nouns, being that on which the action of a 
verb terminates or falls. 

Ae-eu'ga-tive, n. ( Gram.) The fourth case of Greek 
and Latin nouns, corresponding to the objective case in 

Ae-eu'ga-tive-ly, adv. 1. In an accusative manner 
2. In relation to the accusative case. 

Ae-eu'ga-to-ry, a. Pertaining to, or containing, an ac- 

Ae-eiige', v. t. [imp. & p.p. accused ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ACCUSING.] [Lat. accusare, from ad and causa, cause, 
lawsuit.] To charge with, or declare to have committed 
a crime, offense, or fault ; in law, to charge with an of- 
fense, judicially or by a public process. 

Syn. — To arraign; censure; impeach. — We censure^ or ac- 
cuse a man for what is wrong; we arraign him for trial; we 
impeach him for maladministration or impropriety. 

A-e-eug'er, n. One who accuses, or brings a charge. 

A-e-eus'tom, v. t. [imp. & p.p. accustomed; 
& vb. n. accustoming.] To make familiar by use ; to 
habituate or inure. 

Ac-cus'tom-a-ry, a. Usual ; customary. 

Ace, n. [Lat. as, unity, unit, pound ; Gr. Doric as, ais, 
equiv. to eh, one.] 1. A single point on a card or die ; 
or the card or die so marked. 2. Hence, a very small 
quantity or degree ; a particle ; an atom. 

A-cel'da-ma, n. [Chald. khakel, Heb. khelek, field, and 
Chald. & Heb. dam, blood.] A field said to have lain 
south of Jerusalem, purchased with the bribe which 
Judas took for betraying his Master, and therefore called 
the field of Mood; — sometimes used in a figurative 

A-cepli'a-lan, n. (Zo'dl.) An animal of the sub-king- 
dom Mollusca. SeeMOLLUSK. 

A-ceph'a-loiis, a. [Gr. axe^aAo? , from a priv. and 
K€<j)a\ri, head.] 1. Without a head ; headless ; as certain 
fetuses ; — applied specifically to animals of the class or di- 

f ood, foot ; urn, rude, pull ; fell, cliaise, -eall, e-elio ; gem, get ; a§ ; exist ; linger, link ; this 




vision Acephala .<2.(Bot.) Having the style spring from the 
base, instead of the apex, as is the case in certain ovaries. 
3. Without a leader or chief. 4. Wanting something 
pre-eminently essential to completeness. 5. (Pros.) De- 

_ficient at the beginning, as a line of poetry. 

Ace'-point, n. The side of a die which has but one spot. 

Acerb' (14), a. [Lat. acerbus.] Sour with bitterness. 

A-cerlb/i-ty, n. 1. Sourness of taste, with bitterness 
and astringency, like that of unripe fruit. 2. Hence, 
harshness, bitterness, or severity ; — applied to persons 
or things. 

A-fer'i-e, a. [Lat. acer, a maple-tree.] Pertaining to, or 
obtained from, the maple; as, aceric acid. 

A-ces'cem-cy, n. The sourness created by spontaneous 
decomposition; hence, a moderate degree of sourness, or 
a tendency to sourness. 

A-ces'cent, a. [Lat. acescens, p. pr. of acescere, to turn 
sour.] Turning sour ; readily becoming tart or acid. 

Ac'e-tate, n. A salt formed by acetic acid united to a 

A-c£t'i-e, or A-ce'tie, a. [N. Lat. aceticus, from acetum, 
vinegar.] (Chem.) (a.) Composed, as a certain acid, of 
four parts each of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, (b.) 
Relating to such an acid ; as, acetic ether. 

A-cet'i-n-ca'tioii, n. The act of making acetous or 
sour ; or the operation of making vinegar. 

A-cet'i-fy, v. t. or i. [imp. & p. p. ACETIFIED ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. ACETIFYING.] [Lat. acetum, vinegar, and 
facere, to make.] To turn into acid or vinegar. 

Ac'e-tlm'e-ter, n. [Lat. acetum, vinegar, and metrum, 
measure.] An instrument for ascertaining the strength 
of vinegar or other acids. 

Ac'e-tim'e-try, n. The art of ascertaining the strength 
of vinegar or other acids. 

A-ce'tous, a. 1. Sour. 2. Causing acetification. 

Ache (ak), v. i. [imp. & p. p. ached ; & vb. n. 
ACHING.] [A.-S. acan, Gr. axelv ; Skr. aka, pain.] To 
suffer pain ; to have, or be in, pain, or in continued pain ; 

_to be distressed. 

Ache (ak), n. Continued pain, in opposition to sudden 
twinges, or spasmodic pain. 

A-chieVa-ble , a. Capable of being achieved. 

A-chieve' v. t. [imp. & p. p. achieved ; p. pr. & vb. 

n. ACHIEVING.] [Fr. achever, from Lat. caput, Fr. 

chef, head, end. See Chief.] To carry on to a final 

close ; to bring out into a perfected state ; to accomplish. 

Syn. — To complete; accomplish; fulfill; realize. 

A-chieve'ment, n. 1. Act of achieving or perform- 
ing ; accomplishment. 2. A great or heroic deed ; some- 
thing accomplished by valor or boldness. 3. (Her.) An 
escutcheon or ensign armorial, granted for the perform- 
ance of a great or honorable action. 
Syn.— Feat; deed; completion. 

A-chiev'er, n. One who accomplishes a purpose. 

A.'-ehor,n. [Lat., from Gr. ax^P, dandruff.] A cutaneous 
disease on the head ; scald-head. 

Ach^o-mat'lc , a. [Gr. axpufj-aTos, from a priv. and 
XpufJiOL, color.] ( Opt.) Free from color ; not showing 
color, from the decomposition of light. 

Ach/ro-ma-tic'i-ty, ) n. The state of being achro- 

A-chro'ma-ti§m, ) matic. 

A-eic'u.-lar, a. Slender, like a needle ; needle-shaped. 

■^"S-^'^'lt+f 'vj \ a - In the form of a needle ; acicular. 

X3L~C^-"^ 1X~JLEIX ©Clj ) 

Ac'id, a. Sour, sharp, or biting to the taste ; tart ; hav- 
ing the taste of vinegar. 

Ac'id, n. 1. A sour substance. 2. (Chem.) (a.) An 
electro-negative substance having the properties of com- 
bining with alkalies and alkaline oxides, and of reddening 
most blue vegetable colors, and usually with a strong, 
sharp taste, (b.) That substance which in the decompo- 
sition of a given compound is relatively electro -negative 
is borne to the positive pole, and in its compounds ex 
changes hydrogen for a metal. 

A-cid'i-fi'aJble, a. Capable of being acidified. 

A-pid'i-n-ea'tion, n. The act of acidifying. 

A-fid'i-fi-er, n. (Chem.) A simple or compound prin- 
ciple, whose presence is necessary to produce acidity, as 
oxygen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, &c. 

A- cid'i-fy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. acidified ; p. pr. & vb 
n. ACIDIFYING.] To make acid; specifically, to con 
vert into an acid, chemically so called, by combination 
with any substance. 

Ac'-i-dim'e-ter, n. An instrument for ascertaining the 
strength of acids. 

A-cid'i-ty, \ n. Quality of being acid or sour ; sharp- 
Ac 'id-ness, ] ness ; sourness. 
A-cid'u-late, v. t. [imp. & p. p. ACIDULATED ; p. pr. 

& vb. n. acidulating.] To make slightly acid. 
A-cid'u-loiis,a. [Lat. acidulus, dim. of acidus.] Slightly 

sour ; sub-acid ; sourish. 
A-cin/i-f6rm, a. [N. Lat. aciniformis, from acinus, 
grape, grape-stone, and forma, shape.] Having the form 
of a cluster of grapes or of a grape-stone ; full of small 
A-e-fcnowl'edge (-noFej),i>. t. [imp. 8cp.p. acknowl- 
edged ; p. pr. & vb. n. ACKNOWLEDGING.] [0. Eng. 
aknowledge , from prefix a and knowledge.'] 1. To own, 
avow, admit, or confess a knowledge of; to recognize as a 
fact or truth. 2. To own or recognize with particular 
regard or in a particular character. 3. To own with 
gratitude; to own as a benefit. 4. To own, avow, or 
assent to in a legal form, to give validity. 

Syn. — To concede; confess; allow; recognize. — We ac- 
knowledge what we feel bound to make known, as a fault or a 
favor; we concede and allow what is claimed or asked; we 
recognize when at first we were doubtful; we confess what is 
wrong or may appear so. 

A-e-fcnowl/edg-ment (-nop-), n. 1. Act of acknowl- 
edging. 2. Something given or done in return for a 
favor. 3. A declaration or avowal of one's own act, to 
give it legal validity. 

A-elin'k, a. [Gr. a priv. and /cAtVeiv, to incline.] With- 
out inclination ; — said of the magnetic equator, or the 
fine near the earth's equator on which the magnetic needle 
is exactly horizontal, and has no dip. 

A-e'me, n. [Gr. a/c/j.17.] The height, top, or highest 
point, of a thing ; crisis. 

Ae'o-lyte, ) n. [Gr. clk6\ov9o<;, from dKo\ov0etv, to fol- 

A-e'o-lytli, ) low.] 1. A companion ; an associate. 
2. (Astron.) An attendant or companion star. 3. (Eccl. 

^ Hist.) An inferior church servant. 

A-e'o-nlte , n. Wolf's-bane, a poison. 

A'-eorn, n. [A.-S. secern, from mc, oak, and corn, corn, 
grain.] The seed or fruit of an oak. 

A-eot'y-le'don, n. [Gr. <i priv. and kotv\yi8u)v, hollow 
knob or button.] A plant in which the seed-lobes, or 
cotyledons, are not present. 

A-eSt/y-led'o-noiis, a. Having either no seed-lobes, 
or such as are indistinct, like the ferns, lichens, &c. 

A-eous'ti-e (-kow'stik), a. [Gr. (xkovo-tikos, from aKoveiv, 
to hear.] Pertaining to the ears, to the sense of hearing, 
or to the doctrine of sounds. 

A-eous'ties, n. sing. The science of sounds, teaching 
their nature, phenomena, and laws. 

A-e-quaint', v. t. [imp. & p.p. acquainted ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ACQUAINTING.] [O.Fr. accointer, from L. Lat. 
accognitare , adcognitare, to make known.] 1. To make 
fully or intimately known ; to make familiar. 2. To 
communicate notice to. 

Syn. — To apprise; to inform. 

A-e-quaint/aii£e, n. 1. A state of being acquainted, 
or of having intimate or more than slight or superficial 
knowledge ; familiar knowledge. 2. A person or persons 
well known. [In this sense the word admits a plural : ac- 
quaintance and acquaintances are both in use.] 

Syn. — Familiarity; fellowship; intimacy. — Intimacy is the 
result of close connection, and hence is the stronger word; 
familiarity springs from frequent intercourse. 

A-e/quI-esce' (ak'kwi-es'), v. i. [imp. & p. p. acqui- 
esced ; p. pr. & vb. n. ACQUIESCING.] [Lat. acqui- 
escere, from ad and quiescere, to be quiet ; quies, rest.] 1. 
To rest satisfied, or apparently satisfied, or to rest with- 
out opposition and discontent. 2. To concur upon con- 

Acquiesced in, in a passive sense, complied with; submitted 
to, without opposition. 
Syn. — To accede; assent; consent; comply 

A-e'qui-es'pence, n. A silent assent or submission, or 
a submission with apparent content. 

A-e'qui-es'ceirt, a. Submitting : disposed to submit. 

A«-quir'a4>le, a. Capable of being acquired. 

Acquire', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ACQUIRED ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ACQUIRING.] [Lat. acquirere, from ad and quarere, 
to seek for.] To gain, usually by one's own labor or ex- 

Syn. — To attain; obtain; procure; earn; win; secure. 

A-e-quTre'ment, n. The act of acquiring, or that which 
is acquired. 

Syn.— Attainment; gain; acquisition. 

5,e,&c, long; &,8,8cc.,short; care, far, ask, all, what; e^re, veil, term; p5£que,firm; son, or, do, wolf, 


ACqui-gi'tion, rc. 1. Act of acquiring. 2. The thing 

acquired, or gained ; acquirement. 
A-e-quig'i-tive,a. 1. Acquired. [Rare.] 2. Disposed 

to make acquisitions. 
Ae-quig'i-tive-ly, adv. In the way of acquisition. 
A-e-quIg'i-tive-ness, n. 1. State or quality of being 

acquisitive. 2. (Phren.) The organ which is supposed 

to give rise to this desire. 
Ac-quit', v. t. [imp. & p. p. acquitted ; p. pr. & vb. 

n. ACQUITTING.] [Fr. acguitter, from ac, for ad, and 

quitter, to forsake, from Lat. quietus, quiet. See QUIT.] 

1. To set free ; to release or discharge, especially from 
an obligation, accusation, guilt, censure, suspicion, or 
whatever lies upon a person as a charge or duty. 2. 
Reflexively, to bear or conduct one's self. 

Syn.-- To clear; absolve. 

Ac-quit'ment, n. Act of acquitting, or state of being 

I acquitted; acquittal. 

[Ac-quit'tal, n. (Law.) Deliverance from the charge 
of an offense, by verdict of a jury or sentence of a court. 

Ac-quit'tance, n. 1. The act of acquitting or dis- 
charging from a debt, or other engagement or obligation. 

2. A. writing which is evidence of a discharge ; a receipt 
in full, which bars a further demand. 

A-erage^, I v f< rp ma k e craZ y ; to impair ; to destroy. 

A'-ere (a/ker), n. [A.-S. acer, aster, Lat. ager, Gr. aypos. 
The primitive sense is an open, plowed, or sowed field.] A 
piece of land containing 160 square rods or perches, or 

_4840 square yards, or 43,560 square feet. 

A'-ere-age (a/ker-), n. A sum total of acres. 

Ac 'rid, a. Of a biting taste ; sharp ; pungent ; harsh. 

Ae'rid-ness, n. A sharp, harsh quality ; pungency. 

Ac'ri-nio'ni-ous, a. 1. Abounding with acrimony. 
2. Sarcastic. 

Syn. — Sharp; severe; bitter; corrosive; caustic. 

Ae'ri-mo'iii-oiis-ly , adv. With sharpness or bitterness. 

Ae'ri-mo-ny, n. 1„ A quality of bodies which cor- 
rodes, dissolves, or destroys others. 2. Sharpness or 
severity, as of language or temper. 

Syn.— Asperity; harshness; tartness. —Acrimony springs 
from an embittered spirit; tartness from an irritable temper; 
asperity and harshness from disregard for the feelings of others. 

Ac'ri-tude (53), n. [Lat. acritudo, from acer, sharp.] 
An acrid quality ; biting heat ; acrimony. 

Ac'ro-a-mat'ic, ) a. [Gr. aKpoa/xanKo?, from a/cpo- 

A-e'i-o-a-mat'ic-al, J aaOai, to hear.] Designed only to 
be heard ; oral ; — applied to the esoteric teachings of 
Aristotle, which were confined to his immediate hearers 
or disciples, in distinction from his exoteric doctrines, 
which were taught by means of books. 

A-e'ro-at'i-e, a. [Gr. d/cpoanKos. See supra.] The same 

A-e'ro-bat, n. [Gr. a*po?, on high, and /3atvetv, to go.] 
One who practices high vaulting, rope-dancing, &c. 

Ac'ro-bat'ic, a. Belonging to an acrobat or to his ex- 

Ac'ro-gen, n. [Gr. a/cpo?, extreme, and yiyvea-6ai, to be 
born.] (Hot.) A plant of the highest tribe of Crypto- 
gams, including the ferns, &c. See CRYPTOGAMA. 

A-erog'e-iioiis. a. (Hot.) Increasing in growth from 
the extremity. 

A-cron'yc-al, «• [Gr. a.Kp6wKro<;, d/cpovvKno?, from 
aicpos, extreme, and vv£, night.] (Astron. ) Rising at sun- 
set and setting at sunrise, as a star; — opposed to cos- 

A-crop'o-lis, n. The upper or higher part of a Grecian 
city ; hence, the citadel or castle, and especially the cita- 
del of Athens. [at the end of a. seed. 

Ac'ro-spire, n. [Gr. a/cpo? and cnreipa, spire.] A sprout 

A-eross' (21), prep. From side to side of; athwart ; quite 
over; crosswise of, or in a direction opposed to the 
length of. 

A-eross', adv. From side to side ; crosswise. 

A-eros'tie, n. [Gr. a/cpooTixov, from a«po?, extreme, 
and (TTt'xo?, order, line, verse.] A composition , usually in 
verse, in which the first or the last letter of every line, or 
of every word, read collectively, forma name or sentence. 

A-eros'tic-al-ly, adv. In the manner of an acrostic. 

Aet, v. i. [Lat. actus, p. p. of agere, to drive, lead, do.] 
1. To exert power. 2. To be in action or motion ; to 
perform an action or actions. 3. To behave or conduct, 
as in morals, private duties, or public offices ; to demean 
one's self. 


A-et, v. t. [imp. & p. p. ACTED ; p. pr. & vb. n. ACT- 
ING.] 1. To perform, especially upon the stage. 2. 
Hence, to feign or counterfeit. 3. To perform the part 
^of ; to assume the office or character of; to play. 

A-et, n. 1. That which is done or doing; performance; 
deed. Hence, in specific uses, (a.) The result of public 
deliberation, or the decision of a prince, legislative body, 
council, court of justice, or magistrate ; a decree, edict, 
law, judgment, resolve, award, determination, (b.) A 
book, record, or writing, containing laws and determina- 
tions ; any instrument in writing to verify facts, (c.) 
One of the larger or principal divisions of a play, (d.) 
A thesis maintained in pub he, in some English universi- 
ties, (e.) The time when masters and doctors complet* 
their degrees, at the university of Oxford, Eng. 2. A 
state of reality, or real existence, as opposed to a possi- 
bility, or possible existence. 3. A state of preparation, 
readiness, or incipient action. 

Ac-tin'ic, a. Belonging to actinism. 

Ac-tln'i-f orm, a. [Gr. d/crt'?, ray, and Lat. forma, 
^ form.] Having a radiated form. 

Ae'tin-igm, n. A property in the solar rays which pro- 
duces chemical changes, as in photography. 

A-e'ti-nom'e-ter, n. [Gr. clktCs, ray, and /xeVpov, meas- 
ure.] ( Opt.) An instrument for measuring the intensity 
w of the sun's actinic rays. 

A-e'tion, n. X» Exertion of power or force, as when one 
body acts on another ; or the effect of power exerted on 
one body by another ; motion produced ; agency. 2. An 
act or thing done ; a deed ; especially, the result of an 
exercise of volition ; hence, conduct ; behavior ; demean- 
or. 3. The event or series of events, either real or im- 
aginary, forming the subject of a play, narrative, poem, 
or other composition. 4. (Orat.) Gesture or gesticula- 
tion. 5. (Law.) (a.) A suit or process, by which a de- 
mand is made of a right in a court of justice ; a claim 
made before a tribunal, (b.) A right of action. 6. 
( Com.) A share in the capital stock of a joint-stock com- 
pany, or in the public funds ; in the pi., stocks. [A Gal- 
licism.] 7. (Paint. & Sculp.) The attitude or position 
of the several parts of the body. 8. An engagement be- 
w tween troops in war. 

Ac'tion-a-ble, a. Admitting a suit, or the bringing of 
an action at law which will he ; as, to call a man a thief 
^is actionable. 

Ae'tion-a-hry. adv. In an actionable manner. 

Ae'tion-a-ry, \n. (Com.) A proprietor of stock in a 

A-e'tion-ist, ) joint-stock company ; one who owns 

^ actions or shares of stock. 

Act'ive, a. 1. Having the power or quality of acting ; 
communicating action or motion ; — opposed to passive. 
2. Constantly engaged in action ; hence, energetic ; dili- 
gent ; busy. 3. Requiring or implying action or exer- 
tion ; practical ; operative ; producing real effects ; — op- 
posed to speculative. 4. (Gram.) Expressing the transi- 
tion or passing of an action from an agent to an object, 
as certain verbs do ; transitive. 

Syn. — Brisk; alert; agile; nimble; sprightly; prompt; 
quick. — Agile and nimble relate to bodily movements, the 
others may apply either to the body or the mind. 

Aet'ive-ly, adv. In an active manner ; nimbly. 

A-et'ive-ness, \ n. Quality of being active; nimble- 

Ae-tiv'i-ty, j ness ; agility. 

A-et'or, n. One who acts ; especially, one who plays on 
' the stage. 

Act'ress, n. A female who acts or plays. 

Act'u-al, a. [Lat. actualis.] 1. Existing in act, and 
truly and absolutely so ; really acted or acting ; carried 
out ; — opposed to potential, possible, virtual, or theoret- 
ical. 2. Existing at the present time ; present. 

A-et'u-al'i-ty, n. The state of being actual. 

A-efu-al-i-za'tion, n. A making actual or really exist- 

Aet'u.-al-ize, v. t. To make actual. [ent. 

Aet'iz-al-ly, adv. In act or fact ; really ; verily ; truly. 

A-et'u-al-ness, n. State or quality of being actual; 

A-et'u-a-ry, n. X. A registrar or clerk. 2. The man- 
ager of a joint-stock company, particularly of an insur- 
ance company. 

A-et'u-ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. actuated ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. actuating.] To put into action ; to move or 
incite to action. 

Syn.— To move; impel; instigate; induce; rouse; animate. 

A-eii'le-ate, a. (Bot.) Having prickles, or sharp points ; 
pointed ; — used chiefly to denote prickles fixed in the 
bark, in distinction from thorns, which grow from the 

food, foot ; urn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, -call, echo ; gem, get ; a§ ; e$ist ; linger, linfc ; this- 




A-eu'men, n. Quickness of perception or discernment ; 
penetration of mind ; the faculty of nice discrimination. 
Syn. — Acuteness; astuteness; shrewdness; perspicuity; 

A-eu'mi-nate, v. t. To render sharp or keen. 

A-eu'mi-nate, v. i. To end in, or come to, a sharp 

A-eu'mi-nate, a. Having a long, tapering point. 

A-eu/mi-na/tion, n. A sharpening ; termination in a 
sharp point. 

Ae'u-puuet'ure , n. The introduction of needles into 
the living tissues for remedial purposes. 

A-eute', a. 1. Sharp at the end ; ending in a sharp 
point ; pointed ; — opposed to blunt or obtuse. 2. Hav- 
ing nice discernment ; perceiving or using minute dis- 
tinctions ; penetrating ; shrewd ; — opposed to dull or 
stupid. 3. Having nice or quick sensibility ; susceptible 
of slight impressions. 4. High, or shrill, in respect to 
some other sound ; — opposed to grave or low. 5. (Med.) 
Attended with symptoms of some degree of severity, and 
coming speedily to a crisis ; — opposed to chronic. 
Syn. — Penetrating; piercing; pointed; shrewd; subtle. 

A-eute'ly, adv. Sharply ; shrewdly ; keenly. 

Ad'age, n. [Lat. adagium, from adigere, to adduce ; ad 
and agere, to lead, do.] An old saying, which has ob- 
tained credit by long use. 

Syn.— Maxim; proverb; aphorism; axiom; saw. 

A.-da'gio (-jo), a. [It.] (Mus.) Slow; moving slowly, lei- 
surely, and gracefully. When repeated, adagio, adagio, 
it directs the movement to be very slow. 

A-dd'glo, n. A piece of music in adagio time. 

Ad'a-mant, n. [Gr. aSdfiag, -<xvto?, the hardest iron, 
steel, diamond, prop, untamable, infrangible, from a 
priv. and Sa/xav, to tame, subdue.] 1. A stone imag- 
ined by some to be of impenetrable hardness ; — a name 
given to the diamond and other substances of extreme 

. hardness. 2. Lodestone. [Obs.] 

Ad'a-man-te'an, a. Hard as adamant. 

Ad'a-mant 'ine, a. Made of, or having the qualities of, 

Adamantine spar, a very hard variety of corundum. 

Ad'am'g-ap'ple, n. 1. A species of citron. 2. The 
projection formed by the thyroid cartilage in the neck ; 
— so called from a notion that it was caused by the apple 

w sticking in the throat of our first parent. 

Ad'an-so'ni-a, n. The African calabash -tree, one of 
the largest of trees. 

A-dapt', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ADAPTED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ADAPTING.] [Lat. adaptare, from ad and aptare, to fit.] 
To make fit or suitable. 

Syn.— To suit; accommodate; adjust; apply; attune. 

A-dapt'a-Ml'ity, ) n. Quality of being adaptable ; 

A-dapt'a-ble-ness, ) suitableness. 

A-dapt'a-lble, a. Capable of being adapted. 

Ad'ap-ta'tion, n. The act of adapting, or fitting; or 
the state of being adapted or fitted ; fitness. 

A-dapt'er, n. 1. One who adapts. 2. (Chem.) A re- 
ceiver with two necks ; an adopter. 

Add, v. t. [imp. & p. p. added ; p. pr. & vb. n. ADD- 
ING.] [Lat. addere, from ad and dare, to give.] To join 
or unite, as one thing or sum to another, so as to increase 
the number, augment the quantity, enlarge the magni- 
tude, or so as to form into one aggregate. 

Syn.— To subjoin; to annex. — We add numbers, &c; we 
subjoin an after-thought; we annex some adjunct, as territory. 

Ad'da-lble, a. See Addible. 

Ad-den f du<m,n.;pl. ad-den' da. [Lat.] A thing to be 
added ; an appendix. 

Ad'der, n. [A.-S. setter, nmdre, Goth, nadrs, Lat. natrix, 
from nare, to swim.] A venomous serpent ; a viper. 

Ad'di-Ml'i-ty, n. State or quality of being addible. 

Ad'di-ble, a. [See Add.] Capable of being added. 

Ad-dl-et', v. t. [imp. & p. p. addicted ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ADDICTING.] [Lat. addictus, p. p. of addicere, to 
adjudge, devote ; from ad and dicer e, to say.] To apply 
habitually ; to devote ; to accustom ; to habituate. 

Syn. — To devote ; to dedicate to. — Addict is commonly 
used in a bad sense, the other two in a good one; addicted to 
vice; devoted to literature; dedicated to religion. 

Ad-dl-et'ed-ness, n. Devoteduess. 

Ad-di'tion (-dish'un), n. 1. The act of adding two or 
more things together. 2. Any thing added; increase. 
3. (Math.) The branch of arithmetic which treats of 
adding numbers. 4. (Mus.) A dot at the right side of 
a note as an indication that its sound is to be lengthened 

one half. 5. (Law.) A title annexed to a man's name, 
to show his rank, occupation, or place of residence. 
Syn. — Increase ; accession ; augmentation. 

Ad-dl'tion-al (-dish'un-), a. Added; adscititious. 

Ad-di'tion-al-ly, adv. By way of addition. 

Ad'dle, a. [A.-S. adl, sick, diseased ; adlian, aidlian, to 
be sick.] Having lost the power of development, by be- 
coming diseased, as eggs ; putrid ; corrupt ; hence, pro- 

_ ducing nothing ; unfruitful or barren, as brains. 

Ad'dle, v. t. To make addle ; to make corrupt or morbid. 

Ad-dress', v. t. [imp. & p. p. addressed ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ADDRESSING.] [Lat. directus, -p. p. of dirigere, to 
direct.] 1. To prepare or make ready. 2. To direct 
words or discourse to ; to apply to by words, as by a 
speech, address, petition, or the like. 3. To direct in 
writing, as a letter ; to superscribe. 4. To court ; to 
woo. 5. (Coon.) To consign or intrust to the care of 
another, as agent or factor. 

Ad-dress', n. 1. A formal application, speech, discourse, 
petition, or the like, either written or verbal. 2. Man- 
ner of speaking to another. 3. Attention in the way 
of courtship ; — usually in the plural. 4. Skill ; dex- 
terity. 5. Direction or superscription of a letter, or the 
name, title, and place of residence of the person addressed. 
Syn. — Adroitness; tact. 

Ad-duce' (30), v. t. [imp. & p. p. ADDUCED ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ADDUCING.] [Lat. adducere, to lead or bring to ; 
ad and ducere, to lead.] To bring forward, present, or 
offer ; to bring forward by way of proof. 
Syn. — To allege; cite; quote; advance; introduce. 

Ad-du'cent, a. Bringing forward or together. 

Ad-du'fi-ble, a. Capable of being adduced. 

Ad-due'tion, n. Act of adducing or bringing forward. 

Ad-du-e'-tlve, a. Adducive ; bringing forward. 

Ad-due'tor, n. (Anat.) A muscle which draws one part 
of the body toward another. 

Ad'e-nol'o-gy, n. [Gr. aSrjv, gland, and Aoyos, dis- 
course.] (Anat.) The doctrine of the glands, their na- 
ture and their uses. 

A-dept', n. One well skilled in any art. 

A-dept', a. [Lat. adeptus, obtained (sc. artem), he who 
has obtained an art, p. p. of adipisci, to arrive at, to 
obtain.] Well skilled ; skillful ; completely versed or ac- 

Ad'e-qua-cy, n. The state or quality of being adequate. 

Ad'e-quate, a. [Lat. adsequatus, p. p. of ad&quare, to 
make equal to.] Equal, proportionate, or correspondent ; 
fully sufficient. 

Syn. — Enough; competent; requisite; commensurate. 

Ad'e-quate-ly, adv. In proportion ; sufficiently ; fitly. 

Ad'e-quate-ness, n. Adequacy ; sufficiency. 

Ad-here', v. i. [imp. & p.p. adhered ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ADHERING.] [Lat. adhserere, from ad and haerere, to 
stick.] 1. To stick fast or cleave, as a glutinous sub- 
stance does ; to become joined or united. 2. To hold, 
be attached, or devoted. 

Syn. — To cling; hold fast; abide by. 

Ad-her'ence ) (89), n. 1. Quality or state of adhering. 

Ad-her'en-cy ) 2. State of being fixed in attach- 
ment ; steady attachment ; adhesion. 

Ad-her'ent, a. United with or to ; sticking. 

Ad-her'ent, n. One who adheres ; one who cleaves to 
or supports some person or cause. 
Syn. — Partisan; follower; supporter; advocate. 

Ad-her'ent-ly, adv. In an adherent manner. 

Ad-he'§ion, n. The act or state of sticking, or being 
attached ; the force with which distinct bodies adhere 
when their surfaces are brought in contact. Gluti- 
nous bodies unite by adhesion ; the particles of a homo- 
geneous body by cohesion. [stances. 

Ad-he'sive, a. Sticky ; tenacious, as glutinous sub- 

Ad-he'sive-ly, adv. In an adhesive manner. [ing. 

Ad-he'sive-ness, n. The quality of sticking, or adher- 

Ad-hor'ta-to-ry, a. Containing counsel or warning; 

A-dieii' (a-du', 30), adv. Good-by ; farewell. 

A-dieu.', n. A farewell ; commendation to the care of God. 

Ad/i-p5c'e-rate, v. t. To convert into adipocere. 

Ad'i-poc'e-ra'tion, n. Act or process of being changed 
into adipocere. 

Ad'i-po-cere', n. [Fr. adipocire, from Lat. adeps, soft 
fat, and cera, wax.] A soft, unctuous, waxy substance, 
into which the fat and muscular fiber of dead animal 
bodies are changed by long immersion in water or spirit, 
or sometimes by burial in moist places. 

a,e, Sec, long; a, 6, 8cc, short; care, far, ask, all, what; §re, veil, term; pique, firm; sdn,dr,dQ,W9lf, 




Ad'i-pose', a. [N. Lat. adiposus, from adeps, fat.] Per- 
taining to, or consisting of, animal fat ; fatty. 
Ad'it, n. [Lat. aditus, entrance, from adire, to go to.] 

1. A horizontal or inclined entrance into a mine ; a drift. 

2. Passage ; approach ; access. 

Ad-ja'cen-cy, n. State of being adjacent or contiguous. 

Ad-ja'cent, a. Lying near, close, or contiguous, but 
not actually touching. 

Ad'je-e-ti'val, or Ad'je-e-tiv-al, a. Pertaining to an 

Ad'je-e-tlve, n. [Lat. adjectivum, from adjicere, to add 
to, from ad and jacere, to throw.] (Gram.) A word used 
with a noun or substantive, to describe, specify, limit, 
or define it, or to denote some property of it. 

Adjective color, one which requires the addition of a mor- 
dant to give it permanency. 

Ad'jec-tlve-ly, adv. In the manner of an adjective. 

Ad-join', v. t. To join or unite to. 

Ad-join', v. i. [imp. & p. p. adjoined ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. adjoining.] To be contiguous or next ; to be in 
contact or very near. 

Syn. — Adjacent; contiguous; neighboring.— Things are 
adjacent or neighboring when they are near to each other; 
adjoining and contiguous when they are close by or in contact. 

Ad-journ', v. t. [imp. & p. p. adjourned ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ADJOURNING.] [Fr. ajoumer, from jour, day ; 
Lat. diurnus, belonging to the day.] To put off or defer 
to another day, or indefinitely. 

Syn. — To postpone; defer; delay; prorogue. — A court, legis- 
lature, or meeting is adjourned ; parliament is prorogued at the 
end of a session; we delay or defer a thing to a future time; we 
postpone it when we make it give way to soAiething else. 

Ad-journ', v. i. To suspend business for a time ; to 
close the session of a public body. 

Ad-journ'ment, n. 1. The act of adjourning ; the 
putting off to some specified day, or without day. 2. 
The interval during which a public body defers business. 

Ad-judge', v. t. [imp. & p. p. adjudged; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ADJUDGING.] [Fr. adjuger, Lat. adjudicare, from 
ad anxdjudicare, to judge.] 1. To award or decree judi- 
cially or by authority. 2. To sentence ; to condemn. 

Ad-ju/di~eate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. adjudicated; 
p. pr. & vb. n. adjudicating.] To try and determine, 
as a court ; to adjudge. 

Ad-ju'di-ea'tion, n. 1. Act of adjudicating. 2. A 
judicial sentence, judgment, or decision. 

Ad'junet, n. 1. Something joined to another thing, but 
not an essential part of it ; an appendage. 2. A colleague . 

Ad'junet, a. Added or united. 

Ad-june'tion, n. The act of joining ; the thing joined. 

Ad-jixii-et'ive, a. Having the quality of joining. 

Ad-jtinet'ive, n. One who, or that which, is joined. 

Ad-jiinct'ly, adv. In connection with ; consequently. 

Ad'ju-ra'tion, n. 1. Act of adjuring ; a solemn charg- 
ing on oath, or under penalty of a curse. 2. The form 
of oath. 

Adjure', v. t. [imp. &p. p. adjured ; p. pr. & vb n. 
ADJURING.] [Lat. adjurare, to swear to, from ad and ju- 
rare, to swear.] To charge, bind, command, or entreat 
solemnly and earnestly, as if under oath, or under the 
penalty of a curse. 

Ad-just', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ADJUSTED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ADJUSTING.] [L. Lat. adjustare, from ad and Justus, 
just, right.] 1. To make exact or conformable. 2. To 
reduce to order. 3. To set right. 

Syn. — To fit; adapt; suit; regulate; accommodate. 

Ad-just'a-ble, a. Capable of being adjusted. 

Ad-jtist'er, n. One who, or 
that which, adjusts. 

Ad-just'ment, n. Act of 
adjusting ; reducing to order 
or due conformity ; arrange- 
ment ; disposition ; settlement. 

Ad'ju-tage. See Ajutage. 

Ad'ju-tan-cy, n. The office 
of an adjutant. 

Ad'ju-tant, n. 1. An officer 
who assists the superior offi- 
cers in the execution of orders, 
conducting correspondence, 
placing guards, &c. 2. A very __ 
large species of stork, a native 
of India. 

Adjutant-general, an officer ""^ 
who assists the general of an Adjutant, 


Ad'ju-vant, a. Helping ; assisting. 

Ad-meas/ure (-mezh/ur), v. t. [imp. & p. p. admeas- 
ured ; p. pr. & vb. n. admeasuring.] 1. To take 
the dimensions, size, or capacity of. 2. To apportion. 

Ad-meag'ure-ment, n. 1. Act or process of ascer- 
taining tUe dimensions of any thing. 2. The dimensions 

Ad-meas/ur-er, n. One who admeasures. 

Ad-men'su-ra'tion, n. Admeasurement. 

Ad-min'is-ter, v. t. [imp. & p. p. administered ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. administering.] 1. To manage or 
conduct, as public affairs. 2. To supply ; to dispense, 
as justice. 3. To give or tender, as an oath. 4. (Law.) 
To settle, as the estate of one who dies without a will, or 
whose will fails of an executor. 
Syn.— To manage; conduct; minister; contribute; supply. 

Ad-min'is-ter, v. i. 1. To contribute; to bring aid 
or supplies. 2. (Law.) To perform the office of admin- 

Ad-minls-te'ri-al, a. Pertaining to administration, 
or to the executive part of government. 

Ad-min'is-tra-ble, a. Capable of being administered. 

Ad-mua/is-tra'tion, n. 1. The act of administering. 
2. The executive part of the government. 3. Dispensa- 
tion ; distribution. 4. The persons collectively who are 
intrusted with the execution of laws and the superin- 
tendence of public affairs. 5. (Law.) (a.) Management 
and disposal, under legal authority , of the estate of an in- 
testate, or of a testator having no competent executor. 
(b.) Management of an estate of a deceased person by an 

Ad-min'is-tra/tive, a. Administering. 

Ad-min'is-tra'tor, n. 1. One who administers, or 
who directs, manages, or dispenses laws and rites. 2. 
( Law.) One to whom the right of administration has been 
committed by competent authority. 

Ad-min/is-tra'tor-ship, n. Office of administrator. 

Ad-min'is-tra'trix, n. A woman who administers, 
especially one to whom letters of administration have 
been granted. 

Ad'mi-ra-ble, a. Worthy of admiration. 

Syn. — Wonderful; rare; excellent; surprising. 

Ad'mi-ra-bly, adv. In an admirable manner. 

Ad'mi-ral, n. [Ar., commander of the sea, 
the terminating syllable or word having been omitted.] 
1. A naval officer of the highest rank. 2. The ship 

w which carries the admiral. 

Ad'mi-ral-ship, n. The office of an admiral. 

Ad'mi-ral-ty (112), n. 1. The body of officers appointed 
for the management of naval affairs. 2. The building 
where the lords of the admiralty transact business. 

Courts of admiralty, courts having cognizance of questions 
arising out of maritime affairs, and of crimes committed on the 
high seas. 

Ad'mi-ra'tion, n. Wonder ; especially, in present usage, 
wonder mingled with pleasing emotions, as approbation, 
esteem, love, or veneration. 

Ad-mire', v. t. [imp. & p.p. admired \ & vb.n. 
ADMIRING.] [Lat. admirari, from ad and mirari, to 
wonder.] 1. To regard with wonder or surprise, espe- 
cially wonder mingled with approbation, esteem, rever- 
ence, or affection. 2. To estimate or prize highly. 

egjf- It is an error to follow this verb with an infinitive; as, I 
admire to see a man consistent in his conduct. 

Ad-mire', v. i. To wonder ; to marvel. 

Ad-mir'er, n. One who admires ; a lover. 

Ad-mis'si-bll'i-ty, n. The quality of being admissible^. 

Ad-mis'si-l>le, a. Capable or worthy of being admitted 

Ad-mls'sion (-mlsh / un), n. 1. Act or practice of ad 
mitting. 2. Power or permission to enter ; access. 3, 
The granting of an argument or position not fully proved 

Ad-mlt', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ADMITTED ; p. pr. & vb 
n. ADMITTING.] [Lat. admittere, from ad and mittere 
to send.] 1. To grant entrance to, whether into a place 
or into the mind. 2. To give evidence of a right of en 
trance. 3. To receive as true. 4. To be capable of. 

Syn. — To concede; grant; permit; allow. — Admit has the 
widest sense. We grant or concede what is claimed; we allow 
what we suffer to take place or yield ; we permit what we con- 
sent to. 

Ad-mit'tan^e, n. 1. Act of admitting. 2. Permis- 
sion to enter. 3. (Law.) Act of giving possession of a 
copyhold estate. 

Ad-mix', v. t. To mingle with something else. 

Ad-mix'tioii (-mlksVyun, 97), n. [Lat. admiztio.] A 
mingling of bodies ; a union by mixing different sub- 
stances together. 

Ad-mlxt', n. 1. A mixing. 2. What is mixed. 

food, ftfbt ; urn,, pull ; cell, chaise, -call, e«ho ; gem, get ; ag ; exist ; linger, link ; this. 




Ad-mon'ish, v. t. [imp. & p.p. admonished ; 
& vb. n. ADMONISHING-.] [Lat. admonere,admonitum, 
from ad and monere, to remind, warn.] 1. To reprove 
gently, or with mildness. 2. To counsel against wrong 
practices. 3. To instruct or direct ; to inform. 

Syn. — To reprove; caution; rebuke; reprimand; warn; ad- 
vise. — We advise as to future conduct; we warn of danger or 
by way of threat; we actinonish with a view to one's improve- 
ment; we reprove, reprimand, and rebuke by way of punish- 

Ad-mon'isli-er, n. A reprover; an adviser. 

Ad rno-ni'tion (-nish'un), n. Gentle or friendly re- 
proof or counsel ; advice. 

Ad-naon'i-tive, a. Containing admonition. 

Ad-mon'i-tor, n. One who admonishes- 

Ad-«ion'i-to-ry, a. Containing admonition ; admon- 

Ad-nas'cent, a. [Lat. adnascens, p. pr. of adnasci, ad- 
nalus, to grow to or on.] Growing to or on something else. 

Ad'nate, a. [See supra.] (Bot.) Growing close to astern. 

A-do' (23), n. [Prefix a, for to, and do.] Bustle ; trouble ; 
labor ; difficulty. 

Adobe (a-do'ba), n. [Sp.] An unburnt brick dried in the 

Ad'o-les'cence, n. Youth ; the years between the 
ages of 14 and 25 in man, and of 12 and 21 in woman. 

Ad'o-les'cent, a. [Lat. adolescens, of adolescere, 
to grow up to.] Growing ; advancing from childhood to 

A-dopt', v. t. [imp. & p. p. adopted ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ADOPTING.] [Lat. adoptare, from ad and optare, to 
choose.] To select and take as one's own when not so 

A-dopt'er, n. 1. One who adopts. 2. (Chem.) A re- 
ceiver with two necks. 

A-dop'tion, n. 1. The act of adopting, or state of be- 
ing adopted. 2. The receiving as one's own what is 
new or not natural. 

A-dopt'ive, a. 1. Adopted ; as, an adoptive son. 2. 
Adopting ; as, an adoptive father. 

A-dor'a-hle, a. Worthy of adoration. 

A-dor'a-lble-ness, n. The quality of being adorable. 

A-dor'a-bly, adv. With adoration or worship. 

Ad'o-ra'tion, n. 1. Worship paid to a divine being. 
2. Homage paid to one in high esteem. 

A-dore', v. t. [imp. & p. p. adored ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ADORING.] [Lat. adorare, from ad and orare, to speak, 
pray, from os. oris, mouth.] 1. To worship with pro- 
found reverence. 2. To love in the highest degree. 

A-dor'ei*, n. A worshiper ; a lover. 

A-dorn', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ADORNED ; p. pr. & vb, 
n. adorning.] [Lat. adomare, from ad and ornare, to 
furnish, embellish.] To render beautiful ; to decorate. 

Syn.— To deck; embellish; set off; beautify; ornament. — 
We decorate and ornament for the sake of show; we embellish 
and adorn to heighten beauty. 
A-dorn'ment, n. Ornament ; embellishment. 
Ad-os'eu-la/tion, n. 1. The impregnation of plants 
by the falling of the farina on the pistil. 2. A species 
of budding or ingrafting. 3. (Physiol.) An impregna- 
tion by mere external contact, without intromission, as 
in fishes. [ward. 

A-down', prep. Down ; toward the ground. — adv. down- 
A-drift', a. or adv. [Prefix a and drift.] Floating at 

random ; at large. 
A-droit', a. [Fr. d droit, to the right, from Lat. directus, 
p. p. of dirigere, to direct.] Possessing or exercising skill 
or dexterity ; ready in invention or execution. 
Syn. — Skillful; expert; clever; dexterous; ingenious. 
A-droit'ly, adv. In an adroit manner. 
A-droit'ness, n. Dexterity ; readiness of body or mind. 
A-dry', a. Thirsty ; in want of drink. 
Ad'sci-ti'tioiis (-tlsh'us), a. [From Lat. adsciscere, as- 
ciscere, to take knowingly.] Taken as supplemental; 
^ added; additional. 

Ad'u-la'tion, n. [Lat. adulatio, from adulari, to flat- 
ter.] Servile flattery ; sycophancy. 

Syn. — Flattery; compliment.— A man who respects himself 
may use the language of compliment, and perhaps of flattery 
but never of adulation. 
Ad'u-la/tor, n. A servile flatterer ; sycophant. 
Ad'u-la/to-ry, a. Flattering to excess. 
A-diilt', a. [Lat. adultus, p. p. of adolescere. See Ado- 
lescent.] Having arrived at mature years, or to full 
size and strength.', n. A person or thing grown to maturity. 
A-dul'ter-ant, n. A person or thing that adulterates. 

A-dul'ter-ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. adulterated; 

p. pr. & vb. n. ADULTERATING.] [Lat. adulterare, 
from adulter, adulterer, unchaste ; ad and alter, other, 
properly one who approaches another on account of un- 
lawful love.] t To debase or corrupt or make impure by 
admixture of baser materials. 
Syn.— To contaminate; corrrupt. 

A-dul'ter-ate, a. 1. Tainted with adultery. 2. De- 
based ; corrupted. 

A-diU/ter-a'tion, n. Act of adulterating, or state of 
being adulterated. 

A-diil'ter-er, n. [Lat. adulter, with an additional Eng. 
termination.] A man who is guilty of adultery. 

A-dul'ter-ess, n. A woman who commits adultery. 

A-dul'ter-ine, or A-dul'ter-ine, a. Proceeding from 

A-dul'ter-ine, or A-dul'ter-ine, n. A child bom in 

A-diU'ter-ous, a. Pertaining to, or guilty of, adultery. 

A-dul'ter-y, n. 1. A violation of the marriage-bed. 
2. [Script.) Violation of one's religious covenant. 

A-dult'ness, n. The state of being an adult. 

Ad-um'forant, a. Giving a faint shadow. 

Ad-umlbrate, v. t. [Lat. adumbrare, from ad and um- 

__ bra, shade.] To shadow faintly forth ; to typify. 

Ad'um-bra'tion, n. 1. The act of shadowing forth. 
2. A faint resemblance. 

A-dun'ci-ty, n. [Lat. aduncitas, fr. aduncus, hooked.] 
Hookedness, or a bending in form of a hook. 

A-dust', a. [Lat. adustus, p. p. of adurere.] 1. Burnt 
or scorched ; hot and fiery. 2. Looking as if burnt or 

Ad-vance', v. t. [imp. & p. p. advanced ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ADVANCING.] [0. Fr. advancer, from Lat. ab 
ante, fit. from before.] 1. To bring forward. 2. To 
raise to a higher rank. 3. To accelerate the growth or 
progress of; to forward ; to help on. 4. To offer or pro- 
pose. 5. To supply beforehand ; to pay for others, in 
expectation of re-imbursement. 

Syn. — To adduce; allege; proceed; heighten. 

Ad-vance', v. i. 1. To move or go forward. 2. To im- 
prove. 3. To rise in rank, office, or consequence. 

Ad-vance' (6), n. 1. Act of advancing or moving for- 
ward ; approach. 2. Improvement or progression, phys- 
ically, mentally, morally, or socially. 3. (Com.) Addi- 
tional price or profit. 4. A tender ; an offer ; a gift ; — 
specifically , a furnishing of something before an equiva- 
lent is received (as money or goods), toward a capital or 
stock, or on loan ; hence, the money or goods thus fur- 

In advance, in front ; before ; also, beforehand; before an 
equivalent is received. 

Ad-vance', a. Before in place, or beforehand in time ; 
— used for advanced ; as, an advan ce-guard. 

Ad-vance'ment, n. 1. Act of advancing or state of 
being advanced ; progression ; improvement ; promotion. 
2. That which a person has received from a parent liv- 
ing, in anticipation of what he might receive by inherit- 
ance. 3. Payment of money in advance. 

Ad-vanc'er, n. One who advances ; a promoter. 

Ad-van'tage (6), n. [See Advance.] 1. Any state, 
condition, circumstance, opportunity, or means particu- 
larly favorable to some desired end. 2. Superiority of 
state, or that which gives it ; benefit ; gain ; profit. 

Ad-van'tage, v. t. [imp. & p. p. advantaged ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. ADVANTAGING.] To benefit ; to promote. 

Ad-van'tage-ground, n. Ground that gives advan- 
tage or superiority ; vantage-ground. 

Ad'van-ta'geous (-ta/jus), a. Being of advanfege ; 
furnishing advantage, convenience, or opportunity to 
gain benefit ; gainful ; profitable ; useful ; beneficial. 

Ad'van-ta'geoiis-ly, adv. In an advantageous man- 
ner, [advantageous ; profitableness. 

Ad^an-ta'geoiis-ness, n. Quality or state of being 

Ad'vent, n. 1. A coming ; approach ; specifically, the 
first or the second coming of Christ. 2. A season of 
devotion including four Sundays before Christmas. 

Ad/ven-tl'tious (-tish/us), a. 1. Added extrinsically ; 
not essentially inherent ; accidental ; casual. 2. (Bot.) 
Out of the proper or usual place. 

Ad'ven-tl'tious-ly, adv. In an adventitious manner. 

Ad-vent'ive, a. Accidental ; adventitious. 

Ad-vent'u-al, a. Pertaining to the season of advent. 

Ad-vent'ure, n. [L. Lat. adventura, from Lat. adve- 
nire, future p. adventurus, to arrive.] 1. That of which 
one has no direction ; hazard ; risk ; chance. 2. An en- 

a, e, &c, long; a, e, &c. , short ; care, far, ask, all, what ; 6re, veil, term ; pique, firm ; son, 6r, dcj, wolf 




terprise of hazard ; a bold undertaking. 3. A remark- 
able occurrence ; a striking event. 4. A thing sent to 
sea at the risk of the person sending it. 
Syn. — Incident; occurrence; contingency. 

Ad-v6nt'ure, v. t. [imp. & p. p. ADVENTURED ; 
& vb. n. ADVENTURING-.] 1. To put at hazard; to 
risk; to jeopard. 2. To run the risk of attempting. 

Ad-vent'ure, v. i. To try the chances ; to dare. 

Ad-vent'ur-er, n. One who adventures ; one who relies 
for success on his boldness or good fortune. 

Ad-vent'ure-some, a. Incurring hazard ; bold ; vent- 

Ad -vent 'ur-ous, a. 1. Inclined to adventure ; bold to 
encounter danger ; daring ; courageous ; enterprising. 2. 
Full of hazard : attended with risk. 

Ad-vent'iir-ous-ly, adv. Boldly ; daringly. 

Ad'verto (14), n. [Lat. adverbium, from ad and verbum, 
word, verb.] ( Gram.) A word used to modify the sense 
of a verb, participle, adjective, or other adverb, and 
usually placed near it. 

Ad-verb'i-al, a. Relating to or like an adverb. 

Ad-verb'i-al-ly, adv. In manner of an adverb. 

Ad'ver-sa-ry, n. [Lat. adversarius, turned toward. See 
Adverse .] One who is hostile or opposed. 

Syn. — Opponent; antagonist; enemy; foe. — Unfriendly feel- 
ings mark the enemy ; habitual hostility the adversary ; active 
hostility the foe. Opponents are those who are pitted against 
each other; antagonists, those who struggle in the contest with 
all their might. 

Ad'ver-sa-ry, a. Adverse ; opposed ; antagonistic. 

Ad-ver'sa-tive, a. Expressing contrariety, opposition, 
or antithesis between two connected propositions ; — ap- 
plied to the conjunctions but, however, yet, &c. 

Ad-ver'sa-tive , n. A word denoting contrariety or op- 
position ; an adversative word. 

Ad'verse (14), a. [Lat. adversus, p. p. of advertere. See 
Advert.] 1. Acting in a contrary direction ; conflict- 
ing. 2. Opposing desire ; contrary to the wishes, or to 
supposed good ; hence, unfortunate ; calamitous. 
Syn. — Hostile; conflicting; unfortunate; calamitous. 

Ad'verse-ly, adv. With opposition ; unfortunately. 

Ad'verse-ness, n. Opposition ; unprosperousness. 

Ad-ver'si-ty, n. Adverse circumstances; an event or 
series of events attended with severe trials or misfortunes. 
Syn. — Calamity ; affliction ; distress; misery. 

Ad-vert' (14), v. i. [imp. & p. p. adverted ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ADVERTING.] [Lat. advertere', from ad and ver- 
ier e, to turn.] To turn the mind or attention. 
Syn. — To attend; regard; observe. 

Ad-vert'ence, In. Attention; notice; regard; eon- 

Ad-vert'en-cy, ) sideration. 

Ad-vert'ent, a. Attentive; heedful. 

Ad'ver-tige', v. t. or i. [imp. & p. p. advertised ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. ADVERTISING.] [From Lat. advertere. 
See Advert.] 1. To give notice, advice, or intelligence 
to ; to inform or apprise. 2. To make known through 
the press. 

Ad-ver'tige-ment, or Ad'ver-tige'ment, n. 1. 
Information. 2. Public notice through the press. 

Ad'ver-tis/er, n. One who advertises. 

Ad-vice', n. 1. An opinion recommended or offered, as 
worthy to be followed ; counsel ; suggestion. 2. Infor- 
mation as to the state of an affair or affairs ; notice ; in- 
telligence ; — commonly in the pi. 

Syn. — Information ; notice; admonition. 

Ad-vlce'-boat, n. A boat employed to convey dis- 
patches or information. [dient. 

Ad-vx§'a-hle, a. Fit to be advised or to be done ; expe- 

Ad-vlg'a-ble-ness, n. Fitness to be done; meetness ; 
propriety ; expediency. 

Ad-vige', v. t. [imp. & p. p. advised ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ADVISING.] [Low Lat. advisare. See ADVICE.] 1. To 
give advice to ; to counsel. 2. To give information to ; 
to apprise ; to inform. 
Syn. — To apprise; acquaint; consult; consider. 

Ad-vige', v. i. To deliberate ; to weigh well, or consider. 

Ad-vig'ed-ly, adv. With full knowledge ; purposely. 

Ad-vlg'ed-ness, n. Deliberate consideration. 

Ad-vlge'ment, n. 1. Counsel. 2. Consultation ; de- 
liberation ; consideration. 

Ad-vig'er, n. One who gives advice ; a counselor. 

Ad-vl'go-ry, a. 1. Having power to advise. 2. Con- 
taining advice. 

Ad'vo-ca-cy, n. Act of pleading for or supporting ; vin- 
dication ; defense ; intercession. 

Ad'vo-eate, n. One who pleads any cause ; hence, spe- 
cifically, one who pleads the cause of another before any 

tribunal_or judicial court. 
Ad'vo-eate, v. t. [imp. & p.p. advocated ; 

& vb. n. ADVOCATING.] [Lat. advocatus, p. p. of advo- 

care, to call to, from ad and vocare, to call.] To plead in 

favor of; to maintain by argument. 
Syn. — To defend; support; vindicate. 
Ad'vo-ea'tion, n. Act of advocating or pleading. 
Ad'vow-ee', n. [Ft. advoue, avoue, fr. Lat. advocatus.] 

One who has the right of presenting to a benefice. 
Ad-vow'gon, n. (Eng. Law.) The right of presenting 

or nominating to a vacant benefice or living in the 
_ church. 

A'dy-nam'te, a. (Med.) Pertaining to debility of the 
^vital powers.; weak ; feeble. 
Ad'y-tum, n. ; pi. AD'Y-TA. [Lat.] (Arch.) A secret 

apartment, especially a secret place in ancient temples 

from whence oracles were given. 
Adz, In. A carpenter's tool 
Adze, I for chipping, formed 

with a thin arching blade, and 

its edge at right angles to the 

iE'dlle, n. [Lat. xdilis, from 

cedes, temple.] An officer in 

ancient Rome who had the care 

of the public buildings, streets, public spectacles, &c. 
^Eg'i-lops, n. [Gr. atyi'Atoi//, properly goat's eye, from 

cu£, goat, and i»ty, eye-] An abscess in the corner of the 

iE'gis, n. [Gr. aiyi's-] A shield or defensive armor; 

hence, any thing that protects. 
iE-o'li-an, a. 1. Pertaining to iEolia or JSolis, in Asia 

Minor. 2. Pertaining to JMus, the god of the winds ; 

hence, pertaining to, or produced by, the wind. 

jEolian attachment, a contrivance often attached to a piano- 
forte, by means of which it is converted into a wind-instru- 
ment at the pleasure of the performer. — jEollan harp, a musi- 
cal instrument consisting of a box, on or within which are 
stretched strings, on which the wind acts to produce the notes; 
— usually placed at an open window. 

^E-ol'ie, a. Pertaining to JEolia. 

A'er-ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. aerated ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
aerating.] [See Air.] 1. To combine with carbonic 

_acid. 2. To supply with common air. 3. To arterialize. 

A'er-a'tion, n. 1. Act of combining with carbonic 
acid. 2. The process of respiration ; arterialization. 3. 
Exposure of soil to the free action of the air. 

A-e'ri-al, a. 1. Pertaining to the air, or atmosphere. 
2. Consisting of air. 3. Produced by air. 4. Inhabit- 
ing or frequenting the air. 5. Having its place in the 
air ; high ; lofty. 6. Growing, forming, or existing in 
the air. 

Ae'rie (e'ry or a'ry),^. [L. Lat. a'cria, from Lat. area, an 
open space, a fowling floor ; for birds of prey like to buiid 
their nests on flat and open spaces on the top of high 
rocks.] The nest of an eagle, hawk, or other bird of prey. 

A/er-i-f i-ea'tion, n. The act of aerifying. 

A'ei--i-f6rm, a. Having the form of air, as gas. 

A'er-i-fy, v. t. [Lat. a'cr, air, and facere, to make.] To 
change'into an aeriform state. 

A/er-og'ra-pliy, n. [Gr. dbjp, air, and ypa^eiv, to write.] 
A description of the air. 

A'er-o-Hte, n. [Gr. ar/p, air, and At0os, stone.] A stone 

_ falling from the air or upper regions ; a meteoric stone. 

A'ei'-ol'o-glst, n. One who is versed in aerology. 

A/er-61'o-gy, n. [Gr. a-qp, air, and Aoyo?, discourse.] 
That science which treats of the air and its phenomena. 

A'er-o-man'cy, n. [Gr. a-qp, air, and ixavreta, prophe- 
sying.] Divination by means of the air and winds, or o/ 
substances found in the atmosphere. 

A'er-om'e-ter, n. [Gr. arjp, air, and /u.eVpov, measure.] 
An instrument for measuring the weight or density of air 

_and gases. 

A/er-o-met'rie, a. Pertaining to aerometry. 

A'er-om'e-try, n. The art or science of ascertaining 
the mean bulk of gases. 

A'er-o-naut/, n. [Gr. o.-qp, air, and vaimjs, sailor.] An 
aerial navigator ; a balloonist. 

A/er-o-naut'ie , a. Pertaining to aeronautics. 

A'er-o-naut'ics, n. sing. The science or art of sailing 
in the air by means of a balloon. 

^/er-o-naut'igm, «• Tne practice of ascending and 
floating in the atmosphere in balloons. 

food, foot ; ftrn, rude, pull ; pell, chaise, «all, echo ; sera., get ; ag ; e^ist ; linger, link; this- 




5/er-o-phyte', n. [Gr. a-qp, air, and $vtov, plant.] A 
plant deriving its support from the air alone. 

A/er-6s'eo-py 5 n. [Gr. aepoa-icoivia, from arjp, air, and 
<rKonCa, a looking out, aicoireiv, to look out, spy.] The 
observation of the state and variations of the atmosphere. 

A'er-o-stat', n. [Gr. arjp, air, and o-tcitos, standing, from 
io-Tavoa, to stand.] A machine or vessel sustaining 
weights in the air ; — a name given to air balloons. 

A/er-o-stat'ie, a. Pertaining to aerostatics, or the art 
of aerial navigation. 

A/er-o-stat'ies, n. sing. The science that treats of the 
equilibrium of elastic fluids, or that of bodies sustained 

_in them ; hence, the science of aerial navigation. 

A'er-os-ta'tion, n. Aerial navigation. 

JE-rii'gi-iioiis, a. [Lat. servginosus, from sertigo, cop- 
per-mst.] Pertaining to, or partaking cf, copper-rust. 

JEs-thet'i-e, ) a. Pertaining to aesthetics, or the percep- 

Es-thet'ie, J tion of the beautiful. 

.^Es-thet'ies, ) n. sing. [Gr. cucrflijTiKds, perceptive, 

Es-thet'i-es, i from alo-6aveo-6ai, to perceive.] The 
theory or philosophy of taste ; the science of the beauti- 
ful in nature and art. 

iE'ti-61'o-gy, n. [Gr. amoAoyia, from alria, cause, and 
Aoyos, description.] That department of philosophy, or 
of any branch of science, which is concerned with the 
causes or reasons of phenomena. 

A-f ar', adv. At a great distance ; remote. 

Af 'f a-bil'i-ty, n. The quality of being affable ; readi- 
ness to converse ; ease of access. 

Syn. — Courtesy; complaisance; urbanity; civility. 

Af' fa-Tble, a. [Lat. affabilis, from affari, to speak to ; ad 
and fari, to speak.] Ready to converse ; easy of access. 

Syn. — Courteous; civil; complaisant; condescending; ac- 

Af 'f a-foly. adv. In an affable manner. 

Af-f air' (4), n. [From Lat. ad and facere, to make, do. 
See Ado.] 1. Business of any kind ; especially public 
business. 2. (Mil.) An engagement of troops, usually 
partial or of minor importance. 

Af-feet', v. t. [imp. & p. p. affected ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
AFFECTING.] [Lat. affectare, to strive after, from ad 
and facere, to make.] 1. To act upon ; to produce a 
change in. 2. To influence or move, as the feelings or pas- 
sions ; to touch. 3. To dispose or incline. 4. To aim 
at ; to desire ; to covet. 5. To tend to by affinity or dis- 
position. 6. To attempt to imitate in a manner not 
natural ; to put on a pretense of. 

Syn. — To influence; act on; concern; melt; subdue; as- 

Af 'fe-e-ta'tion, n. Assumption of what is not natural 
or real ; artificial appearance ; false pretense. 

Af-feet'ed,_p. a. 1. Assuming or pretending to possess 
what is not natural or real. 2. Assumed artificially ; 
not natural. 

Af-f eet'ed-ly, adv. In an affected manner. 

Af-f eet'ed-ness, n. The quality of being affected ; af- 
fectation, [fectation. 

Af -f e-et'er, n. One that affects ; one that practices af- 

Af-f eet'ing, p. a. Having power to excite, or move the 
passions ; tending to move the affections ; pathetic. 

Af-f eet'ing-ly, adv. In an affecting manner. 

Af-f e-e'tion, n. 1„ An attribute, quality, or property, 
which is inseparable from its subject. 2. A state of the 
mind in which it is bent toward a particular object. 3. 
A settled good- will ; love ; zealous or tender attachment. 
4. (Med.) Disease; as, a pulmonary affection. 

Af-fee'tion-ate, a 1. Having great love or affection. 
2. Proceeding from affection. 
Syn. — Loving; tender; fond; devoted; warm-hearted. 

Af-f e-e'tion-ate-ly, adv. With affection ; tenderly. 

Af -f e-e'tioned, a. Inclined ; disposed ; affected. 

Af-feet'ive, a. Affecting, or exciting emotion. 

■Af-fet-tw-o'qo. [It.] In music, a direction to render 
notes soft or affecting. 

Af-f i'aii£e, n. [0. Fr., from h&t.fdes, trust, faith, fiden- 
tia, confidence.] 1. Plighted faith ; the marriage con- 
tract or promise. 2. Trust ; reliance ; confidence. 

Af-fi'ance, v. t. [imp. & p. p. affianced ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. AFFIANCING.] 1. To betroth ; to pledge one's 
faith or fidelity in marriage, or to promise marriage to. 
2. To give confidence to ; to trust. 

Af -f I'an-cer , n. One who makes a contract of marriage 
between parties. 

Af-fi'ant, n. (Law.) One who makes an affidavit. 

Af'fi-da'vit, n. [Lat. 2 he made oath.] (Law.) A dec- 
laration or statement in writing, signed and made upon 
oath before an authorized magistrate. See Deposition 
for the distinction between the two 

Af-fil'i-ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. affiliated; 
& vb. n. AFFILIATING.] [Low Lat. affiliare, from Lat. 
ad andfilius, son.] 1. To adopt as a son ; hence, to re- 
ceive into fellowship; to ally. 2. To receive into a so- 
ciety as a member, and initiate in its mysteries, plans, &c. 

Affiliated societies, local auxiliary societies, connected with a 
central society, or with each other. 

Af-fiFi-a/tion, n. Adoption ; association in the same 

^ family or society. 

Af 'fin-age, n. A refining of metals. 

Af-fin'i-ty, n. [Lat. ajjnitas, from affinis.] 1. Rela- 
tionship by marriage. 2. Close agreement ; conformity ; 
connection. 3. (them.) That attraction which takes 
place, at an insensible distance, between the heterogene- 
ous particles of bodies, and forms compounds. 4. (Nat. 
Hist.) A relation dependent on resemblance in the whole 
plan of structure , and making a kinship of species or group. 

Syn. — Agreement; conformity; resemblance; alliance; rela- 

Affirm' (18), v. t. [imp. & p. p. AFFIRMED ; & 
vb. n. AFFIRMING.] [Lat. affirmare, from ad and firmare, 
to make firm.] 1. To confirm, establish, or ratify. 2. 
To assert positively ; to aver ; to maintain as true. 

Syn. — To aver; protest; assert. — We affirm a thing with 
confidence; we assert it against all denial; we aver its truth 
with solemnity; we protest it, as what ought not to be called in 

Af-firm', v. i. 1. To declare or assert positively. 2. 
(Law.) To make a solemn promise, before an authorized 
magistrate or tribunal, to tell the truth, under the pains 
and penalties of perjury. 

Af-firm'a-lble, a. Capable of being affirmed. 

Af-firm'ance, n. Confirmation ; ratification. 

Af-f Irm'aiit, n. One who affirms or asserts ; specifically 

^(Law), one who solemnly affirms instead of taking oath. 

Af'fir-ma'tioii, n. 1. Act of affirming or declaring. 
2. That which is asserted. 3. Confirmation; ratifica- 
tion. 4. (Law.) A solemn declaration made under the 
penalties of perjury, by persons who conscientiously de- 
cline taking an oath. 

Af -f Irm'a-tive , a. 1. Affirming or asserting; — op- 
posed to negative. 2. Confirmative ; ratifying. 

Af-firm'a-tlve, n. 1. A word expressing affirmation 
or assent, as yes. 2. An affirmative proposition. 3. 
That side of a question which affirms or maintains ; — 
opposed to negative. 

Af-f irm'a-tlve-ly, adv. In an affirmative manner ; 
positively ; — the opposite of negatively. 

Af-f irm'er, n. One who affirms or declares. 

Af-fix', v. t. [imp. & p. p. affixed (af-fikst/) ; 
& vb. n. AFFIXING.] [Lat. affixus, p. p. of affigere, 
to fasten to.] 1. To add at the close or end. 2. To 
attach, unite, or connect. 3. To fix or fasten in any 

Syn.— To subjoin; connect; annex; unite. 

Affix, n. A syllable or letter joined to the end of a 
word ; a suffix ; a postfix. 

Af-fix'ion, n. Act of affixing; annexation; addition. 

Af-flxt'ure, n. That which is affixed or annexed. 

Af-fla/tion, n. A blowing or breathing on. 

Af-fla'tus, n. [Lat. J 1. A breath or blast of wind. 2. 
Communication of divine knowledge. 3. The inspiration 
of a poet. 

Af-fllet', v. t. [imp. & p. p. AFFLICTED; p. pr. & vb. 
n. AFFLICTING.] [Lat. afftictare, to disquiet, trouble ; 
afftictus, p. p. of afrligere, to cast down, deject.] 1. 
To strike down ; to overthrow. 2. To give continued 
pain ; to cause to suffer dejection, grief, or distress. 
Syn. — To trouble ; distress; harass; torment; grieve. 

Af-illet/er, n. One who afflicts or distresses. 

Af-fli-et/ing, p. a. Causing pain ; grievous ; distressing. 

Af -fli-e'tion., n. 1. Cause of continued pain of body or 
mind, as sickness, losses, &c. 2. The state of being 
afflicted ; a state of pain, distress, or grief. 

Syn. — Trouble; distress; sorrow; adversity; misfortune.— 
Affliction is the strongest of these terms, being a state of pro- 
longed suffering; adversity and misfortune are general states; 
distress is particular, being the case of one under the stress or 
pressure of severe pain, bodily or mental; the other two words 
are less strong. 

Af-fllet'ive, a. Giving pain ; causing affliction. 

Af-fli-et'ive-ly, adv. In a manner to give pain. 

a,e, &c.,long; a, 6, Sec, short; care, far, ask, all, what; ere, veil, term ; pique, firm; son, 6r, do, wolf , 




Af'flu-ence, n. Abundance of any thing, esp. riches. 
Syn.— Opulence; wealth; plenty. 

Af 'flu-ent, a. Wealthy ; plentiful ; abundant. 

Af 'flu-ent, n. A stream flowing into a river or lake. 

Af'fiu-ent-ly, adv. In abundance ; abundantly. 

Afflux, ) n. 1. The act of flowing to. 2. That 

Af-fliix'ion, j which flows to. 

Af-ford', v. l. [imp. Sep. p. afforded ; & vb. n. 
AFFORDING.] [Orig., the Eng. p. p. of Fr. afforer, L. 
Lat. afforare, aforare, to estimate, value, to make laws, 
judge ; ad and forum, court.] 1. To yield or produce as 
the natural result, fruit, or issue. 2. To give, grant, or 
confer, with a remoter reference to its being the natural 
result. 3. To grant, sell, or expend, with profit or with- 
out loss, owing to one's circumstances. 
Syn. — To give; impart; confer; supply. 

Af-for'est, v. t. To turn into forest. 

Af-fran'chige, v. t. To make free ; to enfranchise. 

Af-fray', n. 1. {Law.) The fighting of two or more per- 
sons, in a public place, to the terror of others. 2. A 
tumultuous assault or quarrel. 

Syn.— Quarrel; scuffle; encounter; brawl. 

Af-freiglit' (-fraf), v. t. To hire, as a ship, for the 

transportation of goods or freight. 
Affright' (-frit'), v. t. [imp. & p. p. affrighted ; 

p. pr. & vb. n. AFFRIGHTING.] [A.-S. afyrhtan, 
aforhtian, frihtan.] To impress with sudden fear. 
Syn. — To terrify; appall; dismay; shock; alarm. 

Af -fright' (-frit'), n. Sudden and great fear ; terror. 

Af -front' (-frunf), n. Any reproachful or contemptu- 
ous action or conduct exciting or justifying resentment. 
Syn. — Insult; offense; ill treatment. 

Af-front' (-friint'), v. t. [imp. & p. p. AFFRONTED ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. AFFRONTING.] [From Lat. ad and frons, 
forehead, front.] To offend by some manifestation of 
disrespect, as would be done by crossing a person's path 
in front, or seeking to oppose his progress. 
Syn. — To insult; provoke; abuse; outrage. 

Af-frdnt'er, n. One who affronts or insults. 

Af-f ront'ive, a. Giving offense ; abusive ; insulting. 

Af-f u§e', v. t. To pour out ; to sprinkle. 

Af-fu/§ion, n. Act of pouring upon, or of sprinkling 
with, a liquid substance, as upon a child in baptism ; 
specifically, {Med.) the act of pouring water on the body, 
as a remedy in disease. 

A-field', adv. To, in, or on, the field. 

A-fire', a. or adv. On fire. 

A-float', adv. 1. In a floating state. 2. Moving ; pass- 
ing from place to place. 3. Unfixed ; without guide or 

A-fobt', adv. 1. On foot; borne by the feet. 2. In 

* action ; in a condition for action, or in a state of being 
planned for action. 

A-f ore', adv. or prep. Before. 

A-f ore'go-ing, a. Going before ; foregoing ; previous. 

A-fore'hand, adv. Beforehand ; before. 

A-f ore'men-tioned, ) adv. Spoken of or named be- 

A-fore'said (-sed), J fore. 

A-fore'tli6ught (-thawt), a. Premeditated. 

A-f ore'time, adv. In time past ; formerly ; of old. 

A-foul', a. or adv. Not free ; entangled. 

A-fraid', a. [p. p. of affray, to frighten.] Struck with 
fear or apprehension. 

Syn. — Fearful; apprehensive; timid; timorous; frightened; 
alarmed; appalled. 

A -fresh', adv. Anew ; over again. 

A-f rout' (-frunf ), adv. In front. [abaft. 

Aft, adv. or a. {Naut.) Astern, or toward the stern; 
Fore and aft, from one end of the vessel to the other. 

Aft'er, a. 1. Later in time; subsequent. 2. {Naut.) 
More aft, or toward the stern of the ship. 

BS'-In the first sense the word is often combined with the 
following noun, as after-ages. 

G@- After is prefixed to many words, forming compounds, 
but retaining its genuine signification. Some of the following 
words are of this kind; but in some of them after seems rather 
to be a separate word. 

Aft'er, prep. [A.-S. asfter. It seems to be the compara- 
tive degree of aft.] 1. Behind in place. 2. Later in 
time. 3. Moving toward from behind ; in search or pur- 
suit of. 4. In imitation of. 5. According to the direc- 

. tion and influence of. 6. Concerning ; in relation to. 

Aft'er, adv. Subsequently in time or place. 

Aft'er-birth, «. The placenta or membrane inclosing 
, the fetus, and coming away after delivery. 

Aft'er— elap, n. An unexpected subsequent event. 

Aft'er— crop, n. A second or subsequent crop. 

Af t'er-math, n. A second or subsequent crop of grass 
. in the same year ; rowen. 

Aft'er-nobn', n. Time from noon to evening. 

Af t'er-paing, n. pi. Pains attending the delivery of the 
. after -birth. 

Aft'er-piece, n. A piece performed after a play. 

Aft'er- thdught (aft'er-thawt), n. Something'thought 
. of after an act ; later thought or expedient. 

Af t'er-ward, ) adv. In later or succeeding time ; sub- 

Aft'er-wardg, ) sequently. [officer. 

A-'ga, n. [Turk, agha.] A Turkish commander or chief 

A-gain' (a-gen'), adv. [A.-S. agen, ongen ; gdn, against.] 
1. Another time ; once more. 2. In return ; back. 
Again and again, often ; frequently; repeatedly. 

A-gainst'(a-genst'),_prep. [A.-S. agen.] 1. Abreast of; 
opposite to. 2. In opposition to. 3. In provision or 
preparation for. 

Ag f a-pe, n. ; pi. X&A-PJE. [Gr. aYa7rrj,from ayanav, to 
love.] A love -feast, or feast of charity, among the prim- 
itive Christians. 

A-gape', adv. [Prefix a and gape.] Gaping, as with 
wonder or expectation ; having the mouth wide open. 

Ag'a-ri-e, n. [Gr. ayaputov, from Agara, a town in Sar- 
matia.] (Hot.) {a.) A large family of fungi, including 
the common mushrooms, (b.) An excrescence growing 
on the trunks of trees, used for tinder, and in dyeing, 
and in medicine as a cathartic and a styptic ; touchwood. 
Agaric mineral, a light, chalky deposit of carbonate of lime. 

Ag'ate, n. [Gr. axarrj? ; so called, because first found 
near the river Achates, in Sicily.] 1. A precious stone, 
a semi-pellucid, uncrystallized variety of quartz, varie- 
gated with coloring matter. 2. ( Print.) A kind of type, 
larger than pearl and smaller than nonpareil ; — in Eng- 
land called ruby. 
^r* This line is printed in the type called agate. 

Ag'a-tine, a. Pertaining to, or re- 

^sembling, agate. 

Ag'a-tize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. AGA- 
TIZED; p. pr. & vb. n. AGATIZ- 

w ing.] To convert into agate. 

Ag'a-ty, a. Of the nature of agate. 

A-ga've, n. [Gr. ayavrj, f. of ayavo'?, 
illustrious , noble . ] {Bot.) A genus 
of plants ; the American aloe, or 
century plant. It is from ten to 
seventy years, according to climate, 
in attaining maturity, when it pro- 
duces a gigantic flower-stern, forty 

_feet in height, and perishes. 

Age ? n. [Lat. setas, contracted from 
SRmtas, from xvvm, age.] 1. Whole 
duration of a being, whether animal, vegetable, or other 
kind. 2. That part of the duration of a being which is 
between its beginning and any given time. 3. The 
latter part of life. 4. A certain period of human life, 
marked by a difference of state. 5. Mature years ; pe- 
riod when a person is enabled by law to do certain acts 
for himself, or when he ceases to be controlled by par- 
ents or guardians. 6. The time of life for conceiving 
children. 7. A particular period of time in history, as 
distinguished from others. 8. The people who live at 
a particular period; hence, a generation. 9. A century. 
Syn. — Epoch; date; era; maturity. 

Age, v. i. To grow old ; to become aged. 

A'ged(a'jed), a. 1. Advanced in age or years ; old; an- 

_cient. 2. Having a certain age ; having lived. 

A'ged-ly, adv. Like an aged person. 

A'gen-cy, n. [Low Lat. agentia, from Lat. agens. See 
Agent.] 1. Quality of acting or of exerting power ; the 
state of being in action ; instrumentality. 2. Office or 
duties of an agent, or factor. 3. Bureau of an agent. 
Syn. — Action; operation; efficiency. 

JL-ffen'dttm , n. ; pi. a-gen' da. [Lat.] Something to 
be done ; hence, that which reminds of this ; a memoran- 

_dum-book ; a ritual or liturgy. 

A'gent, n. 1. A person or thing that exerts power, or 
has the power to act ; an actor. 2. One intrusted with 
the business of another ; a substitute ; a deputy ; a fac- 

_tor. 3. An active power or cause. 

A'gent-sMp, n. The office of an agent ; agency. 


food, foot; firn, rude, pull ; cell, c liaise, call, eclio ; gem, get ; a§ ; exist; linger, link; this- 




Ag-giom'er-ate,«>. t. [imp. & p.p. agglomerated ; & vb. n. AGGLOMERATING.] [Lat. agglomerare, 
from ad and glomerare, to form into a glomus, a ball of 
yarn.] To wind, or collect into a ball; hence, ito gather 
into a mass. 

Ag-glom'er-ate, v. i. To collect into a ball or mass. 

Ag-glom'er-a'tion, n. Act of gathering, or state of 
being gathered, into a ball or mass. 

Ag-glu'ti-nant, a. Uniting, as glue. 

Ag-glu'ti-nant, n. Any viscous adhesive substance. 

Ag-glu'ti-nate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. agglutinated; 
p. pr. & vb. n. AGGLUTINATING.] [Lat. agglutinare, 
to glue to, from ad and glutinare, to glue.] To unite, or 
cause to adhere, as with glue or other viscous substance ; 
to unite by causing an adhesion of substances. 

Ag-glu'ti-na'tion, n. 1. Act of uniting, or state of 
being united, as by glue. 2. Union of several words in 
one compound vocable, as in the aboriginal languages of 

Ag-glu'ti-na/tive, a. Tending to unite. 

Ag'gran-dize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. AGGRANDIZED ; 

p. pr. & vb. n. AGGRANDIZING.] [Lat. ad and grandis, 

large, great.] 1. To enlarge ; — applied to things. 2. 

To make great or greater in power, rank, or honor. 

Syn.— To augment; exalt; promote; advance; increase. 

Ag-gran'dize-ment, or Ag'gran-dize'ment, n. 
The act of aggrandizing or state of beiDg aggrandized. 

Ag'gran-diz'er, n. One who aggrandizes. 

Ag'gra-vate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. aggravated ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. AGGRAVATING.] [Lat. aggravare, from ad 
and gravis, heavy.] 1. To make worse, more severe, 
more enormous ; to enhance. 2. To give coloring to in 
description ; to give an exaggerated representation of. 
3. To provoke or irritate ; to tease. 

S3f- The last sense has been recently introduced, and though 
not uncommon, is of questionable propriety. 
Syn. — To heighten ; raise; increase; magnify. 

Ag'gra-va'tion, n. 1. Act of aggravating, or making 
worse. 2. That which aggravates. 3. Exaggerated 
representation. 4. Provocation ; irritation. [Modern 

_ and not legitimate.} 

Ag'gre-gate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. AGGREGATED ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. AGGREGATING.] [Lat. aggregare, to lead to a 
herd or flock, from ad. and grex, flock, herd.] To bring 
together ; to collect into a sum or mass. 
Syn. — To accumulate ; pile. 

Ag'gre-gate, a. 1. Formed by a collection of particu- 
lars into a whole mass or sum. 2. Formed into clusters. 
3. {Laiv.) United in one body corporate, with a capac- 

w ity of succession and perpetuity. 

Ag'gre-gate, n. A sum, or assemblage of particulars. 
Syn. — Mass; assemblage; collection; sum total; lump. 

Ag'gre-ga'tion, n. Act of aggregating, or state of 
being aggregated ; collection into a sum or mass ; a 

w collection_pf particulars ; an aggregate. 

Ag'gre-ga/tive, a. Causing aggregation ; collective. 

Ag'gre-ga'tor, n. One who collects into a mass. 

Ag-gres'sion (-gresh'un), n. [Lat. aggressio, from ag- 
gredi, to go to, approach.] First attack, or act of hos- 
tility or injury ; first act leading to a war or controversy. 
Syn.— Attack; assault; invasion; encroachment. 

Ag-gres'slve, a. Tending to aggress ; making the first 
attack or encroachment. [sive. 

Ag-gress'Ive-ness, n. Quality or state of being aggres- 

Ag-gress'or, n. The one who first makes an aggression. 

Syn. — Assaulter; invader. — An aggressor is one who begins 

a quarrel or encroachment; an assaulter is one who makes a 

violent onset: an invader is one who enters by force into the 

possessions of another. 

Ag-griev'ance, n. Injury; grievance. 

Ag-grieve', v. t. [imp. & p. p. aggrieved; p. pr. 
& vb. n AGGRIEVING.] [Lat. ad and gravis, heavy.] 
To give pain or sorrow to ; to afflict ; hence, to oppress 
or injure ; to vex ; to harass. 

Ag-group', v. t. To bring together ; to group. 

A-ghast' {-gist'), a. or adv. [A contraction of agazed, 
p. p. of agaze.] Struck with amazement ; stupefied with 
sudden fright or horror. [motion. 

Ag'ile, a. [Lat. agilis, from agere, to act.] Quick of 
Syn. — Nimble; active; lively; brisk. 

Ag'ile-ness, ) n. Quality of being agile ; power to move 

A-^il'i-ty, )_ quickly ; quickness of motion. 

A'gi-o, n.;pl. a'gi-o§. [It. aggio, agio, same as agia, 
ease, comfort.] 1. {Com.) Difference in value between 
metallic and paper money, or between one sort of metal- 

lic money and another. 2. Premium ; sum given above 

_ the nominal value. 

A'gi-o-tage, n. The maneuvers of speculators to raise 
or depress the funds ; stock-jobbing. 

A-gist'ment, n. [L. Lat. agistamentum, from gistum, 
abode, lodging, from Lat. jacere, to lie.] (Law.){a.) The 
taking and feeding of other men's cattle, (b.) Price paid 
for such feeding. 

Ag'i-tate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. agitated ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. AGITATING.] [Lat. agitare, to put in motion, 
to drive, intens. of agere.] 1. To move with a violent 
irregular action. 2. To disturb or excite. 3. To dis- 
cuss with great earnestness. 4. To consider on all sides •, 
to revolve in the mind, or view in all aspects. 

Syn. — To shake; excite; rouse; perturb; revolve; debate, 

Ag'i-ta'tion, n. 1. Act of agitating, or state of being 
agitated. 2. Perturbation of mind. 3. Discussion. 
Syn. — Disturbance; excitement; debate; deliberation. 

A^'i-ta'tive, a. Having power or tendency to agitate. 

Ag'i-ta'tor, n. One who agitates ; a disturber. 

Ag'nail, n. An inflammation round the nail ; a whitlow. 

Ag'nate, a. Related on the father's side. 

Ag'nate, n. Any male relation by the father's side. 

Ag-na'tion, n. Relation by the father's side. 

Ag-no'm,en,n. [Lat.] Among the Romans, a fourth name 
given on account of some exploit, as Scipio Africanus. 

jlff f nus--€as'ttis, n. [Gr. ay^o?, a willow-like tree, associ- 
ated with the notion of chastity from the similarity of its 
name to ayvos, chaste.] The chaste-tree, a kind of tree 
w so called from its imaginary power to preserve chastity. 

JLg'nus-De't, n. [Lat., lamb of God.] {Rom. Cath. 
Church.) A cake of wax bearing the figure of a lamb ; 
also a prayer beginning with these words. 

A-go', adv. or a. [Old Eng. agone.] Past ; gone. 

A-gog', a. or adv. [Corrupted and contracted from a-go- 
ing.] Highly excited by eagerness after an object. 

A-go'ing, p. pr. In motion ; going ; ready to go. 

Ag'o-nigm, n. Contention for a prize. 

Ag'o-nlst, n. [Gr. ayan/io-T^s. See Agonize.] One 

_ who contends for the prize in public games. 

Ag'o-nist'ie , 1 a. Relating to prize-fighting, or to any 

Ag'o-nist'ie-al, J violent contest bodily or mental. 

Ag'o-nize, v. i. [imp. & p. p. agonized ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. AGONIZING.] [Gr. <xyu>vi£eo-0ai, ayu>vl£et.v .] To 

^ writhe with agony ; to suffer violent anguish. 

Ag'o-nize, v. t. To distress with great pain ; to torture. 

Ag'o-niz-ing-ly, adv. With extreme anguish. 

Ag'o-ny, n. [Gr. aywia.] Pain that causes writhing 
or contortions of the body, like those in athletic con- 
tests ; hence, extreme pain of body or mind. 

Syn. — Anguish; pang. — Agony and pang denote a severe 
paroxysm of pain (agony being the greatest); anguish is pro- 
Ion ced suffering; the anguish of remorse, the pangs or agonies 
of dissolution. 

A-gra'ri-an (89), a. Relating or tending to equal divis- 
ion of lands. [property. 

A-gra'ri-an, n. One who favors an equal division of 

A-gra'ri-an-i§m, n. Equal division of land or property, 
or the principles of those who favor such a division. 

A-gree', v. i. [imp. & p.p. agreed ; & vb. n. 
AGREEING.] [Lat. ad and grains, pleasing, agreeable.] 

1. To harmonize in opinion, statement, or action. 2. 
To yield assent. 3. To come to terms. 4. To resem- 
ble. 5. To suit or be adapted in its effects. 6. (Gram.) 
To correspond in gender, number, case, or person. 

Syn. — To accede; assent; consent. 
A-gree'a-lbil'i-ty, n. Quality of being agreeable. 
A-gree'a-ble, a. 1. Agreeing or suitable ; conformable. 

2. In pursuance, conformity, or accordance. 3. Pleas- 
ing, either .to the mind or senses. 4. Willing or ready 
to agree or consent. 

A-gree'a-ble-ness, n. The quality of being agreeable 
or suitable ; conformity. 

A-gree'a-bly, adv. 1. In an agreeable manner ; pleas- 
ingly. 2. In accordance ; conformably. 

A-gree'ment, n. 1. A state of agreeing, or being in 
harmony or resemblance. 2. {Gram.) Concord or 
correspondence of one word with another in gender, 
number, case, or person. 3. {Law.) Union of two or 
more minds in a thing done or to be done ; hence, a bar- 
gain, compact, or contract. 
Syn. — Union; concurrence; accordance; contract. 

A-gres'ti-e, \a. [From Lat. agrestis; ager, fieldj 

A-gres'tie-al, J Pertaining to the fields ; rural ; un- 
polished ; rustic. 

a,e,kc,,long; a, 6, &>c, short; care, far, ask, all, what; 6re, veil, term ; pique, firm; son, 6r, do, wolf, 




Ag'ri-eiilt'or, n. A farmer ; a husbandman. 
Ag'ri-eult'ur-al, a. Relating to agriculture. 
Ag'ri-eiilt'ure, n. [Lat. agricultural, ager, field, and 

cultura, cultivation.] The art or science of cultivating 

the ground, especially in fields or in large quantities ; till 

age ; husbandry ; farming. 
Ag'ri-ciilt'ur-ist, n. One skilled in agriculture ; i 

husbandman ; farmer. 
Ag'ri-mo-ny, n. [Lat. agrimonia, from Gr. apye/xa^ a 

disease of the eye, which this plant was supposed to cure.' 

A genus of plants ; liverwort. 
A-gron'o-my, n. [Gr. aypos, field, and ve>eiv, to as 

sign.] Husbandry ; agriculture. 
A-ground', adv. On the ground ; stranded. 
A'gue, n. 1. Chilliness ; a state of shaking with cold, 

though in ordinary health. 2. (Med.) An intermittent 
_fever, attended by alternate cold and hot fits. 
A'gu-ish, a. Having the qualities of an ague ; chilly. 
All, inter j. An exclamation, expressive of surprise, pity, 

complaint, contempt, dislike, joy, exultation, &c, accord- 
ing to the manner of utterance. 

A-ha', interj. An exclamation expressing triumph, con- 
tempt, or simple surprise ; but the senses are distinguished 

by very different modes of utterance. 
A-head', adv. Farther forward; farther in front or in 

advance ; onward. 
A-hull', adv. With the sails furled and the helm lashed. 
Aid, v. t. [imp. & p. p. AIDED ; & vb. n. AIDING.] 

[Lat. adjutare , to help, freq. of adjuvare, to help, from ad 

audjuvare, to help.] To support, by furnishing strength 

or means to effect a purpose, or to prevent or remove 


Syn. — To assist; help; succor; support; relieve; sustain. 

Aid, n. 1. Help. 2. The person or thing that aids ; a 
helper. 3. An aid-de-camp. 

Syn. — Support; succor; assistance; relief. 

Aid'ance, n. Aid ; assistance ; help. _ 

Aid'-de-camp (Id'de-kong), n.; pi. AIDE s-de -GAMP. 
[B'r.] {Mil-) An officer selected by a general officer to 

_ assist him in his military duties. 

Aid'less, a. Helpless; unsupported; friendless.. 

Ai'gret, \n. [Fr.] 1. The small white heron. 2. A 

Ai'grette, ) tuft, as of feathers, diamonds, &c. 

Ail, v. t. [imp. & p. p. AILED ; p. pr. & vb. n. AILING.] 
[A.-S. eglan, to feel pain, egle, sharp, troublesome.] To 
affect with pain or uneasiness, either physical or mental ; 

_to trouble ; to be the matter with. 

Ail, v. i. To feel pain ; to be troubled. 

Ail, n. Disorder; indisposition; pain. 

Ai-lan'tus, n. [From ailanto, i. e., tree of heaven, the 
name of the tree in the Moluccas.] A genus of beautiful 
trees, natives of the East. One species has an offensive 

_odor. [Commonly, but improperly, spelt ailanthus.] 

Ail'ment, n. Morbid affection of the body ; disease. 

Aim, v. i. [Lat. cestimare, to estimate.] ^ 1. To point with 

_a missive weapon. 2. To direct the inte*ntion or purpose. 

Aim, v. t. [imp. & p. p. AIMED ; p. pr. & vb. n. AIM- 
ING.] To direct or point, as a weapon ; to direct to a 

_particular object. 

Aim, n. 1. The pointing or direction of any thing, esp. 
a missile weapon, to a particular point or object, with 
a view to strike or affect it, as of a spear, a blow, a dis- 
course, or remark. 2. The point intended to be hit, or 
object intended to be affected. 3. Purpose; intention. 
Syn. — Direction; end; scope; scheme. 

Aim/less, a. Without aim or purpose ; purposeless. 

Air(4),n. [Lat. a'cr, Gr. arjp, air.] 1. The fluid which 
we breathe, and which surrounds the earth ; the atmos- 
phere. 2. A particular state of the atmosphere, as re- 
spects heat, cold, moisture, and the like, or as affecting 
the sensations. 3. Any aeriform body ; a gas. 4. Air 
in motion; a light breeze. 5. Publicity. 6. (Mus.) A 
musical thought expressed in a pleasing and symmetrical 
succession of single tones ; a melody ; a tune ; an aria. 
7. Peculiar look, appearance, manner, mien, or carriage 
of a person. 8. pi. An artificial or affected manner ; 

A show of pride. 

Air, v. t. [imp. & p. p. aired ; p. pr. & vb. n. airing.] 
1. To expose to the air for the purpose of cooling, re- 
freshing, exhibiting, or purifying ; to ventilate. 2. To 

A expose to heat, for the purpose of drying or warming. 

Air'-bath, n. An arrangement for drying substances in 

A air of any desired temperature. 

Air'-b6d, n. A case of india-rubber cloth, or other ma- 


terial, made air-tight, and inflated through tubes closed 
A by stop-cocks. 

Air'-bl&d'der, n. A peculiar organ in some kinds of 
fishes, containing air, by which they are enabled to main- 
A tain their equilibrium in the water. 
Air'-cell§, n. pi. Cells containing air. 
i^ir'-gun, n. A gun discharged by the elastic force of air. 
Air'-hole, n. 1. An opening to admit or discharge air. 
„ 2. A hole produced by a bubble of air. 
Air'i-ly, adv. In an airy manner; gayly ; merrily. 
Air'i-ness,n. 1. Openness to the air. 2. Levity ; gayety. 
Air'ing, n. 1. A short excursion in the open air. 2. 
A Exposure to air and warmth. 
Air '-pipe, n. A pipe for drawing off foul air. 
Air'-plant, n. A plant nourished by air only. 
Air'-pump, n. A machine, vari- 
ously constructed, for exhausting 
the air from a closed vessel. 

©2f* In the figure, a syringe, ABC, 
communicates, by means of a small 
pipe, E, with a receiver, or vessel, D. 
from which the air is to be exhausted 

Air'- shaft, n. A passage for air 

A into a mine. 

Air'-tight (-tit), a. So tight as not to admit air. 

Air'-ves'sel, n. A vessel in plants or animals which con- 
A tains air. 

Air'y, a. 1 . Having the nature or properties of air. 2. 
Belonging to air; high in air. 3. Exposed to the air. 
4. Resembling air ; unsubstantial. 5. Without reality ; 
having no solid foundation. 6. Full of vivacity and 
levity. 7. (Paint.) Having the light and aerial tints 
true to nature. 

Aisle (II), n. (Arch.) (a.) The wing of a building, (b.) 
One of the lateral divisions of a Gothic church, separated 
from the middle of the nave by two rows of piers, (c.) 
A passage in a church into which the pews or seats open. 

A -jar', adv. Partly open ; as a door. 

Aj'u-tage, ) n. [Fr. ajoutage, a thing added ; Lat. ad 

Ad'ju-tage, j and juxta, near to, nigh.] A discharge- 
tube, as of a fountain. 

A-kim'bo, a. With a crook ; bent. 

A -kin', a. 1. Related by blood. 2. Allied by nature ; 

_ partaking of the same properties. 

Al'a-bas'ter, n. (Min.) (a.) A compact variety of sul- 
phate of lime, or gypsum, of fine texture, and usually 
white and semi-pellucid, (b.) A hard, compact variety 
of carbonate of lime. 

A-lack.', interj. [Corrupted from alas.] An exclamation 
expressive of sorrow. [gret or sadness. 

A-lack/a-day, interj. An exclamation expressive of re- 

A-la-e'ri-ty, n. [Lat. alacritas, from alacer, or alacris, 
lively, eager.] Cheerful readiness. 

Syn. — Briskness; liveliness; glee; hilarity; joy ousness. 

Al'a-mode', adv. According to the mode or fashion. 

Al'a-mode', n. A thin, glossy, black silk. 

A-lan'tus. See Ailantus. 

A-larm', n. [It. allarme from alV arme, to arms!] 
1. A summons to arms. 2. Any sound or information 
intended to give notice of approaching danger. 3. Sud- 
den surprise with fear or terror, excited by apprehension 
of danger. 4. A mechanical contrivance for awaking 
persons from sleep, or rousing their attention. 

Syn. — Fright; terror; consternation; apprehension.— 
Alarm is the dread of impending danger; apprehension, fear 
that it may be approaching; terror is agitating and excessive 
fear; consternation is terror which overpowers the faculties. 

A-larm', v. t. [imp. & p.p. alarmed; p. pr. & vb. n. 

ALARMING.] 1. To call to arms for defense. 2. To 

fill with apprehension ; to disturb. 
A-larm'-bell, n. A bell that gives notice of danger. 
A-larm'-elock, n. A clock made to ring loudly at a 

particular hour. 
A-larm'ing-ly, adv. So as to alarm. 
A-larm'ist, n. One who intentionally excites alarm. 
A-larm'-post, n. A. place to which troops are required 

to repair in case of alarm. 
A-larm'- watch, n. A watch that can be so set as to 

strike frequently at a particular hour. 
A-la'rum, n. Same as Alarm ; — applied chiefly to a 

contrivance attached to a clock for sounding an alarm or 

calling attention. 
A-las', interj. [From Lat. lassies, weary, languid.] An 

exclamation expressive of sorrow, grief, pity, concern, or 

apprehension of evil. 
A-late', ) a. [Lat. alatus, from ala, wing.] Winged ; 
A-lat'ed, j having expansions like wings. 

food, fdbt 

ftrn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, call, echo ; gem, get 

as. ; e^ist ; linger, link ; this. 





Alb, n. [Lat. albus, white.] An ecclesiastical vestment 
of white linen, reaching to the. feet, and enveloping the 
entire person. 

Al-ba/ta, n. German silver. 

Al'ba-trdss,w. [Corrupt- 
ed from Sp. & Pg. alca- 
traz.] A very large, web- 
footed sea - bird, found 
chiefly in the Southern 

Al-be'it, conj. or adv. 
"Although ; be it so ; not- 

Al-bes'cent, a. [Lat. 
albescere, to grow white.] 
. Becoming white ; whitish. 

Al'bi-fi-ea/tion,^. [Lat. 
albus, white, and facere, to make.] Act of whitening, or 
making white. 

Al'bi-gen/seg, ) (Eccl. Hist.) A party of reform- 

AFbi-geois', J ers, who separated from the church 
of Rome in the 12th century ; — so called from Albi, in 

Al'bi-nigm, n. The state or condition of an albino. 

Al-bi'no, n. ; pi. AL-Bl'NOg, n. [From Lat. albus, white.] 
Any person of a preternatural whiteness of the skin and 
hair, and a peculiar redness of the iris and pupil of the 

Aj/bu-gin'e-ous, a. [Lat. albugo, whiteness, from albus, 
white.] Pertaining to the white of an egg, and hence to 
the white of the eye. 

Al'bum, n. [Lat. albus, white.] 1. (Rom. Antiq.) A 
white table or register, on which any thing was inscribed. 
2. A blank book in which to insert autographs or lit- 
erary memorials. 3. A book at public places, in which 
visitors enter their names. 

Al-bu/men, n. [Lat., from albus, white.] 1. (Bot.) 
Nourishing matter stored up between the embryo and 
integuments of the seed in many plants, ti. (Physiol.) 
A thick, viscous substance, which forms a constituent 
part of both animal fluids and solids, and which exists 
nearly pure in the white of an egg. 

Al-bii/men-ize, v. t. (Photog.) To cover or impreg- 
nate with albumen. 

Al-bu'mi-iious, a. Pertaining to albumen. 

Al-bur'num, n. [Lat. , fr . albus, white.] The white and 

w softer part of wood next to the bark, called sap-wood. 

Al'-ea-liest, I n. A pretended universal solvent or men- 

Al'ita-liest, ) struum of the ancient alchemists. 

Al~eaid', n. 1. In Spain, the governor of a castle, fort, 
or the like. l Z. A jailer or warden. 

Al-eal'de, n. In Spain, a magistrate or judge. 

Al-eliem'i-e-al, a. Relating to alchemy. 

Al~eliem'ie-al-ly, adv. In the manner of alchemy. 

Al'-ehe-mist, n. One skilled in alchemy. [to it. 

AF-eSie-mist'i-e-al, a. Practicing alchemy, or relating 

Al'-ehe-my, n. [Ar. al-Mmia, which is taken from the 
Or. xif«' a ) which stands for x v M eta , from x u M°?7 juice, 
liquid, especially as extracted from plants.] Occult 
chemistry ; an ancient science which aimed to transmute 
the baser metals into gold, to find the panacea, or grand 
catholicon, the universal solvent, &c. 

Al'-eo-hol, n. [Ar. al-hohl, a powder of antimony to 
paint the eyebrows with. The name was afterward ap- 
plied, on account of the fineness of this powder, to highly 
rectified spirits.] Pure or highly rectified spirits ; more 
loosely applied to ardent spirits in general. 

AF-eo-hol'i-e, a. Relating to alcohol. 

Al'-eo-hol-ize, v. t. To convert into alcohol. 

AF-eo-hol'me-ter, n. [Alcohol and Gr. /aerpov.] An 
instrument for determining the strength of spirits. 

Al'-eo-ran, n. See Koran and Alkoran. 

Al'-eove, or Al-eove' (114), n. [Ar. al-gubba, arch, vault, 
from gabba, to arch.] A recess, or part of a room, 
separated from the rest by a partition, and containing 
shelves for books, a bed of state, or seats for company. 

Al'der, n. [A.-S. aler, Lat. alnus.] A tree of several 

Al'der-man, n. ; pi. al'der-men. [A.-S. ealdorman, 
aldorman, from ealdor, aldor, eald, aid, old, and man.] 
A magistrate or officer of a city or town corporation, 

_next in rank below the mayor. 

Ale, n. [A.-S. eale, from alan, to nourish, Lat. alere.] 
1 . A liquor made from an infusion of malt by fermenta- 
tion. 2. A festival o English country places, so called 
from the liquor drank- [measures. 

Ale'-eon'ner, n. An officer who inspected ale-house 

Divination by means of a 

A woman who keeps an 

A-lec 'try-o-man/cy , 


A-lee', adv. [Prefix a and lee, q. v.] (Naut.) On the 
_side opposite to the side on which the wind strikes. 
Ale'-hoof, n. Ground-ivy ; — formerly used in making 

Ale'-house, n. A house or place where ale is retailed. 
A-lem'bi-e, n. [Ar. al-ambiq, which 

was introduced into Ar. from Gr. aju./3i£ , 

cup, the cup of a still.] A chemical 

vessel, usually of glass or metal, used 

in distillation. 
A-lert' (14), a. [From It. alP erta, upon | 

one's guard ; erta, from Lat. ex, e, from, 

out of, and regere, to lead straight.] 1. 

Watchful ; vigilant ; active in vigilance ; 

hence, upon the alert, upon the watch, Alembic. 

guarding against surprise or danger. 2. Moving with 

Syn. —Brisk; prompt; lively; nimble. 
A-lert'ly, adv. Quickly ; nimbly ; briskly. 
A-lert'ness, n. Watchful activity or readiness. 

Syn. — Briskness ; watchfulness; promptitude. 
Ale'wife, n. ; pi. ALE'wivEg. 
_ ale-house. 
Ale'wif e, n. ; pi. ale/wTves. [Ind. Aloof.] An Amer- 

ican fish resembling a herring. 
AFex-an'drine, n. A verse of twelve syllables, or six 

Iambic feet ; — so called from a poem written in French 

on the life of Alexander. 
A-lex'i-pliar'mie , n. [Gr. dAe£(.$<xp|u.aKo?, fr. dAefeij/, 

to keep off, and $ap^a/cov, drug, poison.] What expels 

or resists poison. 
A-lex'i-pliar'mie, a. Expelling poison or infection. 
A-lex'i-ter'i-e, ) a. [Gr. aAe^tTTjpios ; aXe^eiv, to keep 
A-lex'i-ter'ie-al, J off.] Resisting poison ; obviating 

the effects of venom. 
A-lex'i-ter'ie, n. [See supra.] A medicine to resist the 
^effects of poison, or the bite of venomous animals. 
Al'fjd,n. ; pi. al'gje. [Lat.] (Bot.) A grand division 

of cryptogamic plants, embracing sea-weeds or water- 
Al'ge-bra, n. [Ar. al-gabr, al-jabr, reduction of parts 

to a whole, or fractions to whole numbers, from gabara 

or jabara, to bind together, to consolidate.] (Math.) 

That branch of analysis whose object is to investigate 

the relations and properties of numbers by means of let- 
^ ters and other symbols. 

AFge-bra/ve, {a. Pertaining to, or performed by, al- 
AFge-bra'i-e-al, J gebra. 
AJ/ge-bra'Le-al-ly, adv. By means of algebra. 
AJ/ge-bra'ist, n. One who is skilled in algebra. 
Al'go-rigm, ) n. [Sp. algoritmo, Old Sp. alguarismo, 
Al'go-rltlim, ) taken by the Arabs from Gr. apifl^os, 

number, and transformed by the Spaniards by inserting 

the letter g between the article al and the vowel a.] 
^(Math.) The art of computing in any particular way. 
Al'goiis, a. Pertaining to sea-weed. 
Alguazil (al-ga-zeeP), n. A Spanish officer of justice. 
A-'li-as, adv. [Lat.] Otherwise ; otherwise called ; — a 

term used in legal proceedings to connect the different 

names of a party who has gone by two or several, and 

whose true name is for any cause doubtful ; as, Smith, 
_alias Simpson. 
A.'li-as, n. [Lat.] (Law.) (a.) A second or further writ 

issued after a first writ has expired without effect, (b.) 
^Another name ; an assumed name. 
Al'i-ln, n. [Lat., elsewhere, in another place.] (Law.) 

When a person, on trial for a crime, shows that he was 

in another place at the time when the act was committed, 

he is said to prove an alibi ; hence, the plea, allegation, 
_or defense under which this proof is made. 
Al'ien (aPyen), a. [Lat. alienus, from alius, another.] 

1. Not belonging to the same country, or government, 

or to the citizens or subjects thereof; foreign. 2. Wholly 
_ different in nature. 
Al'ien, n. A foreigner ; a foreign-born resident of a coun- 

trv, in which he does not possess the privileges of a 
_ citizen. 

AFien-a-bll'i-ty, n. The capacity of being alienated. 
Al'ien-a-ble, a. Capable of being alienated. 
Al'ien-age, n. The state of being an alien, or foreigner. 
Al'ien-ate, v. t. [imp. & p.p. alienated ; p. pr. & 

vb. n. ALIENATING.] [Lat. alienare.] 1. To convey 

or transfer to another, as title, property, or right. 2. 

To make indifferent or averse ; to estrange. 

a,e,&c. ,long; a,e,&c. short; care, far, ask, all, what; ere, veil, term; pique, firm; son, 6r, do, wolf, 




Al'ien-ate, a. Estranged; stranger to- 
AFien-a'tion, n. 1. (Law.) A transfer of title, or a 

legal conveyance of property to another. i Z. State of 
being alienated or transferred. 3. Withdrawing or es- 
trangement, as of the aifections. 4. Derangement, as 

_of the mental faculties ; insanity. 

Al'ien-a/tor, n. One who alienates or transfers property. 

Al-iene', v. t. 1. To convey or transfer, as property. 

_2. To estrange. 

Al'ien-ee', n. One to whom a thing is sold. 

Al'ien-igm, n. The state of being an alien. 

Al'i-f orm, a. [Lat. ala, wing, and forma, shape.] Hav- 
ing the shape of a wing. 

A-Hght' {-Xit'),v. i. [imp. & p. p. ALIGHTED ; 
& vb. n. ALIGHTING-.] [A.-S. alihtan, gelihtan.} 1. To 
get down or descend, as from on horseback ; to dismount. 
2. To fall, or descend and settle, or lodge. 

A-Hgn' (a-lin'), v. t. [Lat. ad and linea, line.] To adjust 
or form by a line, as troops. 

A-lign' (a-lin / ), v. i. 1. To form in line, as troops. 5$. 
(Engin.) To lay out the ground-plan, as of a road. 

A-lIgn'ment, (-lln 7 -), n. [Fr. alignement, Pr. aligna- 
men.] 1. The act of adjusting to a line ; the state of 
being so adjusted ; the line of adjustment. 2. (Engin.) 
The ground-plan of a railway or other road. 

A-like', a. [Prefix a and like.] Having resemblance or 
similitude ; similar ; without difference. 

A-like', adv. In the same manner, form, or degree. 

Al'i-ment, n. [Lat. alimentum, from alere, to feed, 
nourish.] That which feeds or supports. 

Syn.— Food; nourishment; support; nutriment. 

Al'i-ment'al, ) a. Pertaining to food or aliment ; sup- 

Al'i-ment/a-ry, ) plying food ; nutritive. 

Al'i-men-ta'tion, n. The act or power of affording nu- 
triment ; state of being nourished. 

Al'i-ment'ive-ness, n. The phrenological organ of 
appetite for food or drink. 

Al/i-mo'iii-oiis, a. Affording food ; nourishing. 

Al'i-mo-ny (50), n. [Lat. alimonia, alimonium, from 
alere, to feed.] An allowance made to a wife out of her 
husband's estate or income for her support, upon her 
divorce or separation from him, or during a suit for the 

Al'i-ped, a. Wing-footed. 

Al'i-ped, n. An animal whose toes are connected by a 
membrane which serves as wings, as the bat. 

Al'i-quant, a. [Lat. aliquantus, some, moderate, from 
alius, other j and quantus, how great.] Not dividing an- 
other number without a remainder. 

Al'i-quot, a. [Lat. aliquot, some, several, aliquoties, 
several times.] Dividing exactly, or without remainder. 

A-live', a. Having life ; not dead ; active ; susceptible. 

Al'lta-hest, n. A pretended universal solvent. 

Al'ka-les'cent, a. Tending to the properties of an alkali. 

Al'ka-H, or Al'ka-li, n. ; pi. al'ka-lisj, or al'ka-lis. 
[Ar. al-qali, ashes of glasswort, from qalaj, to roast in"a 
pan, fry.] ( Chem.) One of a class of caustic bases, soda, 
potash, ammonia, and lithia, distinguished by their solu- 
bility in water and alcohol, their uniting with oils and 
fats to form soap, their neutralizing and forming salts 
with acids^and their changing reddened litmus to blue. 

Al-kal'i-fy, or Al'ka-li-fy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. AL- 
KALIFIED ; p. pr. & vb. n. ALKALIFYING.] To form 
or convert into an alkali. 

Al-kal'i-fy, or Al'ka-li-fy, v. i. To become changed 
into an alkali. 

AFka-lig'e-noils, a. Producing alkali. 

Al'ka-lim/e-ter, n. [Eng. alkali and meter, Gr. /xerpov, 
measure.] An instrument for ascertaining the strength 
or purity of alkalies. 

Al'ka-lim/e-try, n. The art of ascertaining the strength 
of alkalies, or the quantity present in any mixture. 

Al'ka-line (or -Hn), a. Having the qualities of alkali. 

AFka-lin'i-ty, n. Quality which constitutes an alkali. 

AFka-li-za'tion, n. The act of rendering alkaline by 
impregnating with an alkali. 

Al'ka-llze, v. t. To make alkaline ; to alkalify. 

Al'ka-loid, n. (Chem.) A salifiable base existing in 
some vegetables as a proximate principle. 

Al-ker'me§, n. [Ar. al-qirmiz, alqermez, the coccus in- 
sect.] A compound cordial, in the form of a confection, 
made chiefly of kermes berries. 

Al'ko-ran, n. The Mohammedan Bible. See KORAN. 

All, a. [A.-S. eall, al.] Every one, or the whole number 
of; the whole quantity, extent, duration, amount, qual- 
ity, or degree of. It always precedes the article the, and 
the definitive adjectives my, thy, his, our, your, their. 

All, adv. Wholly ; completely ; altogether ; entirely. 

All, n. The whole number, quantity, or amount _; ths 
aggregate ; the whole ; the total ; totality ; as, all m all, 
a phrase which signifies every thing desired. 

At all, a phrase much used by way of enforcement or empha- 
sis, usually in negative or interrogative sentences, and signify- 
ing in the least degree or to the least extent ; in the least ; under 
any circumstances. 

I8®~ All is much used in composition to enlarge the meaning, 
or add force to a word. In some instances, it is completely in- 
corporated into words, and its final consonant is dropped, as in 
almighty, already, always ; but in most instances, it is an ad- 
verb prefixed to other words, but separated by a hyphen, as, 
all-bountiful, all-glorious, all-important, all-surrounding, &c. 
Such compounds usually explain themselves, and therefore 
but few will be here given. 

Al'lah, n. The Arabic name of the Supreme Being. 

Al'lan-to'ie, a. Pertaining to the allantois. 

Al-lan'toid, or Al'lan-toid, \ n. [Gr. dAAavroeiS/js, 

Al-lan'tois, or Al'lan-tois, > gut-shaped ; dAAas, 
gut, and elSos, shape.] A thin membrane, situated be- 
tween the chorion and amnios in animals. 

Al-lay', v. t. [imp. & p. p. allayed ; p. pr. & vb. n. 

- ALLAYING.] [Partly from A.-S. alecgan, to lay down, 
confine, diminish, depress ; partly from Fr. oilier, to ally, 
to mix, as metals, Lat. alligare, to bind to something.] 
1 . To make quiet or put at rest ; to pacify or appease. 
H. To abate, mitigate, repress, or subdue. 
Syn. — To check; appease; calm; Boothe; pacify; assuage. 

Al-lay', n. See Alloy. 

Al-lay'er, n. He who, or that which, allays. 

Al-lay 'ment, n. 1. Act of allaying or state of bein- 
allayed. t£. That which allays. 

AFle-ga'tion, n. 1. Positive assertion or declaration; 
affirmation, ii. That which is alleged, affirmed, or as- 

Al-lege' (al-lejO, v. t. [imp. & p.p. ALLEGED ; & 
vb. n. ALLEGING.] [Lat. allegare, from ad and legare, 
to send, dispatch.] 1. To bring forward with positive- 
ness. 52. To produce, as an argument, plea, or excuse. 

Syn.— To declare; affirm; assert; urge; adduce; advance; 
cite; quote. 

Al-lege'a-Tble, n. Capable of being alleged. 

Al-le'gi-ara^e, n. [L. Lat. allegiantia, from Lat. alligare, 
to bind to, from ad and ligare, to bind.] The tie or ob- 
ligation which a subject owes to his prince or government ; 
w loyalty. 

AFle-gor'i-e, ) a. In the manner of allegory ; figura- 

Al'le-gor'i-e-al, ) tive ; describing by resemblances. 

AFle-gor'i-e-al-ly, adv. In an allegorical manner. 

Al'le-gor'i-e-al-ness, n. Quality of being allegorical. 

AFle-go-rist, n. One who teaches by allegory. 

Al'le-go-rize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. allegorized; p. 
pr. & vb. n. ALLEGORIZING.] 1. To form or turn into 
allegory. 2. To understand in an allegorical sense. 

Al'le-go-rize , v. i. To use allegory. 

Al'le-go-ry (50), n. [Gr. a\\y]yopia; aAAos, other, and 
ayopeveiv, to harangue, from ayopd, assembly.] A story 
or figurative discourse, in which the direct and literal 
meaning is not the real or principal one, but is designed 
to image forth some important truth with greater vivid- 
ness and force ; a figurative manner of speech or descrip- 

Al-le-greVto, a. [It.] (Mus.) Quicker than andante, 
but not so quick as allegro. 

Al-le'yro, a. [It., merry, gay.] (Mus.) Quick, brisk, 
lively. — As a noun, a quick, sprightly strain or piece. 

AFle-Lu'iali, n. Praise to Jehovah. See HALLELUIAH. 

A.l~le-mdnde f , n. [Fr., German (dance).] A German 
waltz ; formerly a German dance in -|- or -^ measure, of a 
moderate movement. 

Al-le'vi-ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. ALLEVIATED ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. ALLEVIATING.] [L. Lat. alleviare, from Lat- 
levis, light.] 1 . To make light or easy to be borne, in a 
literal sense, ti. To make light, in a figurative sense; 
hence, to remove in part ; to make easier to be endured. 

Syn. — To lessen; diminish; mitigate; assuage; allay.-' 
These words are all figurative. Alleviate supposes a load, as 
of care, which is lightened; mitigate, something fierce, which 
is made mild, as suffering; assuage, something violent, which is 
quieted, as sorrow ; allay, something excited, but now brought 
down, as grief; lessen and diminish refer to amount or degree. 

Al-le'vi-a/tion, n. 1 . Act of alleviating, or making more 
fight ; a lessening or mitigation. 2. That which miti- 
gates or makes more tolerable. 

Syn. — Mitigation ; diminution ; relief. 

Al-lev'i-a-tive, n. Something mitigating. 

food, fdbt ; firn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, eall, eeho; gem, get ; a§ ; e$ist; linger, link ; tnish 




Al'ley n. ; pi. AL'LEYg. [Fr. allee, from alter, to go.] | Al-lot'ment, « 
1. A walk in a garden. 2. A narrow passage, as dis- * 
tinct from a public street. 

Al'ley, n. [A contraction of alabaster, of which it was 
originally made.] A choice taw or large marble. 

All-fobl§'-day, n. The first of April, when it is a popu- 

" lar custom to play off tricks or make fools. 

All-fours/, n. pi. [From all and four.} A game at cards, 

' ' which derives its name from the four chances of which it 
consists, for each of which a point is scored. The player 
who has all these is said to have all-fours. 

To go on all fours, to move on four legs, or on two legs and 
two arms or hands. 

All-hail', inter j. All health ; — a phrase of salutation, 

"expressing a wish of perfect health, or safety, to the per- 
son addressed. 

All-hal'low, ) n. All-Saints'-day, the first day 

All-hal'low§, > of November ; a feast in honor 

All-hal'low-nias, ) of all the saints. 

All-hal'low-tide, n. The time near All-Saints'. 

Al'li-a'ceoiis, a. [Lat. a Ilium, alium, garlic] Pertain- 
ing to garlic ; having the smell or properties of garlic. 

Al-11'aiice, n. [Fr. alliance, from allier, to unite ; Lat. 
alligare, to bind to something.] 1. State of being allied ; 
a union or connection of interests, especially between 
families by marriage, and states by compact, treaty, or 
league. 2. The compact or treaty which is the instru- 
ment of allying. 3. The persons or parties allied. 
Syii. — League; confederacy; affinity; coalition. 

Al'li-gate, v. t. To tie together ; to unite. 

Al'li-ga'tioiijrc. [Lat. alligatio, fr. alligare, to bind to, 
fr. ad and ligare, to bind.] (Arith.) A rule relating to the 
solution of questions concerning the compounding or mix- 
ing together of different ingredients, or ingredients of dif- 
ferent qualities or values. 

B3T" The rule is named from the method of connecting to- 
gether the terms by certain ligature-like signs. 

Al'li-ga'tor, n. [Corrupted ^^Mi$L{6 
from Sp. el lagarto, the liz- ^|8fe^Mlli§5^ 
ard, from Lat. lacert us, equiv. gBgV 
to lacerta, lizard.] (Zobl.) A -=aeag H -r^ 

large carnivorous amphibi- ** }gk- E .---*, 

ous reptile, of the Saurian ,2 ■■■■'■ -;->; ■ 

family, peculiar to America. 

Al-li§'ioii(-Iizh / un),7i. [Lat. 
attisio, from alii d ere, to strike 
or dash against, from ad and Alligator. 

Ixdere, to dash against, to hurt by striking.] A striking 

Al-lit'er-a'tion, n. [Lat. ad and litem.] The repetition 
of the same letter at the beginning of two or more words 
immediately succeeding each other, or at short intervals. 

Al-lit'er-a-tive, a. Pertaining to alliteration. 

Al'lo-ea'tion, n. [L. Lat. allocatio, from Lat. ad and 
locare, to place.] Act of putting one thing to another ; 
hence, the admission of an article of account, or an al- 
lowance made upon an account ; — a term used in the 
^English exchequer. 

JLl'lo-ea r tur,n. [Low Lat., P. is allowed.] (Law.) The 
allowance of a thing or proceeding, by a court, judge, or 
judicial officer. [of the pope to his clergy. 

APlo-eii'tioii, n. An address ; particularly an address 

Al-lo'di-al, a. (Law.) Pertaining to allodium; free- 
hold ; free of rent or service ; — opposed to feudal. 

Al-lo'di-um, n. [L. Lat., from 0. Ger. al, all, all, and 
&d, Ot, A.-S. ead, possession, property. It means, there- 
fore, all-property, or whole estate.] ( Law.) Freehold es- 
tate ; land which is the absolute property of the owner ; 
— opposed to feud. 

Al-16ii£je' (-ltinj/), n. [Fr., from allonger, to lengthen, 
strike ; Lat. longus, long.] A pass or thrust with a 
rapier or sword, as iu fencing. 
Al'lo-path'i-e, a. Pertaining to allopathy. 
Al-lop'a-thlst, n. One who practices medicine accord- 
ing to the rules of allopathy. 
Al-Iop'a-thy, n. [Gr. aAAo?, other, and 7rd0o?, suffer- 
ing, from Tracrxeu', ira9e~u>, to suffer.] Employment of 
medicines in order to produce effects different from those 
resulting from disease;— a term invented to designate 
the ordinary practice, as opposed to homeopathy. 
Al-lot', V. t. [imp. & p. p. ALLOTTED ; p. pr". & vb. n. 
allotting.] [Old Fr. allotir, alloter, from lot, share, 
Goth, hlants, A.-S. Mot.] 1. To divide or distribute, as 
by lot. 2. To distribute in parts or portions ; hence, to 
grant, as a portion ; to give, assign, or appoint in general. 
Syn.— To divide; assign; apportion. 

^ : 

1. Act of allotting. 2. Part allotted. 

Al'lo-trSp'i-e, a. Pertaining to allotropism. 

Al-16t'ro-pi§m, \ n. [Gr. aAAos, other, and rpono?, 

Al-16t'ro-py, ' way; fr. Tpeneiv, to turn.] (Chem.) 
The property of existing in two or more conditions which 
are distinct in their physical or chemical relations. 

Al-low', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ALLOWED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ALLOWING.] [Lat. ad and locare, to place.] 1. To give, 
afford, or yield. 2. To own or acknowledge. 3. To abate 
or deduct. 4. To grant license to ; to permit. 
Syii. — To grant; yield; admit; consent. 

Al-low', v.i. To make abatement or deduction. 

Al-low'a-hle, a. Capable of being, or proper to be, al- 
lowed, or permitted as lawful. 

Al-low'a-hly, adv. In an allowable manner. 

Al-low'ance , n. 1. Act of allowing, granting, or ad- 
mitting. 2. Permission or license ; usually slight appro- 
bation. 3. That which is allowed; a stated quantity, 
as of food or drink; hence, (Nant.) a limited quantity 
of meat and drink, when provisions fall short. 4. Abate- 
ment; deduction. 5. (Com.) A deduction from the 
gross weight of goods. 

Al-low'ance, v. t. [imp. & p. p. allowanced; p. 
pr. & vb. n. allowancing.] To put upon allowance. 

Al-loy', v. t. [imp. & p. p. alloyed ; p. pr. & vb. ». 
alloying.] [Fr. aloi, loi, good alloy, fixed standard 
of gold and silver, from Lat. lex, law, ad legem, accord- 
ing to law. This word has been confounded with allay, 
q. v., and the signification of the latter attributed to it.] 

1. To reduce the purity of by mixing with a less valua- 
ble metal. 2. To abate, impair, or corrupt. 

Al-loy', n. 1. Any compound of two or more metals, 
as of copper and zinc to form brass. 2. A baser metai 
mixed with a finer. 3. Evil mixed with good. 

Al-loy 'age, n. 1. The act of alio} ing or mixing metals. 

2. A mixture of different metals. 
All-saint§"-day,n. The first day of November ; a feast 
"in honor of all the saints. 

All-sdul§"-day, n. The second day of November ; a 
"Koman Catholic solemnity held to pray for the souls of 

the faithful. 

AU'spice, n. The berry of the pimento, an aromatic 
tree of the West Indies. It has been supposed to com- 
bine the flavor of cinnamon, nutmegs, and cloves ; hence 
the name. 

All-suf-fi'cient (-fish'ent), a. Sufficient to every thing. 

Al-lude', v. i. [imp. & p. p. ALLUDED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ALLUDING.] [Lat. allud ere, from ad and ludere, to play.] 
To refer to something not directly mentioned ; to hint 
by remote suggestions ; to have reference. 

Syn. — To suggest; intimate; glance at; advert to. 

Al-lu/mi-nor, n. [Lat. illuminator, from illuminare y 
to illuminate, from lumen, fight.] One who colors or 
paints upon paper or parchment, giving light and orna- 
ment to letters and figures ; a limner. 

Al-liire', v. t. [imp. & p. p. allured ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ALLURING.] [From ad and lure, q. v.] To attempt to 
draw to ; to tempt by the offer of some good, real or ap- 

Syn.— To entice; decoy; seduce. — We are allured to evil 
by some promised good; we are enticed into it through our pas- 
sions; we are seduced when drawn aside from the path of rec- 

Al-lure'ment, n. That which allures or entices. 

Al-lur'er, n. One who allures or decoys ; a tempter. 

Al-lu'gion, n. Indirect reference ; in rhetoric, a figure 
by which something is applied to, or understood of, an- 
other, on account of some similitude between them. 

Al-lii'srve, a. Hinting at ; referring to indirectly. 

Al-lu'sive-ly, adv. In an allusive manner. 

Al-Lu'sive-ness, n. Quality of being allusive. 

Al-lu'vi-al, a. X. Pertaining to, contained in, or com- 
posed of, alluvium. 2. Washed ashore or down a 
stream ; of fresh-water origin. 

Al-lu'vi-on, n. Same as Alluvium. 

AHu'vi-um, n. ; pi. AL-LU'vi-A. (Geol.) Deposits of 
earth, sand, gravel, and other transported matter, made 
by rivers, floods, or other causes, upon land not perma- 
nently submerged beneath the waters of lakes or seas. 

All-wige', a. Possessed of infinite wisdom. 

Al-ly', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ALLIED \ & vb. n. ALLY- 
ING.] [Lat. alligare, from ad and ligare, to bind.] X. To 
unite, or form a connection between, as between families 
by marriage, or between princes and states by treaty, 
league, or confederacy. 2. To connect or form a rela- 
tion between by similitude, resemblance, or friendship. 

Al-ly' (115), n. ; pi. AL-LIE§/. X. One who is united by 

a,e, Sec, long; &,&,&c, short; care, far, ask, all, what ; ere, veil, term ; pique, firm ; son, or, dft, wolf, 




2. One related 

compact, marriage, &c; a confederate 
to another by any tie. 

AFma-gest, n. [Gr. /u.eyi<rTos, superl. of ^.eyas, great, 
and the Ar. article al, the ; so called by the Arabs, be- 
cause this book of Ptolemy was considered as the great- 
est or largest on its subject.] A book of problems in 
astronomy and geometry, drawn up by Ptolemy. 

Al'md Ma'ter,n. [Lat., fostering mother.] A college 
or seminary where one is educated. 

AFina-nae, n. [Ar. manak/i, from manaha, to give as 

"a present ; manay. to define, determine ; maud, measure, 
time.] A book or' table, containing a calendar of days, 
weeks, and months, to which astronomical data and va- 
rious statistics are often added. 

Ai'man-dine, n. [Lat. alabandina, named after Ala- 
oanda, a town in Caria, where it was found.] (Min.) 
The red variety of garnet, translucent or transparent. 

Al-might'i-ness (-mlt/-), n. A power to do all things ; 


Al-might'y (-nut'-), a. All-powerful; of unlimited 

"power; omnipotent. 

Al-might'y, n. God ; the Supreme Being. 

AFinond (a/mund), n. [Low Lat. amandola, corrupted 
from Lat. amygdala, Gr. djUvySoATj.] 1. The fruit of the 
almond-tree. 2. One of the two glands called tonsils, 
near the base of the throat. [for another. 

Al'mon-er, n. [See Alms.] One who distributes alms 

AFmon-ry, n. A place for distributing alms, or where 
they are stored for distribution. 

Al-most', adv. Nearly ; well-nigh ; for the greatest part. 

Alm§ j'amz), n. pi. [A.-S. almes, celmesse, from Gr. eAerj- 
/aoo-wt), from eAeetv, to have pity or mercy.] Any thing 
gratuitously given to relieve the poor, as money, food, or 
t clothing; a charitable donation. 

Alm§'-house, n. A house appropriated for the use of 

_ the poor ; a poor-house. 

AFmug-tree, \n. (Script.) A tree supposed to be the 

Al'gum-tree, j red sandal-wood. 

AFnage (45), n. [Prom 0. Pr. alne, N. Fr. aune, from 
Lat. ulna, Gr. wAeVj), elbow.] A measuring by the ell. 

Al'oe (aPo), n. ; pi. al'oes. [Lat. aloe', Gr. a\6y, Heb. 
ahalim, pi. of ahal.] 1. (Bot.) A genus of evergreen 
herbaceous plants, from some of which are prepared ar- 
ticles for medicine and the arts. 2. pi. (Med.) The in- 
spissated juice of several species of aloe, used as a purga- 
American or Century aloe, the agave. See Agave. 

AFo-et'ie, ) a. Pertaining to, obtained from, or par- 

AFo-et'ie-al, ) taking of the qualities of, aloes. 

A-16ft' (21), adv. [Prefix a and loft.] 1. On high. 2. 
(Naut.) In the top ; at the mast-head ; above the deck. 

A-lone', a. [From all and one.] 1. Apart from, or ex- 
clusive of, others ; single ; solitary ; — applied to a per- 
son or thing. 2. Sole ; only. [Rare.] 

A-long' (21), adv. [A.-S. andlang, ondlong, from prefix 
and, ond, against, toward, and lang, long, long.] 1. In 
a fine with the length ; lengthwise. 2. In a line, or 
with a progressive motion; onward; forward. 3. In 
company ; together. 
Along of, owing to, or on account of. 

A-long' (21), prep. By the length of, as distinguished 
from across. 

A-long'side, adv. By the side of a ship. 

A-lobf ' (26), adv. [Either for all off, that is, quite off, or 
of the same origin with aloft, q. v.] At or from a dis- 
tance, but within view, or at a small distance ; apart. 

A-lobf, prep. At or to a distance from ; away from. 

A-loud', adv. With a loud voice, or great noise ; loudly. 

Alp, n. [Of Celtic origin.] A 
very high mountain ; — specific- 
ally, in the plural, the elevated 
mountain ranges of Switzerland. 

Al-pa«'a, n. [The orig. Peruv. 
name.] 1. (Zobl.) An animal 
of Peru, having long, fine, 
woolly hair; a species of the 
llama. 2. A thin kind of cloth 
made of the wool of the alpaca, 
mixed with silk or with cotton. 

Al'pha, n. The first letter of 
the Greek alphabet, used to 
denote first. 

Al'pha-bet, n. [Gr. dA^a/SrjTo?, from a\(f>a and jSrjra, 
the first two Greek letters.] The letters of a language ar- 
ranged in the customary order. 


Al'pha-bet, v. t. [imp. & p. p. alphabeted ; p. pr. 

& vb. n. alphabeting.] To arrange in the order of an 
w alphabet. [abecedarian. 

AFpha-bet-a/ri-an, n. A learner of the alphabet ; an 
AFpha-bet'ie, ) a. Pertaining to, furnished with, 
AFpha-bet'ie-al, J expressed by, or in tne order of, 
_ the letters of the alphabet. 

AFpha-bet'ie-al-ly, adv. According to the alphabet. 
Al'pine (-pin or -pin), a. Pertaining to the Alps, or to 

any lofty mountain. 
AFread'y, adv. [All and ready.] Before this time ; now. 
Al'so, adv. or conj. [From all and so.] In like manner ; 
" likewise ; too ; further ; in addition to. 
Alt, a. or n. [From Lat. altus, high, fit. grown great by 

nourishing, p. p. of alere, to nourish.] (Mus.) The 

higher part of the scale. See ALTO. 
Al'tar, n. [Lat. altare, altar, 
"from the same root as altus, 

high.] 1. A table or elevated 

place on which gifts and sacri- 
fices are offered to some deity. 

2. In Christian churches, the 

communion table. 
Al'tar-piece, n. 1. A paint-, 
"ing placed over the altar. 2. 

Entire decoration of an altar. 
Al'ter, v. t. [imp. & p.p. al- 
"tered; p. pr. & vb. n. AL- _= 

tering.] [Low Lat. alter are, - 

from Lat. alter, another.] 1. To m± 

make some change in ; to vary in 

some degree, without an entire 

change. 2. To change entirely Altar. 

or materially. 
Al'ter, v. i. To become, in some respects, different; to 

vary ; to change. 
Al'ter-a-ble, a. Capable of being altered. 
Al'ter-a-ble-ness, ) n. Quality of being susceptible of 
AFter-a-bil'i-ty, ) change. 
AFter-a-bly, adv. In an alterable manner. 
Al'ter-ant, a. Producing a gradual change ; alterative. 
Al'ter-ant, n. A medicine which gradually corrects the 
" state of the body ; an alterative. 

AFter-a'tion, n. 1. Act of altering or state of being 
"altered; change. 2. The change made. 
Al'ter-a-tive, a. (Med.) Having power to restore the 
"healthy functions of the body without sensible evacua- 
Al'ter-a-tive, n. A medicine which gradually induces 
"a change in the habit or constitution, and restores healthy 
w functions without sensible evacuations. 
AFter-eate, v. i. [imp. & p. p. altercated ; p. pr. 

& vb. n. ALTERCATING.] [Lat. altercare, altercari, from 
^alter, another.] To contend in words ; to wrangle. 
AFter-ea/tion, n. Warm contention in words ; con- 
troversy ; dispute carried on with heat or anger. 

Syn. — Wrangle; dispute. — An altercation is an angry dis- 
pute between two parties ; a wrangle is a noisy altercation. 

Al-ter'nate (14), a. [Lat. alternants, p. p. of alternare.] 
Being by turns ; one following the other in succession of 
time or place ; hence, reciprocal. 

Al-ter'nate (14), n. That which happens by turns ; vi- 

^ cissitude ; a substitute. 

AFter-nate , or Al-ter'nate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. al- 
ternated ; p. pr. & vb. n. ALTERNATING.] To per- 
form by turns, or in succession ; to cause to succeed by 

^ turns ; to change reciprocally. 

AFter-nate, or Al-ter'nate, v. i. To happen or to 
act by turns. 

Al-ter'nate-ly, adv. In reciprocal succession ; by turns. 

AFter-na/tion, n. 1. Reciprocal succession of things 
in time or place. 2. (Math.) The different changes or 
alterations of orders in numbers ; permutation. 

Al-ter'na-tive, a. Offering a choice of two things. 

Al-ter'na-tive, n. That which may be chosen or 
omitted ; a choice of two things. 

Al-ter'na-tive-ly, adv. In an alternative manner. 

Al-ter'na-tive-ness, n. Quality or state of being al- 

Al-the'a, n. [Gr. akdaia, from a\9etv, a\9aivei.v, to make 
to grow, to heal.] (Bot.) A genus of plants including 
the common marsh-mallow and the garden hollyhocks. 

Al-tnough'^awl-thoO, conj. [From all and though, q. v.] 
Grant all this ; be it so ; allow all ; suppose that ; admit 
all that ; notwithstanding. 

Al-til'o-quence, n. [Lat. altus, high, and loquentia, a 
speaking.] Lofty speech ; pompous language. 

food, foot; urn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, -eall, e-eho; gem, get; ag; e^ist ; linger, link ; this. 




Al-tlm'e-ter, n. [Lat. altus, high, and metrum, meas- 
ure.] An instrument for taking altitudes by geometrical 

Al-tim'e-try, n. The art of ascertaining altitudes by 
means of a proper instrument. 

Al-tis'o-nant, I a. [Lat. altus, high, and sonans, sound- 

Al-tis'o-noiis, j ing.] High-sounding ; lofty or pomp- 

Al'ti-tude (53), n. [Lat. altitudo; altus, high, and a 
common termination, denoting state, condition, or man- 
ner.] 1. Space extended upward ; height ; the perpen- 
dicular elevation of an object above the ground, or above 
a given level, 2. (Astron.) The elevation of a star, or 
other celestial object, above the horizon, measured by 
the arc of a vertical circle intercepted between such 
point and the horizon. 3. Height of degree; highest 

Al'to, n. (Mus.) The part sung by the lowest female 
voices, between the tenor and soprano. In instrumental 
music, the tenor. 

Al'to-getii'erjarff. [From all and together.] 1. With 
united action ; conjointly. 2. Without exception ; 
wholly ; completely. 

Al'to-re-lie'vo, n. [It. alto rilievo.] (Sculp.) High re- 
lief; the figure standing out nearly detached from the 

Al'u-del, n. [Prob. of Arabic origin.] A chemical pot 
open at each end, used in sublimation. 

Al'um, n. [Lat. alumen.] A double sulphate of alu- 
mina and potassa. It is white, transparent, and very 

A-lu'mi-na, ) n. (Min.) One of the earths, consisting 

Al'u-mine, ) of two parts of aluminum and three of 

A-lu'mi-nif'er-oiis, a. Producing or containing alum. 

Al'u-miii'i-um, ) n. [N. Lat. See Alum.] The metal- 

A-lu'nii-num, j he base of alumina ; a very light, 
white metal, with a bluish tinge, and not easily oxidized. 

A-Lu'mi-nous, a. Pertaining to, or containing, alum, 
or alumina. 

Al'um -isli, n. Having the nature of alum. 

jL-lum f nus, n. ; pi. A-JLUM'NI. A pupil ; a graduate of 
a college, or other seminary of learning. 

Al've-a-ry, n. [Lat. alvearium, alveare, from alveus, 
hollow vessel, bee-hive ; from alvus, belly, bee-hive.] 

1. A bee-hive, or something resembling one. 2. The 
hollow of the external ear. 

Al've-o-lar, ) a. Pertaining to, or resembling, the 

Al've-o-la-ry, j sockets of the teeth. 

Al've-o-late, a. Pitted, like a honey -comb. 

Al^ve'o-lus, n. ; pi. al-ve' o-li. [Lat., a small hollow 
or cavity, dim. of alveus, a hollow, deep vessel, from al- 
vus, belly.] 1. A cell in a honey-comb. 2. The socket 
in the jaw, in which a tooth is fixed. 

Al'vine, a. [Lat. alvus, belly.] Pertaining to the lower 
belly or intestines. 

Al'way, ) adv. [From all and way, pi. ways.] 1. Per- 

Al'wayg, J petually ; throughout all time ; continually. 

2. Constantly during a certain period, or regularly at 
stated intervals ; invariably. 

133*- Alway is seldom used, except in poetry. 

Am. The first person singular of the verb to be, in the 
indicative mode, present tense. See Be. 

im'a-dou, b. [Fr., tinder, prop, lure, bait, sc. of the 
fire.] A spongy, combustible substance, prepared from 
a species of agaric which grows on old trees. 

A-main', adv. [Prefix a and main, q. v.] 1. Violently 
and suddenly. 2. (Naut.) Suddenly, or at once. 

A-mal'gam, n. [Lat. malagma, Gr. pakayixa, any 
emollient; nakdo-aeiv, to make soft.] 1. A compound 
of mercury, or quicksilver, with another metal. 2. A 
mixture or compound of different things. 

A-mal'gam-ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. amalgamated ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. amalgamating.] 1. To compound or 
mix, as quicksilver, with another metal. 2. To mix, so 
as to make a compound. 

A-nial 'gam-ate, v. i. 1. To unite in an amalgam. 
2. To coalesce, as a result of growth. 

A-mal'ga-ma'tion, n. 1. Act or operation of com- 
pounding mercury with another metal ; especially the 
process of separating gold and silver from their ores by 
mixing them with mercury. 2. The mixing or blending 
of different things or races. 

A-man'u-Sn'sis, n. ; pi. a-mXn'u-en'ser. [Lat., from 
prefix ab and manus, hand.] A person whose employ- 
ment is to write what another dictates, or to copy what 
another has written ; a copyist. 

Am'a-ranth, n. [Gr. andpavTos, from d priv. and 
fjiapaiveiv, to wither, decay ; so called because its flowers, 
when cropped, do not soon wither.] 1. (JSot.) A genus 
of ornamental annual plants of many species, with green, 
purplish, or crimson flowers in large spiked clusters. 

2. An imaginary flower that never fades or perishes. 

3. A color inclining to purple. 
Am'a-ranth'Ine, a. 1. Belonging to, consisting of, 

or resembling, amaranth. 2. Not fading or decaying, 
like the fabled amaranth of the poets. 3. Of a purplish 
color - 

Am, 1 a-ryVlis , n. [Name of a country girl in Theocritus 
and Virgil.] (JBot.) A family of beautiful plants, in- 
cluding the narcissus, jonquil, daffodil, and others. 

A-mass' (6), v. t. [imp. & p. p. amassed (a-masf) ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. AMASSING.] [L. Lat. amassare, amascere, 
from Lat. massa, mass.] To collect into a mass or heap ; 
to gather a great quantity of. 

Syn. — To heap up ; accumulate ; pile up ; gather. 

A-mass'ment, n. A heap ; accumulation. 

Am'a-teur' (am'a-tur'), n. [Fr., from Lat. amator, 
lover.] One who cultivates any study or art from taste 
or attachment, without pursuing it professionally. 

Am'a-tive, a. Full of love; amorous ; amatory. 

Am'a-tive-ness, n. [Lat. amare, to love, as if from 
amativus.] (Phren.) An organ supposed to influence 
se&ual desire ; propensity to love. 

Am/a-to'ri-al, ) a. Relating to, induced by, or express- 

Am'a-to-ry, j ive of, love. 

Am'au-ro'sis, n. [Gr. d/xaupcjai?, from d/xavpd?, dark, 
dim ; ju.aupos,dark, with a intens.] (Sled.) A loss or de- 
cay of sight, without any visible defect in the eye, usually 
from loss of power in the optic nerve. 

A-maze', v. t. [imp. & p.p. amazed ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
AMAZING.] [Prefix a and maze, q. v.] To confound 
with fear, sudden surprise, or wonder ; to confuse with 
terror and astonishment ; to astonish. 

A-maze', n. Astonishment ; perplexity ; amazement. 

A-maz'ed-ly, adv. With amazement. 

A-maz'ed-ness, n. Astonishment ; great wonder. 

A-maze'ment, n. A feeling of surprise and wonder ; 
perplexity arising from fear, surprise, or wonder. 

Syn. — Astonishment; admiration; perplexity; confusion. 

A-maz'ing-ly, adv. In an amazing degree. 

Am'a-zon, n. [Gr. d/ua£ujv, from d priv. and M a <>°s, the 
breast, from the fable that the Amazons cut off their 
right breast, so that they might more easily hurl the 
javelin.] One of a fabulous race of female warriors, who 
founded an empire on the coast of the Euxine ; — hence, 

^a warlike or masculine woman ; a virago. 

Am'a-zo'ni-an, a. 1. Pertaining to or resembling an 
Amazon. 2. Belonging to the River Amazon, or to the 
country through which it flows. 

Am-bas'sa-dor, n. An envoy of the highest rank sent 
to a foreign government. See EMBASSADOR. 

Am-bas'sa-dress, n. A female ambassador ; the wife 

^ of an ambassador. 

Am'ber, n. [From Ar. ''anbar, anbarum, a kind of per- 
fume ; orig. a fish, from which, it was believed, the gray 
amber, or ambergris, came ; afterward applied to the 
yellow amber.] (Min.) A yellowish resin found as a 

^ fossil. By friction, it readily becomes electric. 

Am'ber, a. Consisting of, or resembling, amber ; of the 
color of amber. 

Am'ber-gris (-grees), n. [See Amber.] A fragrant 
substance used in perfumery, &c. It is a morbid secre- 

^ tion of the intestines of the sperm-whale. 

Am/bi-dex'ter,«. [Lat. ambo, both, and dexter, right, 
dextra (sc. manus), the right hand.] One who uses both 

^ hands with equal facility ; hence, a double-dealer. 

Am/bi-dex-ter'i-ty, n. 1. The power of using both 
hands with equal ease. 2. Double-dealing. 

Am'bi-dex'troiis , a. 1. Having the faculty of using 
both hands with equal ease. 2. Practicing duplicity. 

ArnHbi-ent, a. [Lat. ambiens, p. pr. of ambire, to go 
around. ] Encompassing ; surrounding. 

Am/bi-gu'i-ty , n. Quality or state of being ambiguous ; 
doubtfulness or uncertainty , particularly of signification. 

Am-big'u-oiis, a. [Lat. ambiguus, from ambigere, to 
wander about with irresolute mind.] Doubtful or un- 
certain, particularly in respect to signification. 

Am-big'u-oiis-ly, adv. In an ambiguous manner. 

Am-big'u-oiis-ness, n. Ambiguity. 

Am/bit, n. [Lat. ambitus.] Circuit or compass. 

Am-bl'-tion (-bish'un), n. [Lat. ambitio, a going around, 
especially of candidates for office to solicit votes ; hence, 

a, e, &c, long; a,e\ &c, short ; care, far.ask, all, what; ere, veil, term; pique.firm; son, 6r, do, wolf, 




desire for office or honor; from ambire, to go around.] 
An eager and sometimes an inordinate desire of prefer- 
ment, honor, superiority, or power. 

Syn.— Eagerness; avidity; aspiration; greediness. 

Am-bi'tious, a. 1. Possessing, or controlled by, am- 
bition. 2. Springing from, or indicating, ambition. 

Am-bi'tious-ly, adv. In an ambitious manner. 

Am-bi'tious-ness, n. The quality of being ambitious. 

Am'ble, v. i. [Lat. ambulare, to walk, in L. Lat. to am- 
ble.] 1. To move, as a horse, by lifting together the 
two legs on one side ; to pace. 2. In a ludicrous sense, 
. to move affectedly. 

Am'ble, n. A peculiar gait of a horse, in which both 
w legs on one side are moved at the same time. 

Am/bler, n. A horse which ambles ; a pacer. 

Artx'bo, \n. [Gr. a^mv, any rising, a raised stage, 

JLm'bon, ) pulpit.] An oblong pulpit, in the early 
Christian churches. 

Am-bro'§ia (-bro'zha), n. [Gr. djujSpocna, prop. f. of 
dju.j8p6(rto?, d/a/Spo-ros, immortal, from d priv. and /3poTos, 
mortal, because it was supposed to confer immortality on 
those who partook of it.] 1. (Myth.) The food of the 
gods, which conferred upon those who partook of it eter- 
nal youth. 2. (Bot.) A genus of plants , including some 
coarse and worthless weeds, called rag-weed. 

Am-bro'gial, a. Partaking of the nature or qualities 
of ambrosia ; delighting the taste or smell ; delicious. 

Am-bro'§ian, a. Pertaining to St. Ambrose. 

Am/bro-type, n. [Gr. dp.£poTos, immortal, and rvno<;, 
impression.] (Pkotog.) A picture taken on a prepared 
glass, in which the lights are represented in silver, and 
the shades are produced by a dark background visible 

w through the unsilvered portions of the glass. 

Am1)ry, n. 1. An almonry. 2. A pantry. 

Ambg'-ace (amz'as), n. [0. Fr. ambes, ambs, Lat. ambo, 
both, and ace, q. v.] A double ace. 

Am'bu-lance, n. [From 
Lat. ambulare, to walk.] 
(Mil.) A flying hospital, so 
organized as to follow an ar- 
my in its movements, and in- 
tended to succor the wound- 
ed as soon as possible. 

Ambulance cart, a two- 
wheeled or four-wheeled vehi- 
cle, designed forthe conveyance 
of the wounded from a field of 

Am'bu-lant, a. Walking; moving from place to place. 

Am'bu-la/tion, n. The act of walking ; walking about. 

Am/bu-la-to-ry, a. 1. Able or accustomed to move 
from place to place ; walking. 2. (Law.) r\ot fixed in 
its legal character, but capable of being altered, as a will. 

AmHbu-la-to-ry, n. Any part of a building intended 
for walking in, as the aisles of a church ; — specifically, 
a place inclosed by a colonnade or arcade, as a portico. 

Am'bu-ry, I n. [A.-S. ampre, a crooked swelling vein.] 

AnHbu-ry , j A soft swelling on a horse, full of blood. 

Am1)us-«ade', »i. [It. imboscata ; imboscar, to set in 
bushes, to place in ambush, from pref. in, itn, and bosco, 
L. Lat. boscus, buscus, a wood ; Eng. busk.] 1. A lying 
concealed, for the purpose of attacking an enemy by sur- 
prise ; 2. A concealed place in which troops lie hid, in 
order to attack an enemy unexpectedly ; ambush. 

Am/bus-eade', v. t. [imp. kp.p. ambuscaded; p. 
pr. & vb. n. ambuscading.] To lie in wait ; to attack 

^ from a concealed position. 

Am'bush, n. [See Ambuscade.] 1 . Act of attacking 
an enemy unexpectedly from a concealed station. 2. A 
concealed station, where troops or enemies lie in wait to 
attack by surprise ; an ambuscade. 3 . Troops posted in 
a concealed place, for attacking by surprise. 

Am'bush, v. t. [imp. & p. p. ambushed ; p. pr. & 
vb. n' ambushing ] To he in wait for ; to surprise ; to 
place in ambush. 

A-rnel'io-rate , v. t. [imp. & p. p. ameliorated ; p 
pr. & vb. n. AMELIORATING.] [Lat. ad and meliorate. 
to make better.] To make better ; to improve. 

A-mel'io-rate, v. i. To grow better ; to meliorate. 

A-mel'io-ra/tion, n. Act of ameliorating, or state of 
being ameliorated ; improvement ; melioration. 

A-mel'io-ra-tive, a. Producing amelioration or im 


A'men' (in singing, pron. 'a'men'). [Heb., from amen 
firm, true ; Gr. d/A-qv.] An expression used at the end of 
prayers, and meaning, So be it. At the end of a creed 


it is a solemn asseveration of belief. When it introduces 
a declaration, it has the force of an adv., and is equiva- 
lent to truly, verily. It is used also as a noun, to denote 
Christ as being one who is true and faithful ; and as an 
adjective, to signify made true, verified, or fulfilled. 

A-me'na-bil'i-ty, ) 4 . . > , . , . 

A-me'na-ble-ness, I *" A state of bein ^ amenable - 

A-me'na-ble, a. [Fr. amener, to bring, esp. to bring to 
account, from a, for ad, and mener, to lead, from Lat. 
minare, to drive a n imals (properly by threatening cries) ; 
minari, to threaten ; minx, threats.] 1. Liable to be 
brought to account or punishment ; answerable ; respon- . 
sible. 2. Willing to yield or submit ; submissive. 

A-mend', v. t. [imp. & p.p. amended ; & vb. 
n. AMENDING.] [From Lat. emendate, from e, ex, and 
mendum, menda, fault.] To change in any way for the 
better, as, (a.) By simply removing what is erroneous, 
corrupt, superfluous, faulty, and the hke; (b.) By sup- 
plying deficiencies ; (c.) By substituting something else in 
the place of what is removed. 

Syn. — To correct; reform; rectify. — To amend is literally 
to take away blots, and hence to remove faults; to reform is to 
form over again for the better; to correct is to make straight or 
right; to rectify is to set right. We rectify abuses, mistakes, 
&c; we correct errors; we reform or amend our fives. 

A-mend', v. i. To grow better ; to improve morally. 
A-mend'a-ble , a. Capable of being amended. [ive. 
A-mend'a-to-ry, a. Containing amendment ; correct- 
A/mende (a'mongd'), n. [Fr.] A pecuniary fine or pun- 
ishment ; reparation ; retraction. 

Amende honorable, formerly in France an infamous punish- 
ment, now a public recantation or apology for injury done. 

A-m&nd'er, n. One who amends ; a corrector. 

A-mend'ment, n. 1. An alteration or change for the 
better ; correction of a fault or faults ; reformation of 
life by quitting vices. 2. In public bodies, any altera- 
tion in a bill or motion by adding, changing, or omitting. 
3. (Law.) The correction of an error in a writ or process. 

A-mends/, n. sing. & pi. Compensation for. a loss or 
injury ; recompense ; satisfaction ; equivalent. 

A-men'i-ty, n. [Lat. amcenitas, from amcenvs, pleas- 
ant.] Quality of being pleasant or agreeable, whether in 
^respect to situation, climate, manners, or disposition. 

Am/exit, n. [Lat. amentum, thong or strap.] (Bot.) A 
species of inflorescence, consisting of a scaly sort of 
spike, as in the alder, birch, &c. ; a catkin. 

A-mer£ e' (14), v. t. [imp. & p. p. abierced ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. AMERCING.] [L. Lat. amerciate, from Lat. mer- 
ces, wages, penalty.] 1. To punish by a pecuniary pen- 
alty, the amount of which is not fixed by law, but left to 
the discretion of the court. 2. To punish, in general. 

A-merce'a-ble, a. Liable to amercement. 

A-merce'ment, n. (Law.) A pecuniary penalty in- 
flicted on an offender at the discretion of the court. 

A-mer'cer, n. One who amerces or fines. 

A-mer'i-ean, a. Pertaining to America: — in a re- 
stricted sense, pertaining to the United States. 

A-mer'i-can, n. A native of America ; — formerly ap- 
plied to the aboriginal inhabitants ; but now to the de- 
scendants of Europeans bom in America, especially to 
the inhabitants of the United States. 

A-mer'i-eaii-Igm, n. 1. A word, phrase, or idiom pe- 
culiar to America. 2. The love which Americans have 
for their own country, or the preference of its interests. 

A-mer'i-ean-Ize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Americanized ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. AMERICANIZING.] To render American. 

Am'e-tbyst, n. [Gr. ap.e'0uo-To?, a remedy for drunken- 
ness, also the precious stone amethyst, supposed to have 
this power.] A subspecies of quartz, of a bluish violet 
color, of different degrees of intensity. 

Am'e-tliyst'Ine, a. Pertaining to, composed of, orre- 

_sembling, amethyst. 

A'mi-a-bil'i-ty, n. Amiableness ; loveliness. 

A'mi-a-ble, a. [Lat. amicabilis, friendly, with a mixtur* 
of the sense of amabilis, lovely.] Worthy of love ; de- 
serving of affection. 

Syn.— Lovely; charming; delightful; lovable. 

A'mi-a-ble-ness, n. The quality of deserving love ; 

_ loveliness ; agreeableness. 

A'mi-a-bly, adv. In an amiable manner. 

Am'i-an'tlms, n. [Gr. dixiavros \i8os (lit. unsoiled 
stone) ; from d priv. and fjuaiveiv, to stain, to defile ; so 
called from its incombustibility.] (Min.) A mineralsub- 
stance somewhat resembling flax. It is composed of deli- 
cate filaments, often long, and resembling threads of silk. 

food, ftfbt ; fxrn, rude, pull ; peU, chaise, -eall, echo ; gem, get ; a§ ; e^ist ; linger, link ; this. 




It is incombustible, and bas sometimes been wrought 
into cloth and paper. 

Am/i-ea-bil'i-ty, n. Quality of being amicable ; friend- 
liness ; amicableness. 

Am'i-ea-ble , a. [Lat. amicabilis, from amicus, friend, fr. 
amare, to love.] Harmonious in mutuai intercourse. 

Syn. — Friendly; peaceable; fraternal. — Amicable always 
supposes two parties, as an amicable arrangement. We cannot 
say of a single individual that he was amicable, though we can 
say he -wasfriendly. 

Am'i-ea-ble-ness, n. Quality of being amicable; 
friendliness ; kindness. 

Am'i-ea-bly, adv. In an amicable manner. 

Am'ice (am'is), n. [Lat. a7nictus, from amicire, to wrap 
about . ] 1 . A loose flowing garment like a cloak ; formerly 
worn by pilgrims, 2. ( Eccl.) An oblong piece of embroid- 
ered linen, made to wear on the bead, covering it like a 
hood, or to rest on the shoulders like a cape. 

A-mld', \prep. [Prefix a and mid, midst.] In the 

A-midst', ) midst or middle ; surrounded or encom- 
passed by ; among. [stern. 

A-mid'sliips, adv. Half-way between the stem and the 

A-miss', a. [Prefix a and miss.] Wrong; faulty; out 
of order ; improper. 

A-miss', adv. Wrongly; improperly; in a faulty manner. 

Am'i-ty, n. [Fr. amitic, from ami, Lat. amicus.] Friend- 
ship, in a general sense, between individuals, societies, or 
nations ; harmony ; good understanding. 

Am-mo'ni-a, n. [From sal ammoniac, which was first 
obtained near the temple of Jupiter Amnion, by burning 
camels' dung.] A volatile alkali of a pungent smell ; 
spirit of hartshorn. 

Am-mo'ni-ae, ) a. Pertaining to ammonia, or pos- 

Am'mo-nl'a-c-al, J sessing its qualities. 

Am-mo'ni-a-e , or Gum-am-mo'iii-ae, n. [Gr. afx.- 
fj.uivt.aK6v, a gum, said to distill from a tree near the tem- 
ple of Jupiter Ammon.] (Med.) The concrete juice of 
w an umbelliferous plant, brought from Persia. 

Am'mu-iii'tion, (-nlsh'un), 11. [Low Lat. admunitio, 
from ad and munire, to defend, fortify.] Military stores 
or provisions for attack or defense ; the articles which are 
used in charging fire-arms and ordnance of all kinds ; as 
powder, balls, bombs, various kinds of shot, &c. 

Am'nes-ty, n. [Gr. dju-vrjo-rta, a forgetting, from d priv. 
and ixm.vr)<TKeLv, to remember.] A general pardon of 
offenses against government. 

Am'ce-bae'an, a. [Gr. dp-oi/Baios, alternate, from a.p.01- 
flri. change ; d/xet/3eii', to change.] Alternately answering. 

A-mong', \prep. [A.-S. amang, onmang, from ge- 

A-mongst', J mang, mixture; mengan, to mix.] 1. 
Mixed or mingled with. 2. Conjoined, or associated 
with, or making part of the number of. 

A-mon'til-la'do^i. [Sp.] A dry kind of sherry. 

Am'o-roxis, a. [Low Lat. amorosus, from Lat. amor, 
love.] 1. Inclined to love ; having a propensity to sex- 
ual enjoyment. 2. In love ; enamored. 3. Relating to, 
or produced by, love. 

Am'o-rous-ly, adv. In an amorous manner ; lovingly. 

Am'o-rous-ness, n. Quality of being amorous. 

A-m6r'plii§m, n. [Gr. d priv. and j"-op0jj, form.] A 
state of being without crystallization even in the minutest 
particles, as in glass, opal, &c. 

A-mor'plioiis, a. [Gr. ap.op<£os, from d priv. and pop^r/, 
form.] 1. Having no determinate form; of irregular 
shape. 2. Without crystallization in the ultimate text- 
ure of a solid substance. 3. Of no particular kind or 
character ; anomalous. 

A-mor'ti-za'tion, )n. 1. (Law.) Act or right of 

A-mort'Ize-meiit, i alienating lands to a corpora- 
tion, which was considered formerly as transferring them 
to dead hands, or in mortmain. 2. Extinction of debt, 
particularly by means of a sinking fund. 
A-mor'tize, v. t. [L. Lat. amortisare, from Lat. mors, 
death.] (Laiv.) To alienate in mortmain, that is, to 
convey to a corporation. See Mortmain. 
A-moimt',i'. i. [imp. & p.p. amounted ; & vb.] 
n. AMOUNTING-.] [L. Lat. admontare, from Lat. ad and 
mons, mountain.] 1. To rise or reach by an accumu 
lation of particular sums or quantities ; to come in the 
aggregate or whole. 2. To rise, reach, or extend in effect 
substance, or influence ; to be equivalent. 
A-mount', n. 1. The sum total. 2. The effect, sub- 
stance, or result. 
A-mour', n. [Fr., from Lat. amor, love.] A love intrigue. 
Am-plub'i-a, [Gr. dy.(\>lpio<; , living a double life, 

from dix<j)i, on both sides, and j3to?, life.] (Zo'dl.) The 
class of reptiles which includes the saurians, crocodiles, 
lizards, serpents, frogs, turtles, and salamanders. 

Am-phib'i-an, n. An amphibious animal. 

Am-phib'i-ous, a. 1. Having the power of living m 
air and water. 2. Adapted for living on land or water. 
3. Of a mixed nature ; partaking of two natures. 

Am-phib'i-ous-ness, n. Quality of being amphibi- 
ous ; ability to five in two elements. 

Am-phib'o-log'ie-al, a. Of doubtful meaning ; am- 

Am/phi-bol'o-gy, n. [Gr. a.p.$i$o\oyia, from a/uwpi- 
/3oAos, ambiguous, and Aoyos, speech.] A phrase, proposi- 
tion, or discourse susceptible of two interpretations. 

Am'phi-braeli, n. [Gr. dju.</>i0paxus. short at both ends, 
from djix<£i', on both sides, and 0paxus, short.] (Anc. 
Pros.) A foot of three syllables, the middle one long, the 
first and last short ; as, habere. 

Am-plii-e / ty-on'i-e, a. Pertaining to the council of the 
Amphictyons in Greece. 

Am-phie'ty-on§, n. pi. [Gr. 'A^iK-ru'oves. Prob. the 
word was orig. dju.$ucTioves, dwellers around, neighbors.] 
( Gr. Hist.) An assembly or council of deputies from the 
different states of Greece. 

Am-phle'ty-o-ny, n. [See supra.] ( Gr. Hist.) An as- 
sociation of several neighboring states for the promotion 
of common interests. 

Am-phim'a-cer, n. [Gr. d^Va/cpos, long on both 
sides, from djiupi, on both sides, and fj.o.Kpos, long.] (Anc. 
Pros.) A foot of three syllables, the middle one short and 
the others long, as in castitas. 

Am-phip'ro-style, n. [Gr. d/A0t7rp6o-ri>Ao?, from d^t, 
on both sides, 'and irpoo-rv Acs, with pillars in front.] 
(Arch.) A double prostyle, or an edifice with columns in 
front and behind, but not on the sides. 

Am-pJiis'ci-I (-fish'i-I), \n. pi. [Gr. d/x^tV/cios, 

Am-pliis'ci-angt-ilsh'i-anz), j throwing a shadow 
both ways, from d/u.<fu, on both sides, and ovad, shadow.] 
(Geog.) The inhabitants between the tropics, whose 
shadows in one part of the year are cast to the north, 
and in the other to the south, according as the sun is 
south or north of their zenith. 

Am/plii-the'a-ter, ) n. [Gr. afx^iOearpov, from dfufri, 

Am/plii-the'a-tre, J about, and Oearpov, theater, from 
OeaarOai, to see.] An oval or circular edifice having rows 
of seats one above another, around an open space, called 
the arena, and used for combats of gladiators and of wild 

^beasts, and other public sports. 

Am/phi- tlie-at'rie-al, a. Pertaining to, or exhibited 
in, an amphitheater. 

Am'ple, a. [Lat. amplus.] 1. Of large dimensions; 
great in size, extent, capacity, or bulk. 2. Fully suf- 
ficient. 3. Not contracted or brief ; extended; diffusive. 

Syn. — Spacious; capacious; extensive; abundant; plente- 
ous. — When we mean by ample large in extent, we say spa- 
cious or extensive ; large in size, capacious ; large in quantity, 
abundant or plenteous. 

Am-plex'i-eaul, a. [N. Lat. amplexicaidis, fr. amplex- 
are, amplexari, intens. of amplecti, to encircle.] (Bot.) 

w Nearly surrounding the stem, as the base of a leaf. 

Am/pli-fi-ea'tion, n. 1. Act of amplifying ; enlarge- 
ment. 2. Exaggerated description or diffuse narration. 

Am'pli-f i-ea/tive, ) a. Serving or tending to amplify 

Am'pli-f i-ea'to-ry, j or enlarge. 

Am'pli-fl / er, n. One who amplifies. 

Am'pli-f y, v. t. [imp. & p. p. amplified ; & vb. 
n. amplifying.] [Lat. amplificare, from amplus, am- 
ple, arxd/acere, to make.] 1. To render larger, more ex- 
tended, or more intense, and the like. 2. (Rhet.) To 

^ treat copiously. 

Am'pli-f y, v.i. 1. To grow or become large. 2. To 

^be diffuse ; to dilate. 

Am'pli-tude (53), n. 1. State of being ample ; large- 
ness of dimensions. 2. Largeness, in a figurative sense. 
(a.) Extent of capacity or intellectual powers, (b.) Ex- 
tent of means or resources. 3. (Astron.) An arc of the 
horizon intercepted between the true east or west point 
and the center of the sun or a star at its rising or set- 
ting. 4. ( Gun.) The horizontal line subtending the 
path of a body thrown; the range. 5. (Magnetism.) 
The arc of the horizon between the sun or a star, at its 
rising or setting, and the east or west point of the hori- 
_zon, by the compass. 

Am'ply, adv. Largely, liberally ; fully. 

a,e, Sec, long; a,6,&c.,sAo«; care, far, ask. all, what; &re, veil, term; pique, firm; son, 6r, do, wolf, 




Am'pu-tate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. amputated ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. AMPUTATING.] [Lat. amputate, from amb, 
about, and putare, to prune.] To cut off, as a limb. 

Am'pu-ta/tion, n. Act or operation of cutting off a 
limb or other part. 

A-muck', n. [Malay.] Act of killing ; slaughter. 

To run amuck, to rush out frantically, attacking all that come 
in the way, as is done by fanatics in the East. 

Am'u-let, n. [At. hamalat, himalat, any thing worn, 
from hamala, to bear, to wear.] Something worn to pre- 
vent evil ; a kind of charm inscribed with mystic forms 
or characters. 

A-mu§e', v. I. [imp. & p.p. amused; p. pr. & vb. n. 
AMUSING.] [Fr. amitser, from 0. H. Ger. mozon, muo- 
zon, to be at leisure.] 1. To occupy or engage wholly. 
[Obs.] 2. To entertain agreeably ; to occupy in a pleas- 
ant manner. 3. To keep in expectation ; to delude. 

Syn. — To divert ; entertain. — We are amused by that 
which occupies us lightly and pleasantly ; entertained by that 
which brings our minds into agreeable contact with others, as 
conversation or a book ; diverted by that which draws off our 
thoughts to something of livelier interest, especially of a sport- 
ive nature, as a humorous stor;/ or a laughable incident. 

A-mu§e'ment, n. 1. Deep thought ; muse. [065.] 2. 
That which amuses. 

Syn. — Diversion ; pastime ; entertainment ; sport. 

A-mu§'er, n. One who amuses. 

A-mu'sive, a. Capable of amusing ; entertaining ; di- 
verting ; pleasing. 

A-myg'da-late, a. Made of almonds. 

A-myg'da-late, n. [From Gr. a/xvySaXov, almond.] An 
emulsion made of almonds. 

A-myg'da-line, a. Pertaining to almonds. 

A-myg'da-line, n. A crystalline principle obtained from 
bitter almonds. 

A-myg'da-loid, n. [Gr. d^vyhaXov , almond, and eldos, 
form.] A variety of trap-rock, with embedded almond- 
shaped minerals. 

A-myg'da-loid'al, a. Resembling amygdaloid. 

Am/y-la'ceous, a. [Gr. dfxv\ov, starch.] Pertaining 
to starch. 

An, a. [A.-S. an, ane, Goth, ains, Lat. unns.] This word 
is properly an adjective, but is commonly called the in- 
definite article. It is used before nouns of the singular 
number only, and signifies one, or any, but somewhat 
less emphatically. In such expressions as " twice an 
hour," " a shilling an ounce," it has a distributive force, 
and is equivalent to each, every. 

GST" An is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound; 
as, an enemy, an hour. It is also used before h sounded, when 
the accent of the word falls on any syllable except the first ; 
as, an historian, an horticulturist, an humanitarian. It was 
anciently used before all consonants. 

An, conj. [Imperative of A.-S. unnan, root ann, to grant, 
_to give.] If; — a word used by old English authors. 

AJnd, n. [Gr.] (Med.) An equal quantity of each. 

A'na. [The term, in the neut. pi. of Lat. nouns in -anus.] 
A suffix to names of persons or places , used to denote a 
collection of memorable sayings. Thus, Scaligerana is 
a book containing the sayings of Scaliger. The termina- 
tion is sometimes used alone, as a noun. 

An'a-lbap'tist, n. [Gr. dva(ZaTTTi£ei.v, to baptize again, 
from dvd, again, and |3a7rTt'£eiv, to baptize.] (Bed. Hist.) 
One who denies the validity of infant baptism, and there- 
fore maintains that those who have been baptized in 
their infancy ought to be baptized again. 

An-aeh'o-ret, n. A hermit. See Anchoret. 

An-a«h'ro-ni§m, n. [Gr. dvaxpovLo-/j.6s, from dvd, up, 
against, and XP° V0, >, time.] An error in chronology, by 
which events are misplaced in regard to each other. 

An-aeh'ro-nist'ie , a. Involving an anachronism. 

An'a-elas'ties, n. sing. That part of optics which 
treats of the refraction of light ; — commonly called di- 

^ op tries. 

An'a-eon'da, n. ( Herp.) A large snake of the Boa fam- 
ily, which lives in South America. 

A-nae're-on'tie, a. Pertaining to, or after the manner 
of, the Greek poet Anacreon ; amatory ; convivial. 

A-nae're-on'tie , n. A poem in the style of Anacreon ; 
a little poem in praise of love and wine. 

An'a-dem, n. [Gr. dvdSr)fj.a, from dvaSeiv, to tie up, to 
wreathe.] A garland or fillet ; a chaplet or wreath. 

JLn'a-di-plo'sis, n. [Gr. dvaSiTrAcocrt?, from dvd, again, 
and Sltt\ovv, to double.] (Rhet.) A repetition of the last 

word or words in a sentence or clause, at the beginning 
of the next, with an adjunct idea. 

A.n'ses-the'sis, n. [Gr. dv priv. and alerdrjo-i?, feeling.] 
(Med.) A state of insensibility produced by the inhala- 
tion of chloroform and other agents. 

An'nes-thet'i-e, a. (Med.) (a.) Capable of rendering 
insensible by being inhaled, (b.) Characterized by in- 
^ sensibility. 

An'aes-thet'ie, n. (Med.) That which produces insen- 
sibility, as chloroform, &c. 

An'a-glyph, n. [Gr. dvdy\v<j>ov, from dvd, up, and 
ykvQeiv, to engrave.] An embossed or chased ornament, 

^ usuaUy of metal and worked in relief, as a cameo. 

An'a-glyph'ie, ) a. Pertaining to the art of chasing 

Au'a-glyph'ie-al, ) or embossing in relief. 

An'a-glyp'tie, a. [Gr. dvdy\vnTog. See Anaglyph.] 
Relating to the art of carving, engraving, enchasing, or 
embossing plate. 

An'a-gog'ie-al, a. [From Gr. dvayayri, from dvd, up, 
and dyu,yri, a leading, from dyeiv, to lead.] Mysterious ; 
mystical ; spiritual. 

An'a-gog'ies, n. pi. Mystical interpretations, espe- 
cially of the Scriptures. 

An'a-gram, n. [Gr. avdypa/xfia, from dvd, back, again, 
and ypdfxfxa, letter.] A transposition of the letters of a 
name, by which a new word is formed. Thus, astrono- 

^mers may be turned into moon-starers. 

An'a-gram-mat'ie, a. Pertaining to, or making, an 

w anagram. 

An'a-gram'ma-tigm, n. Act or practice of making 

w anagrams. 

An/a-gram'ma-tist, n. A maker of anagrams. 

An/a-gram'ma-tize , v. t. To transpose, as the letters 

^ of a word, so as to form an anagram. 

An'a-gram'ma-tize, v. i. To make anagrams. 

A'nal, a. Belonging to or near the anus or opening at 

the lower extremity of the alimentary canal. 

An'a-le-e'ti-e, a. Collecting or selecting; made up of 

An'a-le-ets, )n. pi. [Gr. dvaketcra, from dvd, up, and Ae- 

JLn' a-le-e'td , ) yeiv, to gather.] A collection of literary 

JLn'a-lem'md, n. [Gr. dvaXri^/xa, a support, or thing 
supported, from dva\afx[idveiv, to take up.] 1. ( Geom.) 
A projection of the sphere on the plane of the meridian, 
orthographically made by straight lines, circles, and 
ellipses, the eye being supposed at an infinite distance, 
and in the east or west point of the horizon. 2. An in- 
strument of wood or brass, on which this projection of 
the sphere is made, and having a horizon fitted to it. 3. 
A tabular mark, usually in the shape of the figure 8, de- 
picted across the torrid zone on an artificial terrestrial 
globe, to notify the sun's declination on any day in the 


An'a-lep'ti-e, a. [Gr. dvaArjn-TiKo?, from dvaXaix^dveiv, 
to take up.] Corroborating ; invigorating ; giving 

^ strength after disease. 

An / a-lep'ti«, n. Restorative medicine. 

An'a-ldg'i-c-al, a. According to, or founded on, analogy. 

An'a-log'i-e-al-ly, adv. By way of analogy. 

An'a-log'i-e-al-ness, n. Quality of being analogical. 

A-nal'o-gigm, n. 1. An argument from cause to effect 
2. Investigation by analogy. 

A-nal'o-gize, v. t. To explain or consider by analogy, 

A-nal'o-goiis, a. Having analogy ; correspondent. 

An'a-logue, n. A thing analogous to some other thing. 

A-nal'o-gy, n. 1. An agreement or likeness between 
things in some circumstances or effects, when the things 
are otherwise entirely different. 2. (Geom.) Equality, 
proportion, or similarity of ratios. 

A-nal'y-sis, n. ; pi. a-NAI/Y-ses. [Gr. dvaAucrt?, from 
dvakveiv, to unloose, from dvd, again, and Avetv, to 
loose.] 1. A resolution of any thing, whether an object 
of the senses or of the intellect, into its constituent or 
original elements ; — opposed to synthesis. 2. Hence, (a.) 
A syllabus, or table of the principal heads of a continued 
discourse, disposed in their natural order, (b.) A brief, 
methodical illustration of the principles of a science, (c.) 
(Chem.) Separation of a compound by chemical proc- 
esses into its constituents, (d.) (Logic.) The tracing 
of things to their source, and the resolving of knowledge 
into its original principles, (e.) (Math.) The resolving 
of problems by reducing them to equations. 

An'a-lyst, n. One who analyzes any thing. 

food, foot ; urn, rude, pull ; fell, chaise, -call, e-eho ; gem, get ; a§ ; ejist ; linger, link ; this. 


An'a-lyt'ie, ) a. Pertaining to 
An'a-lyt'ie-al, j analysis ; resolv- 
ing into component parts or first prin- 
ciples ; fond of analysis. 
An'a-lyt'ie-al-ly, adv. By way of 
analysis ; in an analytical manner. 

An'a-lyt'ies, n. pi. The science of 

An a-lyz'a-ble, a. Capable of being 

An'a-lyze, v. t. [i?np. & p. p. ana- 
lyzed ; & vb. n. ANALYZING.] 
[See Analysis.] To separate into the 
component parts ; to resolve into first 
principles or elements. 

Aii'a-lyz'er, n. One who, or that 
jtvhich , analyzes. j \\\ \ j \ 

jLn'a-indr'pho-sis, or jLn'a-mor- Ulj; 

pho'sis, n. [Gr. dvap-opfyuois, from \ 

dva.fjLop(j)ovv, to form anew.] 1. ( Persp. ) f \ 

A distorted representation of an im- . v 

age on a plane or curved surface, Anamorphosis. 
which, viewed from a certain point, or by reflection from 
a plane or curved mirror, appears regular and in pro- 
portion. 2. (Bot.) A morbid or monstrous development, 
or change of form, or degeneration. 

A^id'nas,n. [Malay, nanas, ananas.] The pine-apple. 

An'a-psest, n. [Gr. dvdnaio-TOs, struck back, an ana- 
paest, i. e., a dactyl reversed, or as it were struck back ; 
from dvanaLeiv, to strike back.] (Pros.) In Greek 
and Latin versification, a foot consisting of three sylla- 
bles, the first two short, the last long ; as, de-i-tas. In 
English versification, a foot containing two unaccented 
syllables, followed by an accented one ; as, in-ter-vene' ; 

^ — the reverse of the dactyl. 

An'a-psest'ie, \a. Pertaining to an anapaest ; con- 

An'a-paest'te-al, j sisting of anapaests. 

JL-naph'o-t'ti, n. [Gr. dva(/>opd, fr. d^a^epetv, to carry up 
or back.] ( Rhet. ) Repetition of a word or of words at the 
beginning of two or more successive clauses of a sentence. 

An'areh, n. [Gr. avapxos, without head or chief, from 
dv priv. and apx 7 ?) beginning.] The author of anarchy. 

A-nareh'Le , ) a. Being without government ; law- 

A-nar-eli'i-e-al, j less ; confused. 

An'areh-Ist, n. One who promotes disorder ; an an- 

^ arch. 

An'areh-y, n. 1. "Want of government in society ; law- 
lessness. 2. Confusion. 

An'a-sar'^d, n. [Gr. dvd, throughout, and o"dp£, gen. 

^aapKos. flesh.] [Med.) Dropsy of the cellular tissue. 

An'a-sare'oiis, a. Dropsical. 

A-nas'to-mo§e, v. i. [imp. & p. p. anastomosed; & vb. n. ANASTOMOSING.] (Anat. & Bot.) To in- 
osculate ; to communicate with each other, as the arte- 
ries and veins ; to unite as by anastomosis. 

A.-mas'to-mo'sis, n. ; pi. a-nXs'to-mo'ses. [Gr. dva- 
o-TOjuajcris, from dva.o-Top.ovv, to furnish with a mouth or 
opening.] (Anat. & Bot.) Inosculation of vessels, or the 
opening of one vessel into another, as an artery into 
another artery, or a vein into a vein. 

A-nds'tro-phc, n. [Gr. avao-rpo^ij, from dvao-Tpe^eiv, 
to turn back.] (Rhet.) An inversion of the natural or- 
der of words ; as, echoed the hills, for the hills echoed. 

A-nath'e-ma, n. ; pi. a-nath'e-mA!-;. [Gr. dvddep.a, 
any thing devoted, esp. to evil, dva07)p.a, a votive offering 
set up in temples, from dvo.Ti0evai, to dedicate, from dvd, 
up, and Tiflevai, to set.] 1. (Antiq.) An offering or 
present made to some deity, and hung up in a temple. 
2. A ban or curse pronounced with religious solemnity 
by ecclesiastical authority, and accompanied by excom- 
munication. 3. Any person or thing anathematized. 

A-nath'e-ma-ti-za'tion, n. Act of anathematizing. 

Anath'e-ma-tize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. anathema- 
tized; p. pr. & vb. n. ANATHEMATIZING.] To de- 
nounce with curses. 

An'a-tom'ie, ) a. Belonging to anatomy or dissec- 

An'a-tSm'ie-al, J tion. 

An'a-tom'ie-al-ly, adv. By means of dissection. 

A-n&t'o-mist, n. One who dissects bodies, or is skilled 
in anatomy. 

A-nat'o-mi-za'tion, n. The act of anatomizing. 

A-nat'o-mlze, v. t. [imp. & p. p. anatomized ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. anatomizing.] 1. To dissect. 2. To 
lay open the interior structure of; to analyze. 



A-n&t'o-my, n. [Gr. avarop-iq, dissection, from dvd, up, 
and re/Avetv, to cut.] 1. Art of dissection. 2. Science 
of the structure of animal bodies. 3. Act of dividing 
any thing, corporeal or intellectual, for the purpose of 
examining its parts. 4. Any thing dissected, or hav- 
ing the appearance of being so ; hence, a skeleton. 

An'ces-tor, n. One from whom a person is descended 
at any distance of time. 

Syn. — Forefather; progenitor. 

An-ces'tral, a. Relating to, or 

_ descending from, ancestors. 

An'ces-try , n. 1 . A series of an- 
cestors or progenitors ; lineage. 
2. Hence, birth or honorable de- 

w scent. 

Aneli'or, n. 1. An iron instru- 
ment for holding a vessel at rest ««- stock; 6. shank; c<r, 
in water ; any firm support. 2. ; ' arm8 ' 

Hence, any contrivance or instrument designed to hold 
fast, as an arrangement of timber to hold a dam fast. 

w 3. (Fig.) That which gives stability or security. 

Aneli'or, v. t. [imp. & p. p. anchored ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. anchoring.] 1. (Naut.) To place at anchor. 2. 

^(Fig.) To fasten ; to fix in a stable condition. 

An-eli'or, v. i. 1. To cast anchor ; to come to anchor. 
2. (Fig.) To stop ; to fix or rest. 

Aneli'or-age, ». 1. A place where a ship can anchor. 

2. The anchor and all necessary tackle for anchoring. 

3 . A duty imposed on ships for anchoring in a harbor. 
Aneh'or-ess, n. A female hermit. 

Aneh'or-et, } n. [Gr. di/axtoprynjs. from dvax<»peiv, to 
Aneh'or-Ite, ' retire, from dvd, up, back, and x^peiv, 

w to retire ; x<*>P s> place.] A hermit ; a recluse ; a monk. 

Aneh'or-Ice, n. Ice formed at the bottom of running 
streams, and thus anchored to the ground; ground-ice. 

An-cho'vy, n. [A word of Iberian origin, lit. a dried 
or pickled fish, from Bisc. antzua, anchua, anchuva, dry.] 
A small sea-fish of the herring family. 

An'chy-lose, v. t. [Gr. dyKuAocris, crookedness, d^/cvAoCv, 
to crook, stiffen.] [imp. & p. p. anchylosed; p. pr. 
& vb. n. anchylosing.] To unite or fix immovably ; 

_to stiffen ; to make fast. 

An'cient (an'shent), a. [L. Lat. antianus, anteanvs, from 
Lat. antea, ante, before.] 1. Old; that happened or ex- 
isted in former times, usually at a great distance of time. 
2. Of great age ; advanced in years. 

Syn.— Primitive; pristine: antiquated; obsolete. — A thing 
is ancient when it is old; it is antiquated, antique, and obsolete, 
when it is gone out of use or fashion. 

An'cient, n. 1. pi. Those who lived in former ages, as 
opposed to the moderns. 2. pi. Yery old men ; hence, 
governors. 3. The bearer of a flag; — now called an 


Au'cient-ly, adv. In old times ; formerly. 

An'cient-ry, n. The honor of ancient lineage. 

An'cil-la-ry, a. [Lat. ancillaris, from ancilla, a female 
servant.] Subservient or subordinate, like a handmaid. 

An-cip'i-tal, a. [Lat. anccps, gen. ancipitis, two-headed, | 
double, from am, for amb, on both sides, and caput, 
head.] (Bot.) Compressed, and forming two opposite 
angles, as a stem of blue-grass. 

An'eo-ny, n. [Prob. from Gr. dy<wv, from its resem- 
blance to the arm.] (Iron Works.) A piece of half- 
wrought iron, in the shape of a bar in the middle, but 

w rude and unwrought at the ends. 

And, conj. [A.-S.] A particle which expresses the relation 
of addition. It may connect words merely, as, three and 
four are seven ; or full sentences, as, the sun shines, and 
the air is mild. 

An-dan'te, a. [It. p. pr. of andare, to go.] (Mus.) 
Rather slow; less slow than largo, more slow than alle- 
gretto, [time, 

A-n-dan'te, n. (Mus.) A movement or piece in andantt 

And'i-ron (-I-urn), n. [A corrupt, of brand-iron, or of 
hand-iron, or of end-iron.] A utensil for supporting 
wood in a fire-place ; a fire-dog. 

An-drog'y-nal, ) a. [Lat. androgynus, Gr. dvSpoyu- 

An-drog'y-nous, > vos, fr. av-qp, <xv8pds,man, and yvvq, 
woman.] 1. Having both sexes ; hermaphroditical. 
2. Hence, having the mental characteristics of both 


. [Gr. dvrjp, dv&pS';, man, and eiSos, 
form.] A machine in the human form, 

*,e,&c.,long; a,e,&c, short; care, far, ask, all, what ; ere, veil, term; pique,firm; son, or, d ft , wolf, 




which, by certain contrivances, performs some of the 
natural motions of a living man. 

An'ee-do'tal, a. Pertaining to anecdotes. 

An/ee-dote, ft. [Gr. dVe/cSoro?, not published, from dv 
priv. and e/cSoros, given out, from eKSiSovcu, to give out, 
to publish.] A particular or detached incident or fact 
of an interesting nature ; a biographical incident. 
Syn.— Story; tale; memoir. 

An/e-e-dot'ie-al, a. Pertaining to anecdotes. 

Aii'e-mog'ra-phy, ft- [Gr. dve/Aos, wind, and YP*<H> 
description] A description of the winds. 

An'e-mol'o-gy, ft. [Gr dve/u.os, wind, Xo-yos, discourse.] 
The doctrine of winds, or a treatise on the subject. 

An'e-mom'e-ter, ft. [Gr. aj/e/aos, wind, and p.erpov, 
measure.] An instrument or machine for measuring the 
force and velocity of the wind. 

Aii'e-mom/e-try, ft. Measurement of the force and 
velocity of wind, by means of an anemometer. 

A-nem'o-ne, ft. [Gr. dveixuvt), from 6.vep.os, wind, — 
because easily stripped of its leaves by the wind.] (Bot.) 
A genus of plants of the crowfoot family ; wind-flower. 

A-nem'o-s-eope, ft. [Gr. ave/u.os, wind, and 0-k.ottsi.v , 
to view.] A weather-cock ; — usually applied to con- 
trivances for bringing down the indications of a wind- 
vane to a dial below, for accuracy and ease of inspection. 

An'e-roid, a. [Gr. d priv., vqpos, wet, moist, and elSos, 
form.] Dispensing with the use of quicksilver, as a 

w kind of portable barometer, shaped like a watch. 

An'e-roid, n. A portable barometer, shaped like a 
watch, which dispenses with the use of quicksilver. 

An'eu-rigm, n. [Gr. dvevpva/xa, a widening, an open- 
ing, from dvevpvveiv, to widen.] ( Anat.) A soft, pul- 
sating tumor, arising from the preternatural dilatation 
or rupture of the coats of an artery. 

A-new' (a-nu'), arft). Newly; over again ; afresh. 

An-fra€t / u.-os'i-ty, ft. State of being anfractuous, or 
full of windings and turnings. 

An-f raet'ii-ous , a. [Lat. anfractus,a, turning, a wind- 
ing, from an, for amb, and frangere, to break, p. p./rac- 

_tus, broken.] Winding ; full of windings and turnings. 

An'gel, ft. TGr. ayyeA.09, messenger, from dyyeWetv, 
to bear a message.] 1. A messenger. [Rare.] 2. A 
spirit, or a spiritual being, employed by God to commu- 
nicate his will to man ; a ministering spirit. 3. An evil 
spirit. 4. An ancient gold coin of England, worth about 

_ten shillings, and bearing the figure of an angel. 

An'gel, a. Resembling, or belonging to, angels, or par- 

_ taking of their nature or dignity. 

An'gel-et, ft. A small gold coin formerly current in 

_ England; a half-angel. 

An'gel-fish, w. A species of 
shark, taking its name from 
its pectoral fins, which are 
very large, and extend hori- 
zontally, like wings when ( 

An-gel'i-e, ) a. Belonging 

An-geFi-e-al, J to,orresem- Angel-fish, 

bling, angels. 

An-|jel'i-e-al-ly, adv. Like an angel. 

An-gel'ie-al-ness, ft. Quality of being angelic. 

An'gel-ol'o-gy, n. [Gr. ayyeAo? and Aoyos, discourse.] 

w A discourse on angels, or the doctrine of angelic beings. 

An'ger (82), h. [From Lat. angor, strangling.] 1. Pain 
of a sore or swelling. [Obs.] 2. A strong passion or 
emotion of the mind excited by a real or supposed injury 
to, or intent to injure, one's self or others. 

Syn. — Indignation; resentment; wrath; fury; rage. — An- 
ger is a stronger term than resentment, but not so strong as in- 
dignation, which is awakened by what is flagitious in character 
or conduct; nor as wrath, fury, rage, in which anger is wrought 
up to a still higher point in the order of these words. 

An'ger (ang'ger), v.t. [imp. & p. p. angered ; p. pr. 
& vb. ft. angering.] 1. To cause to smart. [Obs.] 
2. To excite to anger ; to rouse to resentment. 
Syn. — To provoke; vex; displease; fret. 
Ans-gl'na, ft. [Lat.] Inflammation of the throat. 
Angina pectoris, a distressing affection of the chest. 

An'gi-og'ra-phy, n. [Gr. dyyelov, vessel, and ypa(j)rj, 
description.] (Med.) A description of the vessels in the 
human body. 

An/gi-31'o-gy, ft. [Gr. dyyelov, vessel, and Aoyos, dis- 

course-] (Med.) A treatise or discourse on the vessels of 

the human body. 
An'gi-ot'o-my, ft. [Gr. dyyelov, vessel, and tojujj, cut- 
„ting.] (Anat.) A dissection of the vessels of the body. 
An'gle (ang'gl), u. [La,t..angu- 

lus, from Gr. dy/cuAo?, bent, 

crooked, angular: a-y/co?, a 

bend or hollow.] 1. A corner. 

2. (Geom.) The difference of,B 

direction of two lines in the 

same plane that meet in a point, 

or that would meet if sufficiently c A E ri ht an ^ e . c A D 

extended ; or the difference of acute angle ; B A E, ob- 

direction of two planes intersect- tuse angle. 

ing, or tending to intersect, each other. 3. Fishing 

tackle ; a line, hook, and bait, with or without a rod. 

Angle of incidence (Opt.), the angle which a ray of light 

akes with a perpendicular to that point of the surface of any 

Angle of refraction, the angle 

makes with a perpe: 
medium on which it falls 

which a ray of light refracted makes with a perpendicular~to 
that point of the surface of the refracting medium on which it 
falls. — A right angle, one formed by a right line falling on 
another perpendicularly, or an angle of 90°, making the quar- 
ter of a circle. — An obtuse angle, one greater than a right angle, 
or more than 90°. — An acute angle, one less than a right an- 
gle, or less than 90°. — A rectilineal or right-lined angle, one 
formed by two right fines. — A curvilinear angle, one formed 
by two curved lines. — A mixed angle, one formed by a right 
line with a curved line. — Adjacent or contiguous angles, such 
as have one leg common to both angles, and are together equal 
to two right angles. — External angles, angles of any right-lined 
figure without it, when the sides are produced or lengthened. 
— Internal angles, those which are within any right-lined fig- 
ure. — Oblique angles, angles that are either acute or obtuse, 
in opposition to right angles. — A solid angle, the angle pro- 
duced by the meeting of three or more plane angles at one 
point. — A spherical angle, one made by the meeting of two 
arcs of great circles, which mutually cut one another on the 
surface of the globe or sphere. — Visual angle, the angle formed 
by two rays of light, or two straight lines drawn from the ex- 
treme points of an object to the center of the eye. 

An'gle (ang'gl), v. i. [imp. & p.p. ANGLED ; p. pr. & 
vb. ft. ANGLING.] 1. To fish with fine and hook. 2. 
Hence, to use some bait or artifice ; to intrigue. 

An'gle-toar, ) ft. A rolled bar of iron of an angular 

An'gle-i-ron, ) shape, for the edges of iron safes, &c. ; 
or to connect the side-plates of iron boilers, &c. 

An/gler, n. 1. One who fishes with a hook. 2. (Ichth.) 

w A kind of fish ; — called also fishing-frog. 

An/gll-eaii, a. [From Lat. Angli, the Angles, a Ger- 
manic tribe in Lower Germany. ] English ; pertaining to 

^ England or the English nation. 

An'gK-ean, ft. A member of the church of England. 

An'gli-ean-i§m, ft. 1. Attachment to England or 
English institutions ; especially, strong partiality to the 
principles and rites of the English church. 2. The prin- 
ciples of the established church in England. [ner. 

A-n'cjli-q&, adv. [Lat.] In English ; in the English man- 

An'gli-fi§m, ft. An English idiom or expression. 

Aii'gli-cize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. ANGLICIZED ; p. pr. 
& vb. ft. ANGLICIZING.] To render conformable to the 

^English idiom, or to English analogies. 

An'glo-. [From N. Lat. Anglus, English.] A prefix 
meaning the same as English ; — ■ used in composition. 

Anglo-American, a descendant from English ancestors, born 
in America, or the United States, or pertaining to the descend- 
ants of Englishmen in America. — Anglo-mania-, an excessive 
or undue attachment to, or reverence for, England or English 
institutions. — Anglo-Norman, pertaining to the English Nor- 
mans, or an English Norman. — Anglo-Saxon, pertaining to 
the Saxons who settled in England; also, an English Saxon, 
or the language of the English Saxons. 

An'gor, ft. Intense bodily pain. 

An'gri-ly, adv. In an angry manner. 

Aii'gry, a. [See Anger.] 1. Inflamed, as a sore. _ 2. 
Touched with anger. 3. Showing anger. 4. Stimu- 
lated ; roused; vigorous. 

Syn. — Passionate; resentful; irritated; indignant; pro- 
voked; hot; raging; furious; tumultuous; wrathful; choleric; 
inflamed; infuriated. 

An-gull'li-form, a. [Lat. anguilla, eel, and forma, 
form.] In the form of an eel ; resembling an eel. 

An/guish, ft. [Lat. angustia, from angustns, narrow, 
difficult, from anger e, to press together.] Extreme pain, 
either of body or mind. 

Syn. — Agony; torture; torment; grief; pang; throe. 

An'gu-lar, a. 1. Having an angle or angles ; pointed. 
2. Consisting of an angle ; forming an angle. 3. (Fig.} 
Sharp and stiff in character. 

An'gu-lar'i-ty, ft. The qualitv of being angular. 

An'gu-lar-ly, adv. With angles ; in the direction of 
the angles. 

food, fdt>t ; urn,, pull ; fell, chaise, -call, eeho ; gem, get ; a§ ; e$ist; linger, link ; tnis- 




An'gu-lar-ness, n. Quality of being angular. 

An'gu-lat-ed (ang'gu-), a. Formed with angles. 

An/lie-la/tion, n. [Lat. anhelatio, from anhelare, to 
breathe with great difficulty.] Shortness of breath ; dif- 
ficult respiration. 

An-hy'droiis, a. [Gr. avvSpog, wanting water, from av 
priv. and v&up, water.] Destitute of water. 

An'il, n. [Ar. an-nil, for al-nil, the indigo-plant, from 
Skx.nila, dark-blue, indigo, nili, indigo -plant.] (Bot.) 
A shrub from whose leaves and stalks indigo is made. 

Aii'Ile, a. [Lat. anilis, from anus, old woman.] Old- 
womanish ; imbecile. 

A-nil'i-ty, ) n. State of being an old woman ; old age 

An'Ile-ness, ) of a woman ; dotage. 

An'i-mad-ver'sion, n. Remarks by way of criticism, 
censure, or reproof. 

Syn. — Strictures; comment; blame. 

In'i-mad-ver'sive, a. Having the power of perceiving. 

An'i-mad-vert' (14), v. i. [imp. & p. p. animad- 
verted ; p. pr. & vb. n. ANIMADVERTING.] [Lat. 
animadvertere, from animus, mind, and advertere, to 
turn to, from ad, to, and vertere, to turn.] 1. To turn 
the mind with intent to notice. 2. To consider or re- 
mark by way of criticism or censure. 
Syn. — To remark; comment. 

An'i-mad-vert' er, n. One who animadverts. 

An'i-mal, n. [Lat., fr. anima, breath, soul, animus, 
soul, mind ; Gr. a^e^os, wind, Skr. an, to breathe, five.] 
1. An organized living being endowed with sensation and 
the power of voluntary motion. 2. An irrational being, 
as distinguished from man. 

An'i-mal, a. 1. Of, or relating to, animals. 2. Pertaining 
to the merely sentient part of a creature, as distinguished 
from the intellectual, rational, or spiritual part. 3. 
Consisting of the flesh of animals. 

-? J1 '!" m $l!" eu "i? ,r ' } a. Pertaining to animalcules. 
An'i-mal'-eu-line, j 6 

An'i-mal'-cule, n. [Dim. of animal, q. v.] A little 
animal, especially one that is invisible, or nearly so, to 
the naked eye. [animalcules. 

An'i-mal'-cu-list, n. One versed in the knowledge of 

An'i-mdV-eu-lwm, n. ; pi. an'i-mal'cu-la. [See An- 
imalcule.] An animalcule. 

JS3» Animalculse, as if from a Lat. singular animalcula, is a 
gross barbarism. 

An'i-mal-flow'er, n. A name applied to several species 
of zoophytes. [ness. 

An'i-mal -i§m, n. The state of mere animals ; brutish- 

An-i-mal'i-ty , n. The state of animal existence. 

An'i-mal-i-za'tion, n. The act of giving animal life, 
or of converting into animal matter. 

An'i -mal-ize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. animalized ; 
& vb. n. ANIMALIZING.] 1. To give animal life or 
properties to. 2. To convert into animal matter by the 
processes of assimilation. 3. To render or regard as 
merely animal or sentient. 

An'i-mate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. ANIMATED ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ANIMATING-.] [Lat. animate, from anima, breath, 
soul.] 1. To give natural life to. 2. To give powers to, 
or to heighten the powers or effect of. 3. To give spirit 
or vigor to. 

Syn. — To enliven; inspirit; stimulate; exhilarate; inspire; 
instigate; rouse; urge; cheer; prompt; incite; quicken ; glad- 

An'i-mate, a. Alive ; possessing animal life. 

An'i-mat-ed,y.a. 1. Endowed with animal life. 2. 
Full of life; enlivened; spirited; lively. [animated. 

An/i-ma'tion, n. Act of animating, or state of being 
Syn. — Vivacity; spirit; buoyancy; sprightliness ; liveli- 
ness; promptness. 

An'i-mos'i-ty, n. [Lat. animositas.] Violent hatred 
leading to active opposition ; active enmity. 

Syn. — Rancor; malevolence; malignity; rage; wrath. 

JLn f i-mus,n. [Lat., mind.] Intention; purpose; spirit; 

An'ise, n. [Gr. avurov, avr^Qov, Ar. anisun,janisun.] A 
plant bearing aromatic seeds. 

Ank'er (82), n. [D.] A Dutch liquid measure, formerly 
used in England, and containing ten wine gallons. 

An'kle, n. [A.-S. ancleow, dim. of anke, bent, neck.] 
The joint which connects the foot with the leg. 

An'lace (45), n. [Either from Lat. anellus, annidus, ring 
(as hanging from one attached to the hilt), or from 0. 
H. Ger. laz, Lat. latus, side.] A short dagger worn in 

An'nal-ist, n. A writer of annals. [the 14th century. 

An'mx-al , n. 1 . A thing happening or returning yearly ; 

— especially, a literary work published once a year. 2. 

A thing, especially a plant, that lasts or lives but on© 

year or season. 
An'nu-al-ly, adv. Yearly ; year by year. 
An-nu'i-tant, n. A person who has an annuity. 
An-nu/i-ty, n. [L. Lat. annuitas, from annus, year.] A 

An'nalg, n. pi. [Lat. annalis (sc. liber), from annus, 
year.] 1. A history of events in chronological order, 
each event being recorded under the year in which it 
happened ; also the title of such a history. 2. A series 
of historical events. 3. An annual publication, contain- 
ing records of discoveries, transactions of societies, &c. 

An'nats, n. pi. [From Lat. annus, year.] (Eng. Bed. 
Law.) The first year's whole profits of a spiritual pre- 
ferment, anciently paid by the clergy to the pope, but in 
the reign of Henry VIII. transferred to the crown ; first- 

An-neal', v. t. [imp. & p. p. annealed ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ANNEALING.] [A.-S. anselan, onselan, to kindle, to 
inflame, from the prefix an, on, and xlan, to kindle.] 1. 
To heat nearly to fluidity, and then cool slowly, for the 
purpose of rendering less brittle. 2. To heat, as glass or 
tiles, in order to fix colors. 

An-nex', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ANNEXED (an-nekst'); ' 
p. pr. & vb. n. ANNEXING.] [Lat. annectere, annexum^ 
to tie or bind to, from ad, to, and nectere, to tie, to 
fasten together.] 1. To unite at the end; to subjoin; 
to affix. 2. To add, as a smaller thing to a greater. 3. 
To connect, especially as a consequence. 

An'nex-a/tion, I n. 1. Act of annexing, uniting, or 

An-nex'ion, ) connecting; addition, union. 2. 
(Law.) Union of property with a freehold so as to be- 
come a fixture. 

An-nex'ment, n. 1. The act of annexing, or the state 
of being annexed. 2. The thing annexed. 

An-ni'hi-la-lble, a. Capable of being annihilated. 

An-nl'hi-late, v. t. [imp. & p. p. annihilated; & vb. n. ANNIHILATING.] [Lat. annihilare, from 
ad and nihilum, nihil, nothing.] 1. To reduce to noth- 
ing ; to cause to cease to be. 2. To destroy the form or 
peculiar distinctive properties of. 

An-ni'ni-la'tion, n. Act of reducing to nothing, or 
state of being reduced to nothing ; destruction. 

An'iii-ver'sa-ry (14), a. Returning with the year, at a 
^ stated time, [each year. 

An'ni-ver'sa-ry, n. A day celebrated as it returns 

An-nom'i-na'tion, n. [Lat. annominatio, from ad 
and nomen, a name.] 1. A pun ; a paronomasia. 2. 

JLn-no'nd, n. [Lat., from annus, year.] A year's pro- 
eduction or increase; hence, provisions for a year's use. 

An'no-tate, v. i. [Lat. annotare, from ad and notare, 
to mark, from nota, mark.] To make annotations, com- 
^ments, or remarks. 

An'no-ta'tion, n. A remark, note, or commentary on 
some passage of a book, intended to illustrate its mean- 
ing ; — generally used in the plural. 

An'no-ta'tor, n. A writer of notes ; a commentator. 

An-not'to, n. A species of red or yellowish-red djeing 
material, prepared from the seeds of a tropical tree. 

An-nounce', v. t. [imp. & p. p. announced ; 
& vb. n. ANNOUNCING.] [Lat. annunciare , from ad and 
nunciare, to report, from nuncius, messenger.] To give 
public notice, or first notice of; to make known. 

Syn. — To proclaim; publish; advertise. — To publish is to 
make publicly known; to announce is to make known for 
the first time; to proclaim (literally, to cry aloud) is to give the 
widest publicity; to advertise is to make known through the 
public prints. 

An-noun^e'ment, n. Act of announcing or giving 
public notice ; proclamation ; declaration. 

An-nounc'er, n. One who, or that which, announces. 

An-noy', v. t. [imp. & p. p. annoyed ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ANNOYING.] [Fr. ennuyer, 0. Fr: anoier, from Lat. in 
odio, in hatred.] To injure or disturb by continued or 
repeated acts. 

Syn. — To incommode; vex; disturb; pester; molest; teas*; 
bore; bother; plague. 

An-noy', n. Annoyance. [Poetical.'] 

An-noy'ance, n. 1. Act of annoying, or the state of 
being annoyed. 2. That which annoys. 
Syn. — Vexation; disturbance; injury; bore. 

An-noy'er, n. One who annoys or disturbs. 

An'nu-al (an/yu-al), a. 1. Returning or happening 
every year ; yearly. 2. Performed in a year ; reckoned 
by the year. 3 . Lasting or continuing only one year or 

a, e,&c, long; a, e, &c, short; care, far, ask, all, what ; ere, veil, term ; pique, firm ; son, or, do, wolf. 




sum of money, payable yearly, to continue for a given 
number of years, for life, or forever. 

An-niil', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ANNULLED ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ANNULLING.] [Low Lat. annullare, from Lat. ad, to, 
and nullum, nothing.] To make void or of no effect ; — 
used appropriately of laws, decrees, edicts, decisions of 
courts, or other established rules, permanent usages, &c. 
Syn. — To repeal ; nullify ; abolish; abrogate; revoke; can- 
cel; set aside. 

An'nu-lar, la. 1. Pertaining to, or having the form 

An'nu-la-ry, J of, a ring. 2. Banded or marked with 
circles, dots, &c. 

An'nu-lat'ed, a. Having rings or belts. 

An'nu-let, n. [From Lat. annulus, ring, with a dim. 
termination.] 1. A little ring. 2. (Arch.) A small, 
flat fillet, encircling a column, &c. 3. (Her.) A little 
circle borne as a charge in coats of arms. 

An-niii'ment, n. The act of annulling. 

An'nu-lose', a. Furnished with, or composed of, rings. 

An-nu'mer-ate (39), v. t. [Lat. annumerare, from ad 
and numerare, to number, from numerus, number.] To 
add to a number. 

An-nvi'naerji'tion, n. Addition to a former number. 

An-niin'ci-ate (-shl-at), v. t. [imp. & p. p. annun- 
ciated ; p. pr. & vb. n. annunciating.] [Lat. an- 
nunciare. See Announce.] To announce. 

An-nxin'ci-a'tion (-shl-a/shun), n. 1. Act of an- 
nouncing. 2. Name of a festival celebrated by the 
church (March 25th,) in memory of the angel's announce- 
ment, on that day, to the Virgin Mary, that she should 
bear the Messiah. 

An-niin'ci-a/tor (-shi-aVtur), n. One who, or that 
which, announces ; specifically, a machine, connected by 
wires with the rooms in a hotel, to ring a bell, and desig- 
w nate the number of the room from which it was rung. 

An'o-dyne, n. Any medicine which allays pain, as an 
opiate or narcotic. 

An'o-dyne, a. [Gr. dycoSwos, from dv priv. and bSvvr), 
pain.]' Serving to assuage pain. 

A-noint', v. t. [imp. & p. p. anointed; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ANOINTING.] [Lat. inungere, to anoint, from in 
and unguere, to smear.] 1. To pour oil upon ; to smear 
or rub over with oil or unctuous substances ; also to 
spread over, as oil. 2. To consecrate, by unction, or 
the use of oil. 3. To smear or daub. 

A-noint'ed, n. The Messiah. 

A-noint'er, n. One who anoints. [being anointed. 

A-noint'ment, n. The act of anointing ; the state of 

A-n6m'a-li§m, n. A deviation from rule ; anomaly. 

A-nom/a-list'ie, ) a. 1. Irregular ; departing from 

A-nom/a-list'ie -al, ) common or established rules. 
2. (Astron.) Pertaining to the angular distance of a 
planet from its perihelion. 

A-n5m'a-lou.s, a. [Gr. dvu>i*a\o<;, from dv priv. and 
6/iaAd?, even, from 6^i6?, same.] Deviating from a gen- 
eral rule, method, or analogy ; abnormal ; irregular. 

A-nom'a-lous-ly, adv. Irregularly ; unequally. 

A-nom'a-ly, n. 1. Deviation from the common rule or 
analogy; irregularity. 2. (Astron.) (a.) Angular dis- 
tance of a planet from i L s perihelion, as seen from the 
sun. (b.) Angle measuring apparent irregularities in 
the motion of a planet. 

A-non', adv. [0. Eng. anoon, anon, onane, lit., in one 
(moment).] 1. Quickly; immediately. 2. At another 
time ; again. 
Ever and anon, now and then; frequently; often. 

A-non'y-moiis, a. [Gr. dvuivvjaos, from dv priv. and 
ovu/ia, for ovo/xa, name.] Wanting a name ; without 
the real name of the author ; nameless. 

A-non'y-mous-ly, adv. Without a name. 

An-6th'er, a. [From an, a. one, and other, q. v.] 1. 
Not the same ; different. 2. One more, in addition to a 
former number. 3. Any other; any different person, 
indefinitely ; any one else. 

eg- This word is often used without a noun, becoming a 
substitute for the name of a person or thing. It is also much 
used in opposition to one. It is frequently used with one, in a 
reciprocal sense; as, "love one another" that is, let one love 

A-not'ta, n. See Annotto. [ing a handle. 

An'sat-ed, a. [Lat. ansatus, from ansa, a handle.] Hav- 

An'ser-ine, a. [Lat. anserinus, from anser, a goose.] 
Pertaining to, or resembling, a goose, or its skin. 

An'swer (an'ser), v. t. [imp. & p. p. answered; p. 
pr. & vb. n. ANSWERING.] [A.-S. andswarjan, from and, 
against, and swarjan, to affirm.] 1. To speak or write 
in return to, as in return to a call or question, or to a 

speech, declaration, argument, &c. 2. In an intensive 
use, to respond to satisfactorily ; to refute. 3. To be 
or act in return to. Hence, (a.) To be or act in compli- 
ance with, in fulfillment or satisfaction of, as an order, 
obligation, demand, &c. (b.) To be or act in opposition 
to. (c.) To be opposite to ; to face, (d.) To be or act in 
accommodation, conformity, relation, or proportion to. 

An'swer (iin'ser), v. i. 1. To make response. 2. To 
make a satisfactory response ; hence, to be accountable, 
liable, or responsible. 3. To be or act in return. Hence, 
(a.) To be or act by way of compliance, fulfillment, re- 
ciprocation, or satisfaction, (b.) To be opposite, or to 
act in opposition, (c.) To be or act as an equivalent, or 
as adequate or sufficient, (d.) To be or act in conform- 
ity, or by way of accommodation, correspondence, rela- 
tion, or proportion ; to conform ; to suit. 

An'swer (an'ser), n. 1. Something said or written in 
return to a call, a question, an argument, an allegation, 
an address, or the like. 2. Something done in return 
for, or in consequence of, something else. 3. A solution, 
the result of a mathematical operation. 

An'swer-a-hle (an'ser-a-bl), a. 1. Capable of being 
answered ; — usually implying that the answer may be 
satisfactory. 2. Obliged to answer; liable to pay, in- 
demnify, or make good ; amenable ; responsible. 3. 
Correspondent; conformable; hence, comparable. 4. 
Suitable ; suited ; proportionate. 5. Equal ; correspond- 
ent; equivalent. [swerable. 

An'swer-a-ble-ness (an'ser-), n. Quality of being an- 

Aii'swer-a-toly (an'ser-), adv. Suitably ; agreeably. 

An'swer-er (an'ser-), n. One who answers or replies. 

An't. A colloquial contraction of am not or are not ; as 
in the phrases I anH, we anH, you an't, &c. He an't 
either follows the analogy of the others, or is a corrup- 
. tion of he is not. 

Ant, n. [Standing for amt, and a contraction of Eng. 
emmet.] An emmet ; a pismire. 

Ant-ac'id, n. ( Med. ) A remedy for acidity of the stom» 
ach, as an alkali or absorbent. 

An-tag'o-ni§m, n. [From Gr. avTaycavl^ecrOai, to strug< 
gle against, from dvri, against, and dyu>v, contest.] Op. 
position of action ; counteraction or contrariety of thinga 
or principles. 

An-tag'o-nist, n. One who contends with another, es- 
pecially in combat. 

Syn. — Enemy; adversary; opponent; foe. 

An-tag'o-nist'ie, a. Opposing ; acting in opposition. 

An-tag'o-nize, v. i. To act in opposition ; to contend. 

An-tal'gie, a. [Gr. dyri, against, and «Ayo?, pain.] AL 
leviating pain. 

An-tan'a-ela'sis, n. [Gr. avravaKXao-Ls, from olvti^ 
against, and dva.n\ao-i<;, a bending back and breaking.] 
(Rhet.) (a.) A play upon words ; as, whilst we live, let 
us live, (b.) A repetition of words, beginning a sentence, 
after a parenthesis. 

Ant/aph-ro-dig'i-a-e, a. [From Gr. dvri, against, and 
d^pofiicriaKog, belonging to venery, from 'A^poSirrj, the 
goddess of love, Venus.] (Med.) Having the quality of 

w extinguishing or lessening venereal desire ; antivenereal. 

Ant/aph-ro-dig'i-a-e, n. A medicine that lessens oi 

_ extinguishes the venereal appetite. 

Ant/aph-ro-dit'ie , a. Abating the venereal appetite, 

_ or efficacious against the venereal disease ; antivenereal. 

Aiit/aph-ro-dTt'ie, n. A medicine which abates the 
venereal appetite, or is good against the venereal disease, 

Ant-are'tie, a. [Gr. dvrapKTc/cd?, from dvri, against 
opposite, and «p/cros, bear.] Opposite to the northern or 
arctic pole ; relating to the southern pole or to the region 
near it, and applied especially to a circle, distant from 
the pole 23° 28'. 

Ant'ar-thrit'ie , a. 
[Gr. dvri, against, and 
dpOplri.'; (sc. vocro?), 
gout.] Counteracting 

w the gout. 

Anl/ar-thrlt'ie , n. 
A remedy against the 

. gout. 

Ant'-toear, } n. An 

Ant'-eat-er, ) ani- 
mal that feeds upon 


An'te-ced'ence, ) 

An'te-fed'en-cy, ) 

n. Act or state of preceding in 
time ; precedence. 

food, foot ; urn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, -call, echo ; gem, get ; a§ ; ejist ; linger, link ; this- 




Au'te-ced'ent, a. [Lat. antecedens, p. pr. of antetedere, 
fr. ante, before, aud cedere, to go.] Going before in time. 
Syn. — Prior; preceding; foregoing; previous. — Antecedent 
is specific, referring to something consequent ; foregoing, pre- 
ceding, and previous, are more general, being opposed to subse- 
quent ; prior, like priority, impbes a preference if there is com- 
petition, as, aprior claim. 

Au'te-ced'ent, n. 1. That which goes before in time. 
2. pi. The earlier events of one's life. 3. ( Gram.) The 
noun to which a relative refers. 4. (Logic.) (a.) The 
first of two propositions in an enthymeme. (b.) The first 
and conditional part of a conditional or hypothetical 
proposition. 5. (Math.) The first of two terms of a 
ratio, or that which is compared with the other. 

An'te-ced'ent-ly, adv. Before in time ; previously. 

Aji'te-ees'sor, n. 1. One who goes before; a leader. 
2. One who possessed land before the present possessor. 

An'te-cham'ber, n. A chamber leading to the chief 

An'te-chap'el, n. The part of the chapel through 
which is the passage to the choir or the body of it. 

An'te-eiir'sor, n. A forerunner. 

An'te-date, n. A date before the true time. 

An'te-date, v. t. [imp. and p. p. ANTEDATED ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. ANTEDATING.] [From ante, before, and date.] 
1. To date before the true time. 2. To anticipate ; to 
take before the true time. 

Au'te-di-lii'vi-an, a. Before the deluge ; pertaining to 
the times before the flood. 

An'te-di-lu'vi-an, n. One who 
lived before the flood. 

An'te-lope, n. [Or. avOaXoxp.] 
One of a group of ruminant 
quadrupeds , intermediate between 
the deer and goat. 

An'te-lu'eau, a. [Lat. antelu- 
canns, from ante, before, and lux, 
light.] Being before light;— a 
word applied to assemblies of 
Christians, jn ancient times of 
persecution, held before light in 
the morning. 

An'te-me-rid^i-an, a. Being before noon. 

An'te-mun'dane , a. Being before the creation of the 

JLn-teti'nd n. ; pi. an-ten'N&. 
[Lat. antenna, sail-yard.] (Zobl.) 
A movable, articulated organ of sen- 
sation, attached to the heads of i: 
sects and Crustacea. 

An / te-niip'tial(-nup / shal), a. Be- 
ing before marriage. a a, Antennas. 

An'te-pas'-ehal (-paVkal), a. Being before Easter. 

An'te-past, n. [Lat. ante, before, and pastus, pasture, 
food, from pascere, pastum,to pasture, feed.] A foretaste. 

An'te-pe-nult', ) n. [Lat. antepxnultimus, from 

An'te-pe-nult'i-tnd,) ante, before, pssne, almost, and 
ultimus, last.] ( Pros. ) The last syllable but two of a word. 

An'te-pe-niilt'i-mate , a. Of the last syllable but two . 

Au'te-pe-milt'i-mate, n. The third syllable from the 
end of a word ; the antepenult. 

An-te'ri-or, a. [Lat., compar. of ante, before.] 1. Be- 
fore in time ; prior ; antecedent. 2. Before in place. 

Syn.— Antecedent; previous; precedent; preceding; for- 
mer; foregoing. — Anterior is opposed to, and implies posterior ; 
the other words are opposed to subsequent. 

An-te'ri-or 'i-ty, n. State of being anterior ; precedence. 

An'te-room, n. A room forming the passage to another. 

An'thel-min'tie, a. [Gr. <zvti, against, and e'Ajatvs, 
-i.j/00?, worm.] (Med.) Destroying or expelling worms. 
[Written also antihelminthic] 

An'thel-min'tie , n. A medicine which destroys or ex- 
pels worms ; a vermifuge. 

An'them, n. [Gr. dvTi<buva, antiphon,or anthem, from 
dvri, against, and (fxavrj, sound, voice.] Formerly, a 
hymn sung in alternate parts, but, in present usage, any 
church music adapted to passages from the Scriptures ; a 

An'ther, n. [Gr. dvBripos, -a, flowery, from* 
dvOelv, to bloom, av6o<;, flower.] (Bot.) That 
part of the stamen containing the pollen, or 
fertilizing dust, which, when mature, is emitted 
for the impregnation of the ovary. 

An'ther-al, a. Pertaining to anthers. 

An'ther-If 'er-ous, a. [From anther, and Lat. 
ferre, to bear.] Producing anthers. a 

An'tho-lSg'ie-al, a. Consisting of beautiful extracts 
from different authors, especially the poets. 

An-th51'o-gy, n. [Gr. dvOokoyia, from aV0os, flower, 
and Ae'-yeiv, to gather.] 1. A discourse on flowers. 2. 
A collection of flowers ; a garland. 3. A collection of 

w beautiful passages from authors. 

An'tho-ny'§ Fire (iin'to-niz), n. The erysipelas. 

An'thra-cite, n. [Gr. dv9paicLTr)<;, from avdpa^ coal or 
charcoal.] A hard, compact variety of mineral coal. 

An'thra-cit'ie, a. Pertaining to anthracite. 

An'thro-pog'ra-phy, n. [Gr. avOpunos, man, and 
•ypa^r?, description.] That branch of physical geography 
which treats of the actual distribution of tbe human race, 
as distinguished by physical character, language, institu- 
tions, and customs. 

An'thro-poid, a. [Gr. avOpumos, man, and elSos, ap- 

^pearance.] Besembling man. 

Au/thro-po-log'ie-al, a. Pertaining to anthropology; 
according to human manner of speaking. 

An'thro-pol'o-gy, n. [Gr. av6p<ono<;, man, and A6yo?, 
discourse.] 1. The natural history of the human species. 

^2. The science of man, considered in his entire nature. 

An'thro-po-mor'phi-e , a. Pertaining to anthropo- 

An'thro-po-mdr'phigm, n. [Gr. dvOp^nop-op^os, of 
human form, fr. avdpuiros man, and p-opcfrrj, form.] Rep- 
resentation of the Deity as having a human form or at- 

An'thro-po-mor-phite, n. One who believes that the 
Supreme Being exists in a human form. 

An'thro-po-mdr'phous, «• Having the figure of, or 
resemblance to , a man. 

An'thro-po-pi&th'ie-al. a. Subject to human passions. 

An'thro-pop'a-thlgm, I n. [Gr. av9pu)TroTrd6ei.a, from 

An'thro-pop'a-thy, ' avQpwiro^, man, and tr6£o<;, 
affection, passion.] Ascription of human passions to the 
Supreme Being. 

JLn'thro-poph'a-gi, n. pi. [Gr. dyflpcoTro^a-yo?, eating 
men, from av0po>7ros, man, and $ayetv, to eat.] Man- 

w eaters ; cannibals. 

An'thro-poph'a-gy, n. The eating of human flesh, 
or the practice of eating it ; cannibalism. 

An'ti-ac'id. See Antacid. 

An'tie, a. [Derived from antique, in allusion to the gro- 
tesque figures of antiques.] Odd ; fanciful ; fantastic ; lu- 

^ dicrously wild. 

An'tie, n. 1. A buffoon or merry-andrew. 2. Odd ap 

^ pearance or device. 

An'ti-ehrist, n. A great adversary of Christ ; the man 

__, of sin, described 1 John ii. 18. [tianity. 

An'ti-ehris'tian (-krlst'yan), n. An opposer of Chris- 

An'ti-ehrls'tian, a. Opposing Christianity. 

An-tlc'i-pate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. anticipated ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. ANTICIPATING.] [Lat. anticipare, from 
ante, before, and caper e, to take.] 1. To take or do 
before another, so as to prevent him. 2. To take up 
beforehand, or before the proper time. 3. To foretaste 
or foresee. 

Syn. — Expect. — Expect is stronger than anticipate. We 
may anticipate difficulties when we do not really expect them. 

An-tic'i-pa'tion, n. 1. Act of anticipating. 2. Pre- 
vious view or impression of what is to happen afterward. 
3. Preconceived opinion, produced in the mind before 
the truth is known. 4. (Phil.) A conception generalized 
from experience and used to suggest the future. 5. 
(Mus.) The beginning of one or more tones of a chord 
with or during the chord preceding, forming a momen- 
tary discord. 

Syn. — Preoccupation ; preclusion; foretaste; prelibation ; 
antepast; pregustation ; preconception; expectation; foresight; 

An-tic'i-pa/tlve, a. Anticipating ; or containing antici- 

An-tic'i -pa/tor, n. One who anticipates. 

An-tic'i-pa-to-ry (50), a. Taking before time. 

An'ti-eli'max, n. A sentence or expression in which 
the ideas fall, or become less important and striking, at 
the close ; — the opposite of climax. 

Aii'ti-cli'nai, a. [Gr. aim, against, opposite, andKAiVeiv, 
_ to incline.] Marking inclination in opposite directions. 

An'ti-ell'nal, n. The crest-line from which strata dip 
_in opposite directions, often called the anticlinal axis- 

An'tie-ly, adv. In an antic manner. 

An'ti-eon-ta'gious, a. Opposing contagion. 

a, e, &c, long; a, 6, &c, short ; care, far, ask, all, what ; 6re, veil, term ; pique, firm ; sou, 6r, dg, wolf, 




An'ti-eog-met'ie, a. Injurious to beauty. 
An'ti-do'tal, a. Efficacious against poison or other 

evil. • r 

An'ti-dote, n. [Gr. avriborov (sc. 4>apixa.Kov), from dv- 
Tt'fioTo?, given against, from dvri, against, and SiSovcu, to 
give.] That which tends to counteract poison or other 

An-ti-feb'rile, or An'ti-fe'brile, a. That has the 
quality of abating fever. 

An-ti-f gb'rile, or An'ti-f e'brlle, n. A medicine hav- 
ing a tendency to cure fever. 

An'ti-ma'son, n. One opposed to freemasonry. 

An'ti-ma'son-ry, n. Opposition to freemasonry. 

An / ti-mo-nar«h'ie-al, a. Opposed to monarchy. 

An'ti-mo'ni-al, a. Of, or pertaining to, antimony. 

An/ti-mo'ni-al, n. A preparation of antimony. 

An'ti-mo-ny, n. [Prob. corrupted from Ar. al-ithmi- 
dun, or al-uthmudun, antimony.] 1. A whitish, brittle 
metal used in medicine and the arts. 2. An ore of an- 
timony, consisting of sulphur and antimony. 

An'ti-no'mi-an, n. [Lat. Antinomi, pi. See ANTI- 
NOMY.] (JEccl. Hist.) One of a sect (originating about 
1538) who were charged with maintaining, that, under 
the gospel dispensation, the moral law is of no use or 

An/ti-no'mi-an, a. Pertaining to the Antinomians. 

An'tl-no'mi-an-Igm, n. The tenets of Antinomians. 

An'ti-no-my, or An-tln'o-my, n. [Gr. avTivo^ia, 
from dvri, against, and to^os, law.] 1. Opposition of 
one law or rule to another. 2. A law or other thing op- 
posite or contrary. 3. (Metaph.) According to Kant, 
that natural contradiction which results from the law of 
reason, when, passing the limits of experience, we seek 
to know the absolute. 

An'tl-pa'pal, a. Opposing popery ; antipapistic. 

An'ti-pa-pist'ie , ) a. Opposing the papacy or pop- 

An'ti-pa-pist'ie-al, j ery ; antipapal. 

An'tl-par'a-ly t'ie , a. Opposing, or good against, 

An/ti-pa-tliet'i-e, )a. Having a natural contrariety 

An/ti-pa-tliet'ie-al, j or aversion. 

An-tip'a-thy, n. [Gr. dvTLirdOeia., from dvri, against, 
and ndOos, suffering, passion, affection, from Tra9elv : 
7rd<rxetv, to suffer.] 1. An aversion felt at the presence, 
real or ideal, of a particular object. 2. (Nat. Phil.) A 
contrariety in the properties or affections of matter. 
Syn. — Dislike; contrariety; repugnance; disgust; distaste. 

An/ti-pes'ti-len'tial, a. Counteracting infection. 

An/ti-plilo-gis'ti-e, a. 1. ( Chem. ) Opposed to the doc- 
trine of phlogiston. 2. (Med.) Counteracting inflamma- 

An'ti-phlo-gis'tie, n. Any medicine or diet which 

^ tends to check inflammation. 

An'ti-plion, n. An antiphony See Antiphony. 

An'tTMiiiftn'iV \ a - Pertamin g to antiphonies, or 

i£/«-Sw£'{Sai I i alternate singi ^- 

An-tiph'o-nal, n. A book of antiphons or anthems. 

An-tipli'o-ny, n. [From Gr. olvtl^kdvo?, returning a 
sound, fr. dvri, against, and 4>o)vrj, sound, voice.] ( Mus. ) 
An anthem or psalm sung alternately by a choir or con- 
gregation divided into two parts ; a response. 

A.n-ttpJi'ra-sis, n. [Gr. dn-i^pao-is , from dim, against, 
and $pdC,eLv, to speak.] (Rhet.) Use of words in a sense 
opposite to their proper meaning. 

An'ti-pliras'tie , ) a. Involving or relating to an- 

An'ti-phras'tie-al, J tiphrasis. 

An-tip'o-dal, a. Pertaining to the antipodes ; diamet- 

_ rically opposed. 

An'ti-pode, n. ; pi. AN'Tl-PODEg, or an-txp'o-de§i. 
[Gr. djmVovSj with the feet opposite, pi. ol di/ruroSes, 
from dvri, against, opposite, and iroi)?, 7rooos, foot.] One 
of those who live on opposite sides of the globe, and 
whose feet are, of course, directly opposite. 

An'ti-pope, n. One who usurps the popedom. 

An/ti-pre-lat'ie-al, a. Adverse to prelacy. 

An'ti-qua/ri-an, a. Pertaining to antiquity. 

An'ti-qua'ri-an, n. An antiquary. 

An'ti-qua'ri-an-igm, n. Love of antiquity. 

An'ti-qua-ry (44), n. One versed in antiquities. 

An'ti-quate , v. t. [Lat. antiquatus, p. p. of antiquare, 
from antiquus, old.] To make obsolete, old, or void. 

An'tT-quat-ed, p. a. Grown old, or out of fashion ; ob- 
solete ; out of use. 

An-tique' a. [Lat. antiquus, equiv. to anticus from 
ante, before.] _ 1. Old; ancient; of genuine antiquity. 
2. Of old fashion. 3. Made in imitation of antiquity. 

An-tique', n. In general, any thing very old ; in a 
more limited sense, a remnant of antiquity ; relic. 

An-tique'ness, n. Quality or appearance of being an- 

An-tiq'ui-ty(-tlk'wi-),w. [See Antique.] 1. Ancient 
times ; former ages. 2. The people of ancient times. 
«S. Great age ; quality of being ancient. 4. Any or all 
of the remains of ancient times. 

An-tls'ci-ang (an-tlsh'i-anz), ) n. pi. [Gr. dvri, against, 

An-tls'ci-% (an-tish'i-1), j opposite, and oma, 

shadow.] ( Geog.) The inhabitants of the earth living 
on different sides of the equator, whose shadows at noon 
_are cast in contrary directions. 

An'ti-seor-bu'tie, ) a. (Med.) Counteracting the 

An'tl-s-cor-bu/tie-al, j scurvy. 

An'ti-seript'ur-al, a. Not accordant with Scripture. 

An/tl-sep'ti-e, a. Opposing putrefaction. 

An'ti-sep'tie, n. 1. A substance which resists or cor- 
rects putrefaction. 2. ( Med. ) A remedy which coun- 
teracts a putrescent tendency in the system. 

An'ti-slav'er-y, n. Opposition to slavery. 

An'ti-so'cial, a. Averse to society or hostile to its ex- 

An'tl-spag-mSd'ie, a. Opposing spasm. 

An'tl-spas'tie , a. [Gr. avTicnraaTiKo^ , fr. dv-riWao-i?, a 
drawing back.] (Med.) (a.) Causing a revulsion of fluids 
or humors, (b.) Counteracting spasm; antispasmodic. 

An'tl-sple-net'ie, a. Counteracting diseases of the 

An-tts'tro-pJie, n. [Gr. dvTicrTpo^, from dvri, against, 
and o-rpdcpeii/, to turn; crTpo^ij, a turning.] 1. (Rhet.) 
(a.) Repetition of words in an inverse order, (b.) The 
turning of an adversary's plea against him. 2. (Anc. 
Lyric Poetry.) That part of a song or dance, around the 
altar, which was performed by turning from the left to 
the right, in opposition to the strophe, which was per- 

_ formed by turning from the right to the left. 

An/tl-stroph'ie, a. Pertaining to the antistrophe. 

An-tlth'e-sis, n. ; pi. AN-TiTH'E-SEg. [Gr. dvu0eo-i5, 
from dvri, against, and fle'cri?, a setting, from TifleVai, to 
set.] 1. (Rhet.) An opposition of words or sentiments 
occurring in the same sentence ; contrast. 2. Hence, 

w any thing directly opposed to another. 

An'ti-tbefi* , \a. Pertaining to, or containing, an- 

An/ti-thet'i-e-al, ) tithesis. 

An/ti-trii^i-ta'ri-an, a. Opposing the doctrine of the 


An / ti-trin / i-ta'ri-an-I§m, n. Opposition to the doc- 

w trine of the Trinity. 

An'tx-type, n. That which is prefigured by the type ; 
thus the paschal lamb was a type of which Christ is the 

^ antitype. 

An / ti-typ'i<:-al, a. Relating to an antitype ; explain- 
ing a type. 

Ant'ler, n. [0. Fr. antoillier, and oilier, endouiller, prob. 
from Lat. ante, before.] A start or branch of a horn of 
a cervine animal, as of the stag or moose. 

A.n'to-no-tnii'qi-a, n. [Gr. avTovo^aaCa, fr. dvri, in- 
stead, and 6vofj.d£etv, to name.] Use of a proper name 
for an appellative, as " a Cicero'" for a great orator; 
or conversely , the use of a name denoting rank , office , &c . , 

_for him who holds it, as " his majesty " for the king. 

An'vil, n. [A.-S. anfilt, senfilt, onfilt.] An iron block, 
usually with a steel face, upon which metals are ham. 
mered and shaped. 

An-xi'e-ty (ang-zl'e-ty), n. [Lat. anxietas, from anxius, 
anxious.] Solicitude about some future or uncertain 

^ event. 

Anx'ious (auk'shus, 82), a. [Lat. anxius, from angere, 
to cause pain, to torture.] 1. Greatly concerned or 
solicitous, especially respecting something future or un- 
known. 2. Accompanied with anxiety. 
Syn. — Disturbed; distressed; disquieted; uneasy. 

Anx'ious-ly, adv. With anxiety or solicitude. 

Anx'ious-ness, n. Great solicitude ; anxiety. 

A'ny (en'ny), a. [A.-S. anig, senig^ from an, ein, one, 
and the termination ig, ic] 1. One out of many, in- 
definitely. 2. Some; an indefinite number or quantity. 
E@*- This word was originally pronounced a'ny, which differs 
but little from the present pronunciation. (See §§ 2, 11.) It is 
often used as a pronoun, the person or thing being understood. 

A'ny, adv. To any extent ; at all. 

food, foot ; i\rn, rude, pull; fell, ^liaise, call, echo; gem, get; ag ; exist ; linger, link ; this. 




Pertaining to the Muses, or to Aonia in 

jL-o'ni-an, a 


A'o-rlst, n. [Gr. dopia-rog, from d priv. and opos, bound- 
ary, limit.] (Gram.) A tense in the Greek language, 
which expresses an action as completed in past time, but 
leaves it, in other respects, wholly indeterminate. 

A'o-rist'i-e, a. Pertaining to an aorist, or indefinite 
tense ; indefinite. 

A-6r'ta, n. [Gr. doprr?, from deipeiv, to lift, heave.] The 

_ great artery from the heart. 

t"~~ rt ' al > I a. Pertaining to the aorta or great artery. 

A-ort'i*, ) 

A-pace', adv. Quickly ; hastily ; speedily ; fast. 

Ap'a-go'ge, n. [Gr. diray^yn, a leading away, from 
dwdyeiv, to lead away.] [Logic.) An indirect argument 
which proves a thing by showing the impossibility or ab- 
surdity of the contrary thing. — It corresponds to the 
^reductio ad absurdum. 

Ap'a-gog'i-e-al, a. Proving indirectly by showing the 
absurdity of the contrary. 

A-part, adv. [Either from prefix a and part, or fromFr. 
dpart.] 1. Separately , in regard to space or company ; 
aside. 2. In a state of separation, exclusion, or of dis- 
tinction, as to purpose, use, or character, or as a matter 
of thought. 3. In two or more parts ; asunder. 

A-part'ment, n. [From Lat. ab, or a, from, and pars, 

^partis, part.] A room in a building or house. 

Ap'a-thet'i-e, a. Void of feeling ; insensible ; indifferent. 

Ap'a-thist, n. One destitute of feeling. 

Ap'a-thy, n. [Gr. dndOeia, from d priv. and ttoJo?, 
suffering.] Want, or alow degree, of feeling ; privation 
of passion, or insensibility to pain ; — applied either to 
the body or the mind. 

Syn. —Insensibility; indifference; unconcern. 

Ape, n. [A.-S. apa, Skr. kapi. 
Gr. k^-05, KeiTroc.] X. (Zo'o'l. 
A quadrumanous mammal 
having teeth of the same num- 
ber and form as in man, and 
possessing neither a tail nor „_ 
cheek pouches. 2. One who 
imitates servilely, in allusion** 

_to the manners of the ape. ^^§|i§ 

Ape, v.*. [imp. & p. p. aped ; ^ 
p. pr. & vb. n. APING.] To " Ape".' 

imitate servilely ; to mimic. 

A-pealt', adv. On the point ; in a posture to pierce. 

A-pep'sy, n. [Gr. anemia,, from dneirTo?, uncooked, un- 
digested.] (Med.) Defective digestion; indigestion. 

A-pe'ri-ent (89), a. [Lat. aperiens, p. pr. of aperire, to 
open.] (Med.) Having the quality of opening; laxative. 

A-pe'ri-ent, n. (Med.) A laxative medicine. 

A-per'i-tive, a. Deobstruent ; aperient. 

Ap'er-ture (53), n. [Lat. apertura. See Aperient.] 

_An opening through some solid substance ; a hole. 

Ap'er-y, n. The practice of aping. 

A-pet'al-oiis, a. [Gr. ajreVaAo?, an-eTrjAo?, from a priv. 

_and niraXov, leaf.] (Bot.) Having no petals. 

A'pex, n. ; pi. A'PEX-Eg ; Lat. pi. AP'l-CEg. The top, 
tip, or summit of any thing. 

A-phaer'e-sis ) n. [Gr. dc/xupeo-is, from 6.<}>aipeiv, to take 

A-pher'e-sis ' awav,from d-rvo, from, and dipelv, to 
take.] ( Gram.) The taking of a letter or syllable from 
the beginning of a word. 

A-phel'ion (-Kl'yun), n. ; pi. a-phe-Li-a. [Gr. ds-d, 
from, and ijAios, sun.] (Astron.) Thatpoint of aplanet's 
or comet's orbit which is most distant from the sun, the 
..opposite point being called the perihelion. 

A/phls, n.; pi. aph't-dez. [N. Lat.] (Entom.) The 
vme-fretter, or plant-louse ; a genu3 of hemipterous in- 

Apli'o-ny, n. [Gr. d^wvi'a, from «(£covos, voiceless, from 
a priv. and <pu>vrj, voice.] (Met!.) A loss of voice. 

Aph'o-rigm, n. [Gr. a</>op<.a>6s, from dtpopi^eiv, to de- 
fine.] A precept or principle expressed in a few words ; 
a short sentence containing some important truth. 

Syn. — Axiom ; maxim; adage.— An axiom is a self-evident 
proposition of high importance; a maxim expresses some great 

Practical truth; an adage is a saying which has gained credit 
y long use. 

Aph'o-rist, n. A writer of aphorisms. 
Aph'o-rist'i-e, ) a. Having the form of an apho- 
Aph'o-rist'ioal, j rism. 


Apli'o-rist'i-e-al-ly, adv. In the form of aphorisms. 

Aph'tliong (afthong or ap'thong, 85), n. A letter or 
combination of letters having no sound. 

Aph'yl-loiis, or A-phyl'loiis, (117), a. [Gr. d^v'AAos, 

_from a priv. and <pv\\ov, leaf.] ( Bot. ) Destitute of leaves. 

A'pi-a-i*Ist, n. One who keeps an apiary. 

A'pi-a-ry, n. [Lat. apiarivm, from apis, a bee.] A place 
_where bees are kept ; a bee-house. 

Ap'i-ges, n. pi. See Apex. 

Apiece', adv. 1. To each; to the share of each. 2. 

_Lach by itself. 

Ap'ish, a. [See Ape.] HaviDg the qualities of an ape; 
inclined to imitate in a servile manner ; hence, foolish; 

_ foppish ; silly ; affected ; trifling ; insignificant. 

Ap'ish-ness, n. Mimicry ; foolery ; foppery. 

A-po-e'a-lj'pse, n. [Gr. dTro/cdAvi/zis, from inroKaXvineiv, 
to disclose.] Revelation ; discovery ; disclosure ; — specif- 
ically applied as the name of the last book in the Eible. 

A-poc'a-lyp'tic, ) a. Containing or pertaining to 

A-po-e'a-lyp'ti-e-al, ) revelation, or, specifically, to 
the Revelation of St. John. 

Apocalyptic number, the number 666, mentioned in Rev. xiii. 
18. It has been variously interpreted. 

A-po-e'o-pate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. apocopated ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. APOCOPATING.] (Gram.) To cut off or 
drop the last letter or s,) liable of. 

A-po^'o-pe, n. [Gr. dnoKon-q, from dvo, from, and 
Koirreiv, to cut.] The cutting off or omission of the last 
letter or syllable of a word ; as, yond for yonder. 

A-po-e'ry-pha, n. pi. [Gr. dir6Kpv<pos, hidden, spurious, 
from dno, from, and Kpvnreiv, to hide.] Pooks whose au- 
thenticity, as inspired writings, is not admitted, and which 
are therefore not considered a part of the sacred canon of 
the Scripture. 

A-po-e'ry-phal, a. 1. Pertaining to the Apocrypha. 
2. Not canonical; of uncertain authority or credits- 
false ; fictitious ; spurious. 

Ap'ode, n. [Gr. fcTrovs, a7rofio?, from d priv. and 7rov?, 
7ro6o<r, foot.] An animal that has no feet. 

Ap'o-dei-e'ti-e, } a. Demonstrative ; evident beyond 

Ap'o-delc'tic-al, j contradiction. 
GSf- This spelling is better than apodictic. 

Ap'o-dic'tic, ) a. [Gr. dn-oSeucTucd?, from dno, from, 

Ap'o-dic'tic-al, ) and Seacvvvai, to show.] Evident 
beyond contradiction. 

A-pdd f o-sis, n. [Gr. dnoSocn.^, from ano, from, back 
again, and SiSdvcu, to give.] (Gram.) The consequent 
clause or conclusion in a conditional sentence, expressing 
the result. 

Ap'o-gee, n. [Gr. d-n-dyaios, from the earth, from a7rd 
from, and yala, yf;, earth.] (Astron.) That point in the 
orbit of the moon which is at the greatest distance from 
the earth. 

A-poFo-get'ic, \a. [Gr. dnoXoyriTiKos , from d-n-6, 

A-poFo-get'ic-al, j from, and Adycs, speech.] Ex- 
cusatory or defensive. 

A-poPo-get'i-es, n. sing. That branch of theology 
which defends the Holy Scriptures, and sets forth the evi- 
dence of their divine authority. 

A-pol'o-gist, n. One who makes an apology. 

A-p6Fo-gize, v. i. [fmp. & p. p. apologized ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. apologizing.] To make an apology. 

Ap'o-logne (-log), n. [Gr. d7rdAoyos. See infra.] A 
moral fable. 

A-pol-o-gy, n. [Gr. otTroAoyia, from a7rd, from, and 
Aoyos, speech.] 1. Something said or written in defense 
or justification of what appears to others wrong or un- 
justifiable, or of what may be liable to disapprobation. 
2. An acknowledgment intended as an extenuation of 
some improper or injurious remark or act. 

Syn. — Excuse. — "We make an apology for something rude, 
unbecoming, or the like; we offer an excuse for some failure or 
neglect of duty. 

Ap'o-phleg-mat'i-e, a. [Gr. a.7rd, from, and <f>\eyixar- 
tKo? full of phlegm; <£Ae'yp.a, flame, phlegm.] (Med.) 
Having the quality of exciting discharges of phlegm or 

w mucus from the mouth or nostrils. 

ip'oph-thegm ) (ap/o-them),??. A short, sententious, 

Ap'o-thegm \ instructive remark. 

Ap'o-ple-e'ti-e, ) a. [Gr. d.7ro7rAi7KTtKds, from dno, 

Ap'o-ple-e'ti-e-al, J from, away, and nhrjo-o-ziv, to 

a,e,&c, long; a,e\ &c, short; care, far, ask, all, what; ere, veil, term; pique, firm; son,6r, do,wol* 




strike.] 1. Pertaining to, or consisting in, apoplexy. 2. 
Predisposed to apoplexy. 

Ap'o-plSx'y, n. [Gr. a.TTonkt}i-La. See supra.] A dis- 
ease characterized by sudden loss of sense and voluntary 
motion, usually caused by pressure on the brain. 

A-pos'ta-sy, n- [Gr. diroaTaaia , from airo, from, and 
o-rrjj/ai, to stand.] An abandonment of what one has 
voluntarily professed ; a total desertion or departure from 
one's faith, principles, or party. 

A-pos'tate, n. One who has forsaken the faith, princi- 
ples, or party, to which he before adhered. 

A-pos'tate , a. Falling from the faith ; false ; renegade. 

A-pos'ta-tize, v. i. [imp. & p. p. apostatized;^. 
pr. & vb. n. APOSTATIZING.] To abandon one's faith, 
party, church, or profession. [with pus. 

A-pos'te-mate , v. i. To form into an abscess, and fill 

Ap'os-tem'a-tous, a. Pertaining to, or partaking of 
the nature of, an aposteme. 

Ap'os-teme, n. [Gr. a.-aoo-r-f\\xa, fr. anoa-rrniat , to stand 
off.] An abscess ; a sore filled with purulent matter. 

A-pos'tle (-poVsl), n. [Gr. awoaroKos , sent forth or 
away, from d7rocrTe'AAeiv, to send off or away.] 1. A 
person sent forth or deputed to execute some important 
business ; specifically, one of the twelve disciples of Christ 
sent forth to preach the gospel. 2. ( Civ. and Admiralty 
Law.) A brief letter dismissory sent by a court appealed 
from to the superior court, stating the case, &c. ; a paper 
sent up on appeals in the admiralty courts. 

A-pos'tle-ship (-pos'sl-), n. The office of an apostle. 

A-pos'to-late, n. Mission; apostleship. 

Ap'os-toFic, ) a. 1. Pertaining or relating to an 

Ap'os-tol'ie-al, j apostle, or to the apostles, their 
times, or their peculiar spirit. 2. According to the doc- 
trines of the apostles. 

Ap'os-tol'i-cigm, ) n. State or quality of being apos- 

A-pos'to-lic'i-ty, j tolical. 

A-pos'tro-phe, n. [Gr. anocrrpo^ , from ano, from, and 
a-Tpo(j)-q, a turning.] 1. (Rhet.) A turning away from 
the real auditory, and addressing an absent or imaginary 
one. 2. ( Gram.) (a.) The contraction of a word by the 
omission of a letter or letters, which omission is noted 
by a mark like a comma placed above the line ; as, calPd 
for called, (b.) The mark used to denote that a word is 

Ap'o-stroph'ic, a. Pertaining to an apostrophe. 

A-pos'tro-phize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. apostro- 
phized ; & vb. n. apostrophizing.] 1. To 
address by apostrophe. 2. To contract by omitting a 
letter or letters. 

A-poth'e-ea-ry, n. [From Gr. anoO^Krj, repository, 
from dwo, from, and riflei'ai, to put ; 0-qK-q, box, chest.] 
One who prepares and sells drugs for medicinal purposes. 
In England, apothecaries also prescribe for diseases, act- 
ing as sub-physicians. 

Ap'o-thegm ) (ap'o-them), n. [Gr. airo^Qeyixa, from 

Ap'oph-thegm j dno, from, and ^Oey^a, saying, 
word.] A short, pithy, and instructive saying ; a senten- 
tious precept or maxim. [Apothegm is now the preva- 
lent spelling.] 

Ap'o-theg-mat'ic, ) a. In the manner of an 

Ap'o-theg-mat'le-al, j apothegm. [thegms. 

Ap'o-theg'ma-tist, n. A collector or maker of apo- 

Ap'o-the'o-sis, n. [Gr. a7ro0eWis, from dno, from, and 
0e6?, god.] Act of elevating a mortal to the rank, and 
placing him among the number, of the gods ; deification. 

Ap'o-the'o-size, v. t. To exalt to the dignity of a 
deity ; to deify. 

Ap'o-zem, n. [Gr. ano^efxa, from airo^hv, to extract by 
boiling.] (Med.) A decoction. 

Ap-pall', v. t. [imp. & p. p. appalled ; & vb. n. 
APPALLING.] [Fr. appalir, from ad and palir t to grow 
or make pale.] To depress or discourage with fear. 
Syn. — To dismay ; daunt ; terrify ; scare ; intimidate. 

Ap-pall', v. i. To occasion fear or dismay. 

Ap'pan-age, n. [Low Lat. appanagium, from apanare, 
to furnish with bread, from Lat. ad and panis, bread.] 
1. The portion of land assigned by a sovereign prince 
for the subsistence of his younger sons. 2. Means of 
nourishing ; sustenance. 

Ap'pa-ra/tus, n. ; pi. Xp'pa-ra'tus or ap'pa-ra'tus- 
E§. [Lat., fr. apparare, to prepare, fr. ad and parare , to 
make ready.] Things provided as means to some end ; 
especially, a full collection or set of implements, or uten- 
•ils, for performing scientific experiments or operations. 

Ap-par'el, n. [Fr. appareil, from pareil, like, equal, 
match, from Low Lat. pariculus, dim. of Lat. par, equal, 
a pair.] Covering for the body. 

Syn. — Clothing ; clothes; dress; raiment; vesture; vest- 
ment.— The first three words are those familiarly used; an' 
parel and the rest are more formal. 

Ap-par'el, v. t. [imp. & p. p. APPARELED ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. appareling.] 1. To dress or clothe ; to attire. 
2. To cover with something ornamental; to cover, as 
with^garments ; to adorn ; to embellish. 

Ap-par'ent (4), a. [Lat. apparens, p. pr. of apparere, to 
appear.] 1. Capable of being seen, or easily seen. 2. 
Beyond question or doubt. 3. Appearing to the eye, 
but not true or real. 

Syn. — Visible ; distinct ; plain ; obvious ; clear ; certain ; 
evident ; manifest ; indubitable ; notorious. What is obvious 
{literally, lying in our way) is certain beyond doubt or dispute; 
what is plain, clear, or evident, has ample proof or illustration. 
Apparent is sometimes used for clear, and sometimes for seem- 
ing, as, the difficulty was more apparent than real. 

Ap-par'ent-ly, adv. Visibly; evidently; in appearance 

Ap'pa-ri'tion (-rlsh'un), n. [See Appear.] 1. Ap- 
pearance ; visibility. 2. The thing appearing ; a visible 
object ; specifically, a preternatural appearance ; a ghost ; 
a specter. 

Ap-par'i-tor, n. [See Appear.] 1. An officer who 
attended magistrates and judges to execute their orders. 

2. ( Law.) A messenger or officer who serves the process 
of a spiritual court. 

Ap-peal', n. [See infra.] 1. (Law.) (a.) Removal of 
a cause or suit from an inferior to a superior judge or 
court for re-examination or review, (b.) The mode of 
proceeding by which such removal is effected, (c.) The 
right of appeal. 2. A summons to answer to a charge. 

3. A call upon a person for proof or decision, or to grant 
a favor. 4. Resort ; recourse. 

Ap-peal', v. i. [Lat. appellare, from ad and pellere, to 
drive.] 1. (Law.) To remove a cause from an inferior 
to a superior judge or court for the purpose of re-exam- 
ination or for decision. 2. To refer to another for the 
decision of a question controverted, or the counteraction 
of testimony or facts ; hence, to call on for aid. 

Ap-peal', v. t. [imp. & p. p. appealed ; & vb. 
n. appealing.] (Law.) (a.) To remove, as a cause, 
from an inferior to a superior judge or court, (b.) To 
charge with a crime ; to accuse. 

Ap-peal'a-ble, a. Capable of being appealed, or called 
to answer by appeal. 

Ap-pear', v. i. [imp. & p.p. appeared; & vb. 
n. APPEARING.] [Lat. apparere, to appear, from ad and 
parere, to come forth.] 1. To come or be in sight. 2. 
To stand in presence of some superior. 3. To be- 
come visible to the apprehension of the mind ; to be ob- 
vious or manifest. 4. To seem, in opposition to reality. 

Ap-pear'ance, ». 1. Act of coming into sight. 2. A 
thing seen ; a phenomenon. 3. Semblance, or apparent 
likeness. 4. Personal presence ; exhibition of the person. 
5. Introduction of a person to the public in a particular 
character. 6. ( Laiv.) The act or proceeding by which a 
party proceeded against places himself before the court, 
and submits to its jurisdiction. 

_ Syn. — Coming ; arrival; presence; semblance; pretense; 
air; look; manner; mien ; figure; aspect. 

Ap-pear'er, n. One who appears. 

Ap-pea§'a-lble, a. Capable of being appeased or quieted- 

Ap-pea§'a-lble-ness, n. Quality of being appeasable. 

Ap-pea§e', v. t. [imp. & p. p. appeased ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. APPEASING.] [Fr. appaiser, from Lat. ad and .pax, 
peace.] To make quiet. 

Syn. — To pacify; allay; assuage; compose; calm. 

Ap-pea§e'ment, n. Act of appeasing, or state of being 

Ap-pea§'er, n. One who appeases or pacifies. 
Ap-pea'slve, a. Having the power to appease. 
Ap-pel'lant, n. A person who makes an appeal. 
Ap-pel'late, n. Belonging to, or having cognizance of, 

Ap^el-la'tion, n. The name by which a person or 

thing is called ; title : address. 
Ap-pel'la-tive, a. [Lat. appellativus , from appellare, to 

name, to call.] Pertaining to a common name. 
Ap-pel'la-tive, n. A common, as distinguished from a 

proper name. 
Ap-p61'la-to-ry, a. Containing an appeal. 
Ap'pel-lee', n. ( Law.) (a.) The defendant in an appeal 

(b.) The person who is appealed, or prosecuted, by a 

private man for a crime. 

food, fdt>t ; firn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, «all, echo ; gem, get ; a§ ; ejist ; linger, link ; this. 




Ap'pel-lSr', n. (Law.) The person who institutes an 
appeal, or prosecutes another for a crime. 

Append', v. t. [imp. & p. p. appended ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. appendix^.] [Lat. appendere , to hang to, from ad 
and pendere, to weigh, to hang.] 1. To hang or attach, 
as by a string, so that the thing is suspended. 2. To 
add, as an accessory to the principal thing ; to annex. 

Ap-pend'age, n. Something added as subordinate or 

Ap-pend'aut, n. Any thing appended to or connected 
with another as incidental. 

Ap-pend'ant, a. 1. Hanging; annexed. 2. (Laic.) 
Appended by prescription ; — said of a thing of inherit- 
ance belonging to another inheritance which is superior 
or more worthy. 

Ap-pend'ix, n. ; pi. AP-PEND'lx-Eg ; Lat. pi. ap-pen 1 
DI-CE£. 1. Something appended ; an adjunct, or con- 
comitant. 2. Specifically , any literary matter added to 
a book, but not necessarily essential to its completeness. 

Ap'per-cep'tion, n. [From ad and perception.] 
(Metaph.) Perception that reflects upon itself; self-con- 

Ap'per-tain', v. i. [imp. & p. p. appertained ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. appertaining.] [Lat. appertinere, from ad 
and perti mere, to pertain.] To belong, whether by nature, 
right, appointment, or custom ; to relate. 

Ap'pe-tence, In. 1. Strong natural desire; sensual 

Ap'pe-ten-py, ) appetite. 2. Tendency to seek or 

Ap'pe-tent, a. Desiring ; very desirous. [Rare.] 

Ap'pe-tlte, n. [Lat. appetitas, from appetere, to seek.] 
1. Desire of gratification, either of the body or of the 
mind. 2. Specifically, a desire of food or drink. 

Ap'pe-tize, v. i. To create, or whet, an appetite. 

Ap'pe-tiz'er, n. Something which creates, increases, 
or whets, an appetite. 

Ap-plaud', v. t. or i. [imp. & p.p. APPLAUDED ; 
& vb'.'n. APPLAUDING.] [Lat. applaudere, from ad and 
plaudere, to ciap the hands.] 1. To praise by clapping 
the hands, acclamation, or other significant sign. 2. 
To praise by words ; to commend. 
Syn. — To extol; cry up; magnify. 

Ap-plaud'er, n. One who applauds. 

Ap-plauge', n. [Lat. applaudere, p. p. applausus.] Act 
of applauding ; approbation and praise publicly ex- 
pressed by clapping the hands, beating with the feet, 
acclamation, huzzas, or other means ; commendation. 

Ap-plau'sive, a. Applauding ; containing applause. 

Ap'ple (57), n. [A.-S. ssppel, sepl.] 1. A well-known tree 
and its fruit. 2. The pupil of the eye. 

Ap-pK'a-ble, a. Capable of being applied; applicable. 

Ap-pli'ance, n. Act of applying, or thing applied ; in- 
strument or means. 

Ap'pli-ea-bil'i-ty, ) n. Quality of being applicable 

Ap'pli-ea-ble-ness, ) or suitable. 

Ap'pli-ea-ble, a. Capable of being, or fit to be, ap- 
plied ; suitable ; fit ; adapted . 

Ap'pli-eant, n. One who applies ; a petitioner. 

Ap'pli-eate, n. [Lat. applicata (sc. linea), from appli- 
care, to apply.] (Math.) A right line drawn across a 
curve, so as to be bisected by the diameter ; an ordinate. 

Ap'pli-eate, a. Applied or put to some use. 

Ap'pli-ea'tion, n. [See Apply.] 1. Act of applying 
or laying on, in a literal sense. 2. The thing applied. 
3. Act of making request or soliciting. 4. Employment 
of means. 5. Act of fixing the mind ; intenseness of 
thought. 6. Act of directing or referring something to 
a particular case, to discover or illustrate agreement or 
disagreement, fitness, or correspondence. 

Ap'pli-ea-tive, a. Applying ; applicatory. 

Ap'pli-ea-to-ry (50), a. Including the act of applying. 

Ap'pli^ea-to-ry, n. That which applies. 

Ap-ply', v. t. [imp. & p.p. APPLIED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
APPLYING.] [Lat. applicare, from ad and plicare, to 
fold.] 1. To lay or place ; to put, bring, or carry. 2. 
To use or employ for a particular purpose, or in a par- 
ticular case. 3. To make use of, declare, or pronounce, 
as suitable, fitting, or relative. 4. To engage and employ 
diligently, or with attention. [course. 

Ap-ply', v. i. 1. To suit or to agree. 2. To have re- 

Ap-pog'gia-tu'ra (-pod'ja-), n. [It., from apposspare, 
to lean, to rest.] (Mus.) A passing tone preceding an 
essential tone or an accented part of a measure, —gen- 
erally indicated by a note of smaller size. 

Ap-point', v. t. [imp. & p.p. appointed ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. APPOINTING.] [L. Lat. appunctare, to bring back 
to the point, restore, from Lat. ad and punctum, a 

point.] 1. To fix with power or firmness ; to establish. 
2. To fix by a decree, order, command, resolve, decision, 
or mutual agreement ; to constitute ; to ordain ; to pre- 
scribe. 3. To allot, assign, designate, or set apart. 4. 
To provide with every necessary ; to equip. 

Ap-point', v. i. To determine ; to ordain. 

Ap-point'a-ble, a. Capable of being appointed. 

Ap'point-ee', n. A person appointed. 

Ap-point'er, n. One who appoints. 

Ap-point'ment, n. 1. Act of appointing or state of 
being appointed. 2. Stipulation; arrangement. 3. 
Decree ; established order or constitution. 4. Whatever 
is appointed for use and management ; — used in the 

Ap-por'tion, v. t. [imp. & p.p. APPORTIONED; p. pr. 
& vb. n. APPORTIONING.] [L. Lat. apportionare, from 
Lat. ad and portio, portion.] To divide and assign in 
just proportion ; to divide or part out ; to assign in due 

Ap-por'tion-er, n. One who apportions. 

Ap-por'tion-ment, n. Act of apportioning ; a divid- 
ing into just proportions or shares. 

Ap-po§'er,n. An examiner ; an officer in the English 

_ Court of Exchequer. 

Ap'po-gite, a. [Lat. appositus, p. p. of apponere, to set 
or put to, from ad and ponere, to put, place.] Very 

w applicable ; well adapted ; suitable or fit ; relevant ; pat. 

Ap'po-glte-ly, adv. Properly ; fitly ; suitably. 

Ap'po-gite-ness, n. Fitness ; suitableness. 

Ap'po-gl'tion (-zish'un), n. 1. Act of adding ; accre- 
tion. 2. ( Gram.) The state of two nouns (one of which 
explains the other) put in the same case, without a con- 
necting word between them. [ment. 

Ap-praig'al, n. A valuation by authority ; anappraise- 

Ap-praige', v. t. [imp. & p. p. appraised ; p. pr. Ik, 
vb. n. APPRAISING.] [Lat. appretiare, from ad and 
pretiare, to prize, from pretium, value, price.] To set a 
value on ; to estimate the worth of, particularly by per- 
sons appointed for the purpose. 

eg- In America, this word is often pronounced, and some- 
times written, apprize. 

Ap-praige'ment, n. Act of appraising ; valuation. 

Ap-praig'er, n. One who appraises ; specifically, one 
appointed and sworn to fix the value of goods and estates. 

Ap-pre'ci-a-ble (-pre'shi-), a. Capable of being esti- 
mated or appreciated. 

Ap-pre'ci-ate (ap-pre'shl-at, 95), v. t. [imp. & p. p. 

APPRECIATED ; p. pr. & vb. n. APPRECIATING.] [Lat. 
appretiare. See APPRAISE.] 1. To set a price or value 
on ; to estimate justly or truly. 2. To raise the value 
of. [An Americanism.] 

Syn. — To esteem; estimate; value. — "We estimate things 
when we learn by calculation their real amount, as profits, &c. ; 
we appreciate when we prize them according to their true value 
or worth, as a man's services; we esteem when we regard them 
with moral approbation. 

Ap-pre'ci-ate, v. i. .To rise in value. 

Ap-pre'ci-a'tion (-pre-shi-), n. 1. A just valuation 
or estimate of merit, weight, or any moral consideration. 
2. Increase of worth or value. 

Ap-pre'ci-a-tive (-sM-a-tiv), ) a. Having or implying a 

Ap-pre'ci-a-to-ry (-shi-a-), j just appreciation. 

Ap-pre'ci-a-tive-ly, adv. With just appreciation. 

Ap'pre-hend', v. t. [imp. & p. p. apprehended ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. APPREHENDING.] [Lat. apprehendere, 
from ad and prehendere, to lay hold of, to seize, from prze, 
before, and root nend.] 1. To seize or lay hold of. 2. 
To understand. 3. To entertain suspicion or fear of. 

Syn. — To catch; arrest; conceive; imagine; believe; fear j 

Ap'pre-hend', v. i To be of opinion ; to believe. 

Ap'pre-hend'er, n One who apprehends. 

Ap'pre-hen'si-ble, a. Capable of being apprehended. 

Ap'pre-hen'sion, n. 1. Act of seizing or taking hold of. 
2. Act of taking by legal process. 3. The mere contem- 
plation of things, without affirming, denying, or passing 
any judgment. 4. Opinion ; conception ; sentiment ; 
idea. 5. The faculty by which ideas are conceived. 
w 6. Distrust or fear at the prospect of future evil. 

Ap'pre-hen'slve, a. Fearful ; suspicious ; perceptive. 

Ap/pre-lien'sive-ly, adv. In an apprehensive man- 
ner: fearfully. 

Ap/pre-hen'sive-ness, n. The quality of being appre- 
hensive : fearfulness. 

Ap-pren'tice, n. [L. Lat. apprentices, from Lat. ap- 
prendere, equiv. to apprehendere, to comprehend.] One 
bound to another to learn a trade or art. 

Ap-pren'tice, v. t. [imp. Sop. p. apprenticed (ap- 

S, e, &c, long; a,g,&c, short; care, far, ask, all, what; 6re, veil, term; pique, firm; son, 6r,do, wglf, 




pren'tist) ; p. pr. & vb. n. apprenticing.] To bind 
out as an apprentice. 

Ap-pren'tice-ship, n. The condition of an appren- 
tice ; the time for which he serves. 

Ap-prl§e', v. t. [imp. & p. p. apprised ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. APPRISING.] [Ft. apprise, ordinance by which the 
sentence of a superior judge is declared to an inferior, 
from apprendre, to learn, to teach. See APPREHEND.] 
To inform ; to give notice, verbal or written. 

Syn. — To acquaint; make known; communicate. 

Ap-prize', v. t. To seta value on. See Appraise. 

Ap-prize'ment, n. Same as Appraisement. 

Ap-priz'er, re. An appraiser. See Appraiser. 

Ap-proach', v. i. [imp. & p. p. approached ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. APPROACHING.] [Lat. ad and propiare, to 
draw near, from propius, comp. of prope, near.] 1. To 
come or go near, in place or time. 2. To draw near, in 
a figurative sense ; to approximate. 

Ap-proach.', v. t. 1. To cause to draw near. [Rare.] 
2. To come near to ; to approximate. 

Ap-proach.', n. 1. Act of drawing near. 2. Access, 
or opportunity of drawing near. 3. A passage or avenue 
by which buildings are approached. 4. pi. (Fort.) The 
works thrown up by besiegers, to protect them in their 
advances toward a fortress. 

Ap-proach'a-ble, a. Capable of being approached ; ac- 
cessible, [able. 

Ap-proach'a-ble-ness, n. Quality of being approach- 

Ap'pro-bate, v. t. [See Approve.] To express or 

_ manifest approbation of. [Rare.] 

Ap'pro-ba'tion, re. The act of approving ; consent to 
a tning on the ground of its propriety ; approval. 

Syn. — License; liking; attestation. 

Ap'pro-ba'to-ry, ) a. Approving ; containing appro- 

Ap'pro-ba'tive, j bation. 

Ap-pro'pri-a-ble, a. Capable of being appropriated. 

Ap-pro'pri-ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. appropriated ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. APPROPRIATING.] [Lat. appropriare, 
appropriation, from ad and proprim, one's own.] 1. 
To set apart for a particular purpose, or for one*s self, 
to assign. 2. (Law.) To alienate, as an ecclesiastical 
benefice, and annex it to a spiritual corporation, sole or 
aggregate, being the patron of the living. 

Ap-pro'pri-ate (45), a. Set apart for a particular use 
or person; hence, belonging peculiarly. 

Syn. — Fit ; suitable ; proper ; adapted ; pertinent ; well- 
timed ; peculiar. 

Ap-pro'pri-ate-ly, adv. In an appropriate manner. 

Ap-pro'pri-ate-ness, re. Suitableness ; fitness. 

Ap-pro'pri-a'tion, n. 1. Act of appropriating or set- 
ting apart for a purpose. 2. Any thing, especially 
money, thus set apart. 3. (Law.) (a.) The sequester- 
ing of a benefice to the perpetual use of a spiritual cor- 
poration, sole or aggregate, being the patron of the living. 

Ap-pro'pri- a/tor, re. 1. One who appropriates. 2. 
(Law.) One who is possessed of an appropriated benefice. 

Ap-prov'a-ble , a. Worthy of approbation. 

Ap-prov'al, n. Act of approving ; approbation. 

Ap-prove', v. t. [imp. & p. p. approved ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. APPROVING.] [Lat. approbare, from ad andpro- 
bare, to approve, from probus, good.] 1. To be pleased 
with ; to think well of. 2. To prove. 3. To make or 
show to be worthy of approbation ; to commend. 4. 
(Law.) To improve by increasing the value or profits of. 
5. To sanction officially. 

Ap-prov'er, n. 1. One who approves. 2. (Law.) One 
who confesses a crime and brings out his accomplices. 

Ap-prox'i-mate (45), a. 1. Near to. 2. (Chem. & 
Math.) Nearly approaching correctness. 

Approximate, v. t. [i??ip. & p. p. approximated ; & vb. n. approximating.] [Lat. approximare, 
from ad amdproximare, to come near.] To carry or ad- 
vance near ; to cause to approach. 

Ap-prox'i-mate, v. i. To come near ; to approach. 

Ap-prox'i-ma'tion, n. An approach ; a coming near. 

Ap-prox'i-ma-tive, a. Approximating ; approaching. 

Ap'pulse, or Ap-piilse', n. [Lat. appulsus, from ad 
and pellere, pulsum, to drive.] 1. Act of striking 
against. 2. A touching, or very near approach. 

Ap-pixl'sion, n. A striking against by a moving body. 

Ap-pur'te-nance, n. That which appertains to some- 
thing else ; an adjunct ; an appendage. 

Ap-pur'te-nant, a. Belonging to by right. 

A'pri-cot, n. [From Lat. prxcoquus or prsecox, early 
ripe, through the Ar. al-birq&q and Sp. albarcoque.] A 
fine fruit, allied to the plum. 

A'pril, n. [Lat. Aprilis, from aperire, to open, as the 
month in which the earth opens for new fruit.] The 

_ fourth month of the year. 

A'pril-fobl, n. One sportively imposed upon on the 

_ first day of April. 

A'pron (a/purn or a'prun), n. 1. A cloth, or piece of 
leather, worn on the fore part of the body, to keep the 
clothes clean, or defend them from injury. 2. A piece 
of leather, or other thing, to be spread before a person 
riding in a carriage, to defend him from the rain, snow, 

w or dust ; a boot. 

ip'ro-pos' (ap'ro-po'), adv. [Fr.] 1. Opportunely ; 
w seasonably. 'Z. By the way ; to the purpose. 

Ap'sis, n.; pi. AP'si-DEg. [Gr.] 1. 
(Astron.) One of the two points in an 
elliptical orbit which are at the greatest < 

and least distance from the central \^ 
body. 2. (Arch.) The domed part of a 
church, where the altar is placed. 
Apt, a. [Lat. aptus, from apere, to fasten, fit ; Gr. air- 
■reu/.] 1. Fit ; suitable. 2. Having a tendency ; liable. 
S. Disposed customarily. 4. Ready ; quick ; prompt. 

Syn. — Appropriate; suitable: qualified; inclined; disposed; 
dexterous; fitted. — One who is disposed or inclined to any 
thing is apt to do it. He who is apt at anv emplovment is 
qualified or dexterous. An apt quotation is one which "is appro- 
priate, suitable, or fitted to the case. 

Ap'ter-al, a. [Gr. anrepos, from a priv. and nrepov, 
wing.] 1. Destitute of wings. 2. Having no columns 
_ along the sides, but only in front. 

Ap'ter-ous, a. (Entom.) Destitute of wings ; apteral. 

Apt'i-tude (53), n. 1. Natural or acquired disposition 
w or tendency. 2. Readiness in learning ; docility ; aptness. 

Apt'ly, adv. Properly : fitly ; readily ; wittily. 

Apt'ness, n. Quality of being apt ; fitness ; readiness. 

Ap'tote, re. [Gr. airroirog, from a priv. and tttuto?, 
fallen, declined, from ninTeiv, to fall.] (Gram.) An 
_in declinable noun. 

A.'qtid,n. [Lat., akin to Skr. ap, water.] "Water; — a 
word much used in pharmacy and the old chemistry, in 
various significations, determined by the word or words 

Aquafortis (Chem.), same as nitric acid. — Aqua-marine, or 
aqua-marina, a fine variety of beryl; — formerly so called by 
jewelers on account of its color, resembling the green of sea- 
water.— Aqua regia (Chem.), the same as nitro-chloro-hydric 

JL-qud'ri-um,n. ; pi. a-Q.tta'ri-1. [Lat.] 1. An arti- 
ficial pond for rearing aquatic plants. 2. A globe or 
tank of glass for keeping alive aquatic animals. 

A-qiiat'i-e, ) a. Pertaining to, inhabiting, or frequent- 

A-quat'i-e-al, j ing, water. 

A'qua-tint, I n. [It. acqua tinla, dyed water.] A 

A'qiia-tlnt'a, J method of etching on copper by means 

^ of aqua fortis. 

Aq'ue-dnet (ak/we-dukt), n. [Lat. aquxduclus, from 
aqua, water, and ductus, a leading, from ducere, to lead.] 

_ An artificial conduit for water. 

A'qne-oiis (5/kwe-us), a. 1. Partaking of the nature of 
water, or abounding with it ; watery. 2. Made by means 
of water. 
Aqueous humor, a transparent fluid, forming part of the eye. 

A'qui-form, a. [Lat. aqua, water, and forma, form.] 
^ In the form of water. 

Aq'ui-liiie (-lln or -lln), a. [Lat. aquilinus, from aquila, 

eagle.] 1. Belonging to the eagle. 2. Curving ; hooked ; 

^prominent, like the beak of an eagle. 

Ar'afo, n. A native of Arabia. 

Ar'a-besque (ar'a-besk), re. A species of or- 
namentation after the Arabian manner, often 
intricate and fantastic from the intermingling 
of foliage, fruits, &c, with other objects, 
_real or imaginary. 

Ar'a-besque, a. In the manner of the 
Arabians ; relating to the style of ornament 
called arabesque. 

A-raTri-an, ) a. Pertaining to Arabia, or to S 

Ar'a-bi-e, i its inhabitants. 

Ar'a-bie, n. The language of the Arabians. 

Ar'a-bxst ? n. One versed in Arabic literature. 

Ar'a-ble, a. [Lat. arabilis, from arare, to 
plow.] Fit for tillage or plowing ; plowed. Arabesque. 

A-ra'ne-ou.s, a. [Lat. araneosus, from ara- 

nea, spider, spider's web.] 1. Resembling a cobweb. 2. 
Extremely thin and delicate, like a cobweb. 

food, foot ; ftrn,, pull ; fell, chaise, -call, echo ; gem, get ; a§ ; exist ; linger, link ; this. 




Arlbal-est, I n. [Abbrev. of arcubalist, q. v.] A cross- 
Ar'bal-ist, j bow. 

Ar'bi-ter.n. [Lat.] {Law.) 1. A person appointed or 
chosen, by parties in controversy, to decide their differ- 
ences [In modern usage, arbitrator is the technical 
word.] 2. Any person who has the power of judging 
and determining, without control. 
Ar'bi-tra-ble, a. 1. Arbitrary. 2. Determinable. 
Ar-bit'ra-ment, n. \L.~LaX.arbitramentum.] 1. Will; 

determination ; decision. 2. Award of arbitrators. 
Ar'bi-tra-ri-ly, adv. By will only ; absolutely. 
Ar'bi-tra-ry, a. [Lat. arbitrarius, from arbitran, to 
hear, decide, from arbiter, q. v.] 1. Depending on will 
or discretion. 2. Founded not on the nature of things, 
but on mere will or choice. 3. Despotic ; absolute in 
power ; bound by no law. 

Svn. — Tyrannical; imperious; unlimited; capricious.— 
When a ruler has absolute, unlimited, or arbitrary power, he is 
apt to be capricious, if not imperious, tyrannical, and des- 
ArHbi-trate, v. t. 1. To hear and decide, as arbitrators. 

2. To decide, or determine generally. 
Ar'bi-trate, v. i. {imp. & p. p. arbitrated ; 
& vb. n. arbitrating.] 1. To decide ; to determine. 
2. To judge or act as arbitrator. 
Ar'bi-tra/tion, n. The hearing and determination of a 
cause between parties in controversy, by a person or per- 
sons chosen by the parties. 
Ar'bi-tr a/tor, n. 1. A person chosen by parties who 
have a controversy, to determine their differences. 
2. The person chosen as umpire, by two arbitrators, 
when the parties do not agree. 3. One who has the 
power of deciding or prescribing without control. 
Ar'bi-tra/trix, n. A female who arbitrates or judges. 
Ar'bi-tress, n. A female arbiter ; an arbitratrix. 
Ar'bor, n. [Lat., a tree.] 1. A bower ; a seat shaded by 

trees. 2. A spindle or axis. 
Ar-bo're-oiis, ) a. Belonging to, growing on, or having 
ArHbor-al, ) the nature of, trees. 
Ar'bo-res'cence, n. The resemblance of a tree. 
Ar'bo-res'cent, a. [Lat. arborescens, p. p. of arbores- 
cere, to become a tree.] Resembling a tree; becoming 
Ar 'bo-ret, n. A small tree ; a shrub. 
Ar'bor-i-eult'ure (-kfilt'yur), n. [Lat. arbor, tree, and 
cultura, culture. See Culture.] The art of cultivating 
trees and shrubs. 
ArHbor-ist, n. One who makes trees his study. 
Ar'bor-i-za'tion, n. A tree-like appearance, especially 

in minerals. 
Ar'bor-ize, v.t. To form tree-like appearances in. 
Ai'Tbor-oiis, a. Formed by trees. 
Ar'bus-cle ('ir'bus-sl), n. [Lat. arbuscula, dim. of arbor, 

tree.] A dwarf tree. 
Ar'bute, )n. [Lat. arbutus, akin to arbor, tree.] The 
jLr-bii'tiis, j strawberry-tree, a genus of evergreen 
shrubs, of the heath family, which has a berry resem- 
..bling the strawberry. 
Arc, n. [Lat. arcus, bow, arch.] Part 
of the circumference of a circle or 
#< curve. Arc. 

Ar-cade', n. [L. Lat. areata, from Lat. arcus, bow, 
arch.] 1. A series of arches. ?. A walk arched above ; 
& range of shops along an arched passage. 
Ar-ed'num, n. ; pi. ar-ca'na. [Lat.] A secret. 
Arch, a. [Properly chief, eminent, viz., in art and 
roguery ; from the following.] Cunning or sly ; mis- 
chievous in sport ; roguish. 
Arch (68), a. [From Gr. prefix apxL-, from the same root 
as apxeiv, to be first, to begin.] Chief; of the first class ; 
principal ; — much used as a prefix in many compounded 
words, most of which are self-explaining ; as, arch-apos- 
% tle, arch-builder, arch-conspirator, &c. 
Arch, n. 1. A curve line or ««„,..~ ^H^l 

part of a circle. 2. Any 
work in that form, or cov- 
ered by an arch. 
Arch, v. t. or i. [imp. & p. 
p. arched (archt, 108); p. 
pr. & vb. n. ARCHING.] To 
#t form an arch. 

Ar'ehae-o-log'ie-al, a. Re- 
flating to archaeology. 
Ar'-ehae-oFo-gist, n. One 
## versed in archaeology. 
Ar'ehse-ol'o-gy, n. [Gr. Arch. 

apxatoAoyia, fr. apxalos, ancient, and A.6yos, discourse.] 

treatise on antiquities or 

The science of antiquities ; «■ 
ancient usages, customs, &c. 

Ar-eha'le, I a. Characterized by antiquity or obso- 

Ar-eha'i-c-al, I leteness ; ancient ; antiquated. 

Ar'eha-i§m, n. [From Gr. dpxaio?, ancient, ap\r), be- 
ginning.] 1. An ancient or obsolete word, expression, 
or idiom. 2. Antiquity of style or use. 

Areh-an'gel, n. An angel of the highest order. 

Areh'an-gel're, a. Belonging to archangels. 

Arch-bish'op, n. A chief bishop ; a metropolitan. 

Arch-bish'op-ri-e, n. The jurisdiction, place, or dio- 
cese of an archbishop. 

Arch-dea'-eon (-de / kn), n. An ecclesiastical dignitary 
.next in rank below a bishop. 

Arch-dea'-eon-ry, )n. The office and jurisdiction of 

Arch-dea/eon-ship, ] an archdeacon. 

Arch-du/eal, a. Pertaining to an archduke.'ess, n. A princess of the house of Austria. 

Arch-diich'y, n. The territory or jurisdiction of an 
archduke or archduchess. 

j> rch-duJke', w. A grand duke; a chief prince; now, 
strictly, a son of an Emperor of Austria. 

Arch-duke'dom, n. The jurisdiction of an archduke 
or archduchess. 

Arch'er, n. One who shoots with a bow ; a bowman. 

Arch'er-y, n. 4.rt of shooting with a bow and arrow. 

Arch'eg-court, n. An English ecclesiastical court of 

j Lr'ehe-typ / al, a. Constituting, or pertaining to, a model 
or pattern ; original. 

Ar'-ehe-type, n. [Gr. apxervizov, from dpxv, beginning, 
and TU7ro?, stamp, figure, pattern.] The original pattern 
or model of a work ; the model from which a thing is 

Arch-fiend', n. The chief of fiends. 

Areh'i-di-ae'o-nal, a. Pertaining to an archdeacon. 

Ar-eh'I-e-pis'-eo-pa-cy, n. Estate of an archbishop. 

Ar-eh'i-e-pis'eo-pal, a. Belonging to an archbishop. 

Ar'ehil, n. [Fr. orcheil, roccelle, N. Lat. (lichen) roccella, 
from Fr. roc, m., roche, f., Sp. roca, It. rocca, roccia, 
rock ; because it grows on rocks.] A violet dye obtained 
.from several species of lichen. 
Ar-ehim'e-de'an, a. Per- 
taining to Archimedes. 

Archimedean screw, or Ar- 
chimedes' screw, an instru- 
ment for raising water, formed 
by winding a flexible tube 
round a cylinder in the form 
of a screw. 

Ar'ehi-pel'a-go, n. [Gr. 

prefix dpxL-, equiv. to Eng. arch, q. v., and ne\ayo<;, sea.] 
Any body of water interspersed with many isles, or a 
group of isles. 

Areh'I-teet, n. [Gr. apxt-reKTuv , from prefix <xpx t_ » 
equiv. to Eng. arch, q. v., and tektiov, -workman.] 1. 
One who plans and superintends the construction of a 

#- building. 2. One who contrives or builds up. 

Ar'ehl-teet'fve, a. Adapted to use in architecture. 

Ar'ehi-tee-ton'ie, ) a. [Gr. apxi-reKroviKos.] Per- 

Ar'ehi-tee-ton'ie-al, ) taining to, or skilled in, ar- 
chitecture ; evincing skill in designing or construction. 

Ar'-ehi-teet'ress, n. A female architect. 

Ar'chi-tect'ur-al, a. Of, or pertaining to, architecture. 

Ar'ehi-tect'ure, n. 1. The art or science of building ; 
especially, the art of constructing houses, bridges, and 
# other buildings. 2. Frame or structure ; workmanship. 

Ar'chi-trave, n. [From Gr. and Lat. prefix archi-, 
equiv. to Eng. arch, q. v., and It. trave, Lat. trabs, 
beam.] (Arch.) (a.) The lower division of an entabla- 
ture, or that part which rests immediately on the column. 
(b.) The ornamental molding running round the exterior 
curve of an arch, (c.) A molding above a door, or win- 
dow, and the like. 

Ar'ehive,n.; pi. archives (-klvz). [Lat. archivum, 

archium, Gr. apxeiov, government -house, from «px*?, the 

first place, government. See ARCH.] 1. Place in which 

public records are kept. 2. Public records and papers 

#- which are preserved as evidence of facts. 

Ar'ehi-vist, n. The keeper of archives. 

Ar'ehi-volt, n. [It. archivolto, from Gr. & Lat. prefix 

archi-, equiv. to Eng. arch, q. v., and It. volto, vault, 

arch.] (Arch.) The inner contour of an arch, or a band 

adorned with moldings running over the faces of the 

., arch-stones, and bearing upon the imposts. 

Arch'ly, adv. With sly humor ; shrewdly. 

a,e,&c.,Zong-; a, 6, be, short; care, far, ask, all, what ; ere, veil, term; pique, firm; son, 6r, do, wolf, 




Arch'ness, n. Sly humor ; shrewdness ; cunning. 

Ar'chon, n. [Gr. apx<»v, from ap^eiv, to rule.] A chief 
magistrate in ancient Athens. 

Arch'way, n. A passage under an arch. 

Are'o-graph, n. [Lat. arcus, equiv. to Eng. arc, q. v., 
and Gr. ypd^etv, to write.] An instrument for drawing 
arcs of circles without the use of a central point 

Are'tie, a. [Gr. dpnTLKos, from up/cros, a bear, and the 
constellation so called.] Pertaining to, or situated under, 
the northern constellation called the Bear ; northern ; 
lying far north. 
Arctic circle, a lesser circle 23^° from the north pole. 

Are'u-ate, } a. [Lat. arcuatus, p. p. of arcuare, to 

Are'u-a/ted, j make in form of a bow, from arcus, 
bow] Bent hke a bow. 

Ar«'u-a/tion, n. A bending ; convexity ; incurvation. 

Ar'eu-ba-list, n. [Lat. arcuballista, from arcus, bow, 
and ballista, balista, a military engine for projectiles, 
from Gr. /3aAAe<.v, to throw.] A cross-bow, of different 
_ kinds, sometimes used for discharging stones or bullets. 

Ar'cu-bal'ist-er, or Ar'eu-ba-list'er, n. A cross- 

Ar'den-cy, n. Ardor ; eagerness ; zeal ; heat, [bowman. 

Ar'dent, a. [Lat. ardens, p. pr. of ardere, to burn.] 1. 
Hot or burning. 2. Having the appearance or quality 
of fire. 3. Much engaged ; passionate ; affectionate. 

Syn.— Fiery; intense ; fierce ; vehement; eager; zealous; 
keen; fervid; fervent; passionate; affectionate. 

Ar'dent-ly, adv. With ardor ; zealously ; affectionately. 

Ar'dor, n. [Lat., from ardere, to burn.] 1. Heat, in a 
literal sense. 2. Warmth, or heat of passion or affec- 

^tion; eagerness. 

Ard'u-oiis (29, 52), a. [Lat. arduus, akin to Ir. ard, 
high, height.] 1. High or lofty, in a literal sense. 2. 
Attended with great labor, hke the ascending of acclivi- 
ties ; difficult. 

Syn. — Difficult ; hard. — Arduous is stronger than hard, 
and hard stronger than difficult. 

Ard'u-ous-ness, n. Great difficulty ; laboriousness. 

Are (ar). Present indie, pi. of the substantive verb ; but 

_etymologicaUy a different word from be, am, or ivas. 

A're-a, n. ; pi. A'RE-Ag. [Lat., a broad piece of level 
ground.] 1. Any plane surface, as the floor of a room, 
of a church or other building, or of the ground. 2. 
The inclosed space or site on which a building stands ; a 
sunken space around the basement of a building. 3. 
( Geom.) The superficial contents of any figure. 

Ar'e-fae'tion, n. [Lat. arefacere, to make dry, from 
arere, to be dry, and facere, to make.] The act of dry- 
ing ; dryness. 

A-re'na, n.; pi. a-RE'nas ; Lat. pi. a-re'nas. [Lat., 
sand, a sandy place.] 1. ( Rom. Antiq.) The area in the 
central part of an amphitheater, in which the gladiators 
fought and other shows were exhibited ; — so called be- 
cause it was covered with sand. Hence, 2. {Fig.) Any 
place of public contest or exertion. 

Ar'e-na'ceoiis, a. [Lat. arenaceus, from arena, sand.] 
Having the properties of sand ; easily disintegrating into 
sand; friable. 

A-^re'o-ld, n. ; pi. a-re 1 o-lm. [Lat., dim. of area, q. 
v.] 1. An interstice or small space. 2. The colored 
ring around the nipple, and also around certain vesicles. 

A-re'o-lar, a. Pertaining to, or like, an areola ; filled 
with interstices or areolae. 

Areolar tissue (Anat.), a loose mixture of the white, fibrous, 
and yellow elastic tissues, as the loose texture which connects 
the skin with subjacent parts;— so called from its interspaces. 

-5/re-Sm'e-ter (110), n. [Gr. dpcuos, thin, rare, and 
fjierpov, a measure.] An instrument for measuring the 

_ specific gravity of fluids. 

A're-om'e-try, n. Act of measuring the specific gravity 

w of fluids. 

Ar'e-op'a-glte, n. A member of the Areopagus. 

Ar'e-op'a-gus, n. [Gr. Apeion-ayos, hill of Ares; irayos, 
rocky hill.] A sovereign tribunal at Athens, famous for 
the justice and impartiality of its decisions ; — so called 
from having been originally held on a hill named in honor 
.of Ares, or Mars. 

Ar'gal, n. [See Argol.] Unrefined or crude tartar. 

Ar'gand Lamp. A lamp invented by Aime Argand, 
in which a hollow wick is surrounded by a glass chimney, 
thus producing a strong and clear fight. 

Argand burner, a gas burner in the form of a ring or hollow 
cylinder, admitting a current of air through the center to fa- 
cilitate combustion. 

Ar'gent, a. [Lat. argenturn, silver, fr. Gr. dpyds, white.? 

. Silvery ; bright like silver. 

Ar'gent, n. The white color on a coat of arms, designed 

to represent silver, or, figuratively, purity. 
Ar-^ent'al, ) a. Pertaining to, consisting of, resem- 
Ar-gent'ie, j bling, or containing, silver. 
Ar'gen-tif'er-ous, a. Containing silver. 
Ar 'gen-tine, a. Pertaining to, or resembling, silver or 

sounding like it ; silvery. 

^f^i" 1 .?.'."- [From Lat - argenturn, silver.] 1. 

(Mm.) A sihcious variety of carbonate of lime, having a 
^silvery-white luster. 2. White metal coated with silver. 
Ar'gil, n. [Gr. apyOAos or ap-yrAos, from dpyr??, dpyiArjs, 

white.] {-Mm.) Clay or potter's earth; sometimes pure 
_ clay, or alumina. See CLAY. 

Ar'gil-la'ceous, a. Partaking of the properties of clay. 
Ar'gil-Hf' er-oiis, a. [Lat. argilla, white clay, and 

ferre, to bear.] Producing clay. 
Ar-|jil'lous, a. Clayey. 
Ar'give (ar'jlv), a. Pertaining to Argos, the capital of 

Argolis in Greece, or to its inhabitants. 

8®- The Argive tribe, during the Trojan war, was the mart 
powerful of any in Greece; and hence Argive is often used as 
a generic term, equivalent to Grecian or Greek. 

Ar'gol, n. [Cf. Argil.] Crude tartar. 

Ar'go-naut, n. [Gr. Apyoi/avrr?;, from 'Apyci and 
vauTTj?., sailor, from vav?, ship.] 1. One of the persons 
who sailed to Colchis with Jason, in the Argo, in quest of 
the golden fleece. 2. ( Zool. ) The nautilus. 

Ar'go-nant'i-e, a. Pertaining to the Argonauts, or to 
_ their voyage to Colchis. 

Ar'go-sy, n. [So called from Argo. See Argonaut.] A 

-g large ship, either for merchandise or war. 

Ar'gixe, v. i. [imp. & p. p. ARGUED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ARGUING.] [Lat. arguere.] 1. To use arguments ; to 

_ reason. 2. To contend in argument ; to dispute. 

Ar'gue, v. t. 1. To debate or discuss. 2. To prove or 
evince. 3. To persuade by reasons. 

Syn. — To discuss ; debate ; dispute ; prove. — To discuss, 
debate, or dispute, is the act of parties interchanging arguments 
between themselves. To prove is the strongest term, imply- 
ing decisive evidence ; to evince is next in strength, implying 
evidence sufficient to remove doubt; to argue is the weakest. 

Ar'gu-er, n. A disputer ; reasoner. 

Ar'gu-ment, n. [Lat. argumentum.] 1. A proof or 
means of proving ; a reason offered in proof, to induce 
belief, or convince the mind. 2. A process of reasoning 
or a controversy made up of such proofs. 3. The sub- 
ject-matter, or an abstract of the subject-matter, of a 
discourse, writing, picture, or the like. 

Ar'gn-men-ta'tion, n. Process or act of reasoning. 

Ar'gu-men'ta-tive, a. 1. Containing argument. 2. 
Addicted to argument. 

JC'ri-d, n. [It. from Lat. a'cr, the air.] {Mus.) An air or 

_song ; a tune. 

A'ri-an, a. Pertaining to Arius, a presbyter of the church 

_of Alexandria, in the fourth century, or to his doctrines. 

A'ri-an, n. One who adheres to the doctrines of Arius, 

_ who held Christ to be only a superangelic being. 

A'ri-an-i§m, n. The doctrine of the Arians. 

Ar'id, a. [Lat. aridus, from arere, to be dry.] Dry; 
parched up with heat. 

S "*r% 1 " t ^' | n. Absence of moisture ; dryness. 

x%.r ici-ness, ) 

jLr'x-et'ta,, \ n. [It. arietta, dim. of aria, q. v.] {Mus.) 

Ar'i-gtte', j A little aria, or air. 

A-right' (a-rit 7 ), adv. In due order; rightly; duly; 
without mistake. 

Ar'i-ose', a. [It. arioso, from aria, q. v.] Characterized 
by melody, as distinguished from harmony. 

A-ri§e', v. i. [imp. arose ; p. pr. & vb. n. arising ; 
p.p. arisen.] [A.-S. arisan. See Rise.] 1. To come 
or get up from a lower to a higher position ; to mount ; 
to ascend ; to rise. 2. To come into action, being, or 
notice. 3. To proceed ; to issue ; to spring. 

Ar'is-to-e'ra-cy, »• [Gr. apio-roKparia, from apicrro?, 
best, and Kparelv, to rule.] 1. A form of government, 
in which the supreme power is vested in the principal 
persons of a state, or in a privileged order. 2. The no- 
bility or chief persons in a state. 

A-ris'to-erat, or Ar'is-to-erat, n. 1. One who 
favors an aristocracy in principle or practice. 2. A 
proud or haughty person. 

Ar/is-to-erat'i-e, ) a. Pertaining to, consisting in, 

Arls-to-erat'ie-al, ) or partaking of, aristocracy. 

food, ftfbt : ton, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, «all, echo ; gem, get ; a§ ; e^ist ; linger, link ; tins. 




Ar'is-to-te'li-an, a. Pertaining to Aristotle, a cele- 1 and potens, powerful, p. pr. of posse, to be able.] Pow- 
^brated Greek philosopher. | ..erful in arms ; mighty in battle. 

AiVis-to-te'li-an, n. A follower of Aristotle, who ; Ar'mis-tice, n. [.Lat. arma, arms, and stare, statum, to 

founded the sect of Peripatetics. See Peripatetic 

Ar'ith-man/cy, or A-rith'man-cy, n. [Gr. dpi0p.6s, 
number, and ixavreia, divination.] The foretelling of 
future events, by the use or observation of numbers. 

A-rith'me-tie , n. The science of numbers ; the art of 
computation by figures. 

Ar'ith-met'ie-al, a. According to arithmetic, [metic. 

A-rith'me-ti'cian (-tlsh'an), n. One skilled in arith- 

Ark, n. [Lat. area, from arcere, to inclose, A.-S. ark, eark, 
erk, Goth, arka.] 1. A small, close chest, such as that 
which contained the tables of the covenant among the 
Jews. 2. The vessel in which Noah and his family were 
preserved during the deluge. 3. A large boat used on 
American rivers to transport produce to market. 

Arleg, n. pi. [A.-N. earles, yearles, Scotch airles.] Money 
paid to bind a bargain ; an earnest. 

Arm, n. [A.-S. arm, earm, Lat. armus, Gr. app:6s, shoul- 
der, from the root ap, to join, to fit together. Cf. Slav. 
ramo, shoulder, Lat. ramus, branch.] 1. The limb of 

stand still.] A temporary cessation of arms ; a truce. 

Arm'let, n. 1. A small arm, as of the sea. 2. A kind 
.of bracelet. 

Arm'or, n. [0. Eng. armure, from Lat. armatura.] 1. 
Defensive arms for the body ; any clothing or covering 
worn to protect one's person in battle. 2. The steel or 

..iron covering of ships of war. 

Arm'or-bear'er, n. One who carries the armor or 
arms of another ; an esquire. 

Ar'mor-er, n. 1. A maker of armor or arms. 2. One 
who has care of the arms of another, and who dresses 
him in armor. 

Ar-mo'ri-al, a. Belonging to armor, or to the escutch- 
eon of a family. 

Ar'mo-ry, n. 1. A place where arms and instruments 
of war are deposited for safe-keeping. 2. Armor; de- 
fensive and offensive arms. 3. That branch of heraldry 
which treats of coat-armor. 4. A place or building in 

..which arms are manufactured. [American.] 

Arm 'pit, n. The hollow under the shoulder. 

the human body which extends frorn the shoulder tojthe , Armg, n. pi. [Lat. arma. See Arm.] 1. Instruments 

or weapons of offense or defense ; instruments for fight- 
ing, whether offensive or defensive. 2. The deeds or ex- 
ploits of war. 3. (Her.) The ensigns armorial of a family. 

Syn. — Originally aims were for attack, weapons for defense. 
— Hence we say fire-arms, not fire-weapons, because fire is not 
used for defense. At present the word weapon is applied to in- 
struments of attack as well as defense. 

Arm/strong Gun. (Mil.) A breech -loading, wrought- 

..iron, rifled cannon, named from its inventor. 

Ar'my, n. [From Lat. armatus, f. armata, p. p. of ar- 
mare, to arm.] 1. A collection or body of men armed 
for war, and organized in companies, battalions, regi- 
ments, brigades, and divisions, under proper officers. 
.2. A great number ; a host. 

Ir'my-worm (-wurm), n. A voracious caterpillar (the 

..larva of a moth) appearing in large hosts. 

Ar'ni-ea, n. [Prob. a corruption of ptarmica.] (Bot.) 
A plant used in medicine as a narcotic and stimulant. 

Ar-not'to, n. See Annotto. 

A_^t'o'ind,n. [Gr.] The fragrant quality in plants. 

Ar'o-mat'k, 1 a. Pertaining to, or containing, aro- 

Ar'o-mat'ie-al, ) ma ; fragrant ; spicy. 

Ar'o-mat'k, n. A plant, drug, or medicine, having a 
fragrant smell, and usually a warm, pungent taste. 

A-ro'ma-tlze, or Ar'o-ma-tize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. 

AROMATIZED ; p. pr. & vb. n. AROMATIZING.] To 

impregnate with aroma. 
A-ro'ma-tous, a. Containing aroma. 
A-ro§e'. The past or preterit tense of the verb arise, q. v. 
A-round', prep. [Prefix a and round, q. v.] X. On all 

sides of; about. 2. From one part to another of. 
A-round', adv. 1. In a circle; on every side. 2. At 

random ; here and there. See Round. 
A-rouge', v. t. [imp. & p. p. aroused ; p. pr. & vb. 

n. AROUSING.] [Prefix a and rouse, a secondary form of 

raise.] To awaken suddenly. 
Syn. — To excite ; animate; rouse. 

A-roynt', adv. [Cf. A.-S. ryman,^. rymde, to make room 
J _or way.] Begone; away. [Obs.] 
Jtr-peg'gio (ar-ped'jo), n. [It. from arpa, harp.] (Mus.) 
The production of the tones of a chord in rapid succes- 
sion, and not simultaneously. 

Ar'que-lbuse (ar/kwe-bus), n. [From D. haak-bus, Ger. 
hakenbuchse , a gun with a hook, the hook being the forked 
rest on which it is supported.] A sort of hand-gun, sup- 
sported upon a forked rest when in use. [buse. 
Ar'que-hus-ier', n. A soldier armed with an arque- 
Ar-rack', n. [Ar. araq, from araqa, to sweat.] A kind 
of spirit obtained in the East Indies from rice or the 
cocoa-nut-tree, &c\ 
Ar-raign' (ar-ran'), v. t. [imp. & p. p. ARRAIGNED; & vb. n. ARRAIGNED.] [From Lat. ad and ratio, 
reason, reasoning, L. Lat. cause, judgment.] 1. (Law.) 
To call or set as a prisoner at the bar of a court, to an- 
swer to the matter charged in an indictment or com- 
plaint. 2. To call in question, or accuse, before the bar 
of reason, taste, or any other tribunal. 
Syn. — To accuse; impeach; charge; censure. 
Ar-raign'ment (-ran'-), n. The act of arraigning. 
Ar-range', v. t. [imp. & p. p. arranged ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ARRANGING.] [Fr. arranger, from ad and ranger, 
from rang, Eng. rank, from 0. H. Ger. hring, ring, cir- 

hand. 2. Any thing resembling an arm ; as, (a.) The 
branch of a tree, (b.) A slender part of an instrument j 
or machine, projecting from a trunk, or axis, or fulcrum. 
(c.) (Naut.) The end of a yard; also, the part of an ( 
anchor which ends in the fluke, (d.) An inlet of water J 
from the sea. 3. (Fig.) Power; might. 4. (Mil.) (a.)' 
A branch of the military service, (b.) An instrument , 
.of warfare ; — commonly in the pi. See Arms. 

Arm, v. t. [imp. & p. p. armed ; p. pr & vb. n. arm- 
ing.] 1. To furnish or equip with weapons of offense 
or defense. 2. To cover or furnish with whatever will j 
add strength, force, security, or efficiency ; — hence, 
specifically , to fit with an armature, as a loadstone. 3. 

..(i*7g\) To furnish with means of defense. 

Arm, v. i. To be provided with arms, weapons, or means 
of attack or resistance ; to take arms. 

Ar-ma'da, n. [Sp., from Lat. armatus, p. p. of armare, 
to arm.] A fleet of armed ships ; specifically, the Span- 
ish fleet intended to act against England, A. D. 1588. 

Ar'ma^dillo, n.; pi. AR-MA- 
DII/LOS.. [Sp. dim. of arma- 
do, armed.] (Zool.) An an- 
imal peculiar to South Amer- 
ica, and having the body en- 
cased in an armor composed of 
.small bony plates. 

Ar'ma-ment, n. [Lat. arma- Armadillo. 

■menta.] 1. A body of land or naval forces equipped 
for war. 2. ( Mil. ) AU arrangements made for the de- 
fense of a fortification with musketry and artillery. 3. 
( Naut. ) The guns and other munitions of war with which 
.a ship is armed. 

Ar'ma-ture (53), n. [Lat. armatura, from armare, to 
arm.] 1. Armor. 2. (Magnetism.) A piece of iron 
used to connect the two poles of a magnet, or electro- 
magnet, in order to complete the circuit, and receive the 

..magnetic^ force. [elbows. 

Arm'-chair, n. A chair with arms to support the 

Arm'ful, n. ; pi. arm^uls.. As much as the arms can 


Arm'hole, n. 1. The cavity under the shoulder ; arm- 

..pit. 2. A hole for the arm in a garment. 

Ar'mil-la-ry, a. [L. Lat. armilla- 
rius, from Lat. armilla, bracelet, 
from armus, arm.] Pertaining to, 
or resembling, a bracelet or ring ; 
consisting of rings or circles. 

^Armillary sphere, an instrument con- 
sisting of several brass rings, all circles 
of the same sphere, designed to repre- 
sent the position which belongs to the 
important circles of the celestial sphere. 

Ar'mil-late, ) a. [Lat. armilla- 

Ar'mil-la'ted, ) tus, p. p. of 
ar miliar e, from armilla, bracelet. 

..Furnished with bracelets. 

Ar-min'i-an, n. A follower of Ar- 

minius, who denied predestination and the kindred doc- 


Ar-mln'ian (-yan), a. Pertaining to Arminius, or desig- 
nating his principles. 

Ar-min'i-an-i§m, n. The tenets of the Arminians. 

Ar-mlp'o-tent, a. [Lat. armipotens, from arma, arms, 

Axmillary sphere. 

%,e,&,c.,long; a,e, he, short; care, far, ask, all, what; ere,veil, term; pique, firm; son, 6r, do, wolf, 



cle, circular row.] 1. To put, place, or dispose, in proper 
order. 2. To adjust or settle. 

Ar-range'ment, n. 1. Act of arranging or putting in 
proper order; the state of being arranged. 2. Result of 
arranging; regular and systematic classification. 3. 
Preparatory measure ; preparation. 4. Settlement ; 
adjustment by agreement. 5. (Mus.) (a.) The adapta- 
tion of a composition to voices or instruments for which 
it was not originally written. (6.) A piece so adapted. 

Ar'rant, a. [From Eng. errant, wandering, which was 
first applied to vagabonds, as an errant rogue, an errant 
thief, and hence passed gradually into its present and 
w worse sense.] Very bad ; notorious. 

Ar'ras, n. Tapestry ; hangings of tapestry, made first 
at Arras in the French Netherlands. 

Ar-ray', n. [0. Fr., arraij from ad and 0. Fr. rai, order, 
arrangement, from Goth, raidjan, to arrange, prepare.] 
1. Order ; disposition in regular lines ; hence, a posture 
for fighting. 2. An orderly collection. 3. Dress; rai- 
ment. 4. (Law.) (a.) A ranking or setting forth in 
order, by the proper officer, of a jury as impaneled in a 
cause, (b.) The panel itself, (c.) The whole body of 
jurors summoned to attend the court. 

Ar-ray', v. t. [imp. & p. p. arrayed ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ARRAYING-.] 1. To place or dispose in order, as troops 
for battle. 2. To deck or dress ; to adorn with dress. 
3. (Law.) To set in order, as a jury, for the trial of a 
cause ; that is, to call them man by man. 
Syn. — To dispose ; draw out; arrange; envelop. 

Ar-rear', n. sing. ) That which is behind in payment, or 

Ar-rear§', n. pi. J remains unpaid, though due. 

Ar-rear'age, n. The part of a debt unpaid. 

Ar-reet', ) a. [Lat. arrectus, p.p. of arrigere, to raise, 

Ar-rect'ed, ) erect.] Lifted up ; raised ; erect. 

Ar-rest', v. t. [imp. & p. p. arrested; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ARRESTING.] [From Lat. ad and restare, to remain. 
See Rest.] 1. To check or hinder the motion or action 
of. 2. (Law.) To take, seize, or apprehend by authority 
of law. 3. To seize on and fix ; to engage. 

Syn.— To obstruct; delay; detain; check; hinder; stop; 
apprehend; seize; lay hold of. — To arrest, like seize, denotes 
a forcible and usually a sudden act, by which we check, stop, 
or detain. When we arrest a criminal, we seize and detain 
him; when we apprehend, we lay hold of, for the same pur- 

Ar-rest', n. 1. Hindrance, or restraint. [Obs.] 2. 
(Law.) The taking or apprehending of a person by 
authority of law. 3. Any seizure, or taking by power, 
physical or moral. 4. (Far.) A scurfiness of the back 
part of the hind leg of a horse. 

Ar'res-ta'tion, n. Act of arresting ; arrest or seizure. 

A.r-ret' (ar-ref or ar-ra/), n. [See Arrest.] (Fr. Law.) 
(a.) A judgment, decision, or decree of a court or of par- 
liament, (b.) An edict of a sovereign prince, (c.) An 
arrest or seizure of persons, or a seizure of goods. 

Ar-riere'-ban, n. [Fr. , from 0. H. Ger. hariban, heriban, 
the calling together of an army, from heri, an army, and 
ban, a public call or order. The French have misunder- 
stood their old word, and have corrupted it into arriere- 
ban.] 1. A proclamation of the French kings, calling 
not only their immediate feudatories, but the vassals of 
these feudatories, to take the field for war. 2. The as- 
sembly of such vassals . 

Ar'ris, n. [Lat. arista, beard of an ear of grain, bone of 
a fish.] (Arch.) The edge formed by two surfaces meet- 
ing each other, whether plane or curved. 

Ar-ri'val, n. [From arrive, q. v.] 1. Act of arriving ; 
act of reaching a place, from a distance, whether by 
water (as in its original sense) or by land. 2. Attain- 
ment or gaining of any object, by effort, agreement, prac- 
tice, or study. 3. The person or thing arriving. 

Ar-rlve', v. i. [imp. & p. p. arrived ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ARRIVING.] [Low Lat. arrivare, arripare, adripare, to 
come to shore, from Lat. ad and ripa, the shore or slop- 
ing bank of a river.] 1. Lit., to come to the shore, or 
bank; but, in present usage, to come in progress by 
water, or by traveling on land. 2. To gain or compass 
an object by effort, practice, study, inquiry, reasoning, 
or experiment. 

Ar'ro-gance, n. [Lat. arrogantia, from an-ogans, p. pr. 
of arrogare, to claim as one's own, from ad and rogare, 
to ask, request.] Undue assumption of importance. 

Syn. — Haughtiness; lordliness. —Arrogance disgusts by its 
assumption, haughtiness and lordliness by their contemptuous 
claims to superiority. 

Ar'ro-gant, a. 1. Assuming undue importance. 2. 
Containing, or characterized by, such assumption. 

Syn.— Magisterial; lordly; proud; assuming; overbearing} 
presumptuous; haughty. 

Ar'ro-gant-ly, adv. Haughtily ; very proudly. 

Ar'ro-gate, v. t. [imp. & p.p. arrogated ; & vb. 

w n. ARROGATING.] To claim unduly; to assume. 

Ar'ro-ga/tion, n. The act of arrogating. 

Ar'ro-ga'tive, a. Making undue pretension ; arrogant. 

Ar'row,«, [0. Eng. arwe, A.-S. arewe, are wa, of Celt, ori- 
gin, fr. Welsh aro, arf, weapon, Arm. & Gael, arm, equiv. 
to Lat. arma.] A pointed weapon to be shot from a bow. 

Ar'row-head'ed, a. Shaped like the head of an arrow. 
Arrow-headed characters, characters the elements of which 
consist of strokes resembling arrow-heads, nail-heads, or wedges ; 
— hence called also nail-headed, wedge-formed, cuneiform, or 
cuneatic characters; the oldest written characters used in the 
country about the Tigris and Euphrates, and subsequently in 
Persia, and abounding among the ruins of Persepolis, Nine- 
veh, and Babylon. 

Ar'row-robt, n. A tropical plant, and the starch which' 
it yields, being highly nutritious ; so called because the 
Indians are said to use the roots to extract the poison of 

__ arrows. 

Ar'row-y, a. 1. Consisting of arrows. 2. Formed like, 

..or in any respect resembling, an arrow. 

Ar'se-nal, n. [Ar. darcinah, house of industry or fabri- 
cation, from dar, house, and ginaat,gindah,a,rt, industry.] 
A public establishment for the storage, or for the man- 
ufacture and storage, of arms and all military equipments, 
whether for land or naval service. 

Ar'se-ni-e (123), n. [Gr. dpo-evatov, appevLtcov, from 
df'pej/t/cds, masculine, app-qv, male, on account of its 
strength.] 1. (Min.) A metal of a steel gray color, and 
brilliant luster, though usually dull from tarnish. 2. 
(Com.) Arsenious acid; — a virulent poison, called also 
oxide of arsenic, white arsenic, and ratsbane. 

Ar-sen'i-e, ) a. Belonging to, composed of, or contain- 

Ar-sen'i-e-al, ) ing, arsenic. 

Ar-se'ni-oiis, a. Composed of or containing arsenic. 

JLr'sis, n. [Gr. apcris, from a'ipeiv, to raise. Its ordinary 
use is the result of an early misapprehension ; orig. and 
prop, it denotes the lifting of the hand in beating time, 
and hence the unaccented part of the rhythm.] (Pros.) 
That part of a foot which is distinguished from the of the foot by a greater stress of voice. 

Ar'son, n. [From Lat. ardere, arsum, to burn.] (Law.) 

..Malicious and voluntary burning of buildings and ships. 

Art. Second person, indie, mode, pres. tense, of the sub- 
stantive verb to be ; but from were, Sw. vara, Dan. vsere. 

Art, n. [Lat. ars, artis, from Gr. apeiv, to join, to fit to- 
gether.] 1. Employment of means to accomplish some 
desired end ; application of knowledge or power to prac- 
tical purposes. 2. A system of rules serving to facilitate 
the performance of certain actions ; — opposed to science. 
3. Power of performing certain actions, acquired by ex- 
perience, study, or observation. 4. Cunning; artifice. 

133?" Arts are divided into useful, mechanic, or industrial, and 
liberal, polite, or fine. The mechanic arts are those in which 
the hands and body are more concerned than the mind, as in 
making clothes and utensils. The liberal or polite arts are 
those in which the mind or imagination is chiefly concerned, 
as poetry, music, and painting. Formerlv the term liberal arts 
was used to denote the sciences and philosophy ; hence, de- 
grees in the arts. 

Syn. — Science; literature; aptitude; readiness; skill; dex- 
terity; adroitness; contrivance; profession; business; trade; 
calling; cunning; artifice; deceit; duplicity. 

Ar-te'ri-al, a. 1. Pertaining to an artery, or the artoir 

,.ies. 2. Contained in an artery. 

Ar-te'ri-al-i-za'tion, n. The process of arterializing. 

Ar-te'ri-al-ize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. arterialized; 
p. pr. & vb. n. ARTERIALIZING.] To communicate the 
qualities of arterial blood to. 

Ar-te'ri-ot'o-my, n. [Gr. dprqpioTO/xia, from dpTnpla. 
and TOfxri, a cutting.] (Anat.) (a.) The opening of an 
artery by a lancet, or other instrument, for the purpose 
of letting blood, (b.) That part of anatomy which treats 
of the dissection of the arteries. 

Ar'ter-y, n. [Gr. dprrfpia, from cupeiv, to raise, to lift. 
Cf. Aorta.] 1. One of the vessels which convey the 
blood from the heart to all parts of the body. 2. 
Hence, any continuous or ramified channel of communi- 

Ar-te'§ian, a. Pertaining to Artois (anciently called 
Artesium), in France. 

Artesian welte, wells made by boring into the earth till the 
instrument reaches water, which, from internal pressure, flows 
spontaneously like a fountain. 

Art'ful, a. 1. Made, performed with, or characterized 

food, fo'bt ; urn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, eall, eeho , gem, get ; a§ ; ejist ; linger, link ; this. 




by, art or skill. 2. Using or exhibiting art or skill. 3. 

Practicing art or stratagem. [The most usual sense.] 
Syn. — Cunning; crafty; dexterous. 
Art'ful-ly, adv. With art ; cunni n gly ; dexterously. 
Art'fixl-ness, n. Art ; cunning ; dexterity . 
Ar-thrit'le, ) a. Pertaining to the joints ; affecting 
Ar-thrlt'i-e-al, } the joints. 
JLr-tJiri'tis, n. [Gr. dpfyHTts, from apOpov, a joint.] 

(Med.) Any inflammation of the joints, esp. the gout. 
Ar'ti-choke, n. [Ar. ardi schaukl, i. e., earth -thorn.] 

(Bot.) Aa esculent plant somewhat resembling a thistle. 

Jerusalem artichoke, a species of sunflower, bearing a tuber 
like that of the potato. The term Jerusalem is a corruption of 
the It. girasole, sunflower. 

.Ar'ti-ele (ar'ti-kl), n. [Lat. articulus, dim. of artus, a 
joint.] 1. A distinct portion of any writing, consisting 
of two or more particulars, or treating of various topics ; 
hence, a clause in a contract, account, treaty, or the like ; 
a concise statement. 2. A distinct part. 3. A partic- 
ular commodity or substance. 4. ( Gram ) One of the 
three words, a, an, the, used before nouns to limit or 
define their application. 

Ar'ti-«le, v. t. [imp. & p. p. articled; & vb. 
n. ARTICLING.] 1. To set forth in distinct articles or 
particulars, 2. To accuse by an exhibition of articles. 
.3. To bind by articles of covenant or stipulation. 

Ar'ti-ele, v.i. To agree by articles ; to stipulate. 

Ar-ti-e'u-lar, a. Of or belonging to joints. 

Ar-ti-e'u-late, a. 1. ( Nat. Hist.) Formed with joints. 
2. Distinctly uttered ; clear ; especially, formed, charac- 
terized, or modified, by a jointing or articulation of the 

-t organs of speech, with proper inflection and accent. 

Ar-ti-e'u-late, n. (Zo'61.) An animal of the second sub- 
kingdom, whicb includes invertebrates, having the body 
and members jointed. 

Ar-tte'u-late, v. t. [imp. & p. p. articulated ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. ARTICULATING.] 1. To joint; to unite by 
means of a joint. 2. To form into elementary sounds ; form into distinct syllables or words. 

Ar-tl-e'u-late, v.i. [Lat. articular e, articulatum, from 
artus, a joint.] To utter articulate sounds ; to utter the 
elementary sounds of a language ; to enunciate. 

Ar-ti-e'u.-late-ly, adv. Distinctly ; clearly. 

Ar-tle'n-la'tion, n. 1. (Anat.) Junction of the bones 
of a skeleton. 2. (Bot.) (a.) Connection of the parts 
of a plant by joints, as in pods. (b. ) One of the joints, as 
in cane and maize, (c.) One of the parts intercepted be- 
tween the joints. 3. Utterance of the elementary sounds 
of a language by means of closing and opening the or- 
gans. 4. A consonant ; a letter representing a sound 
requiring a jointing or closing of the organs for its utter- 

Ar'ti-fice, n. [Lat. artificium, from artifex, artificer, 
from ars, artis, art, and _/acere, to make.] Artful or skill- 
ful contrivance ; device. 

Syn.— Stratagem; finesse; deception; cheat; fraud. 

Ar-tif 'i-cer, n. 1. A skillful workman in some art. 2. 

..One who constructs and contrives. 

Ar'ti-fl'cial (-flsh / al), a. 1. Made or contrived by 
art; factitious. 2. Hence, feigned ; fictitious. 3. Cul- 

^tivated; not indigenous. 

.Xr'ti-f i'cial-ly, adv. By art ; not naturally. 

Ar'ti-fi'cial-ness, ) n. The quality of being artificial 

Ar'ti-f I'ci-al'i-ty, j or factitious. 

Ar-til'ler-Ist, n. One skilled in gunnery. 

Ar-til'ler-y , n. [Low Lat. artillaria, artilleria, from Lat. 
ars, artis, art.] 1. Offensive weapons of war. 2. Can- 
non ; great guns; ordnance, including guns, mortars, 
howitzers, &c, with their furniture of carriages, balls, 
bombs, and shot of ah kinds, and also rockets and 
grenades. 3. The men who manage cannon and mor- 

..tars. 4. The science of artillery and gunnery. 

Art'i-§an, n. A person skilled in any mechanical art ; a 
handicraftsman . 

Art'ist, n. One who professes and practices one of the 
liberal arts, in which science and taste preside over the 
manual execution. 

Artiste (ar-teest'), n. [Pr.] One who is peculiarly dex- 
terous and tasteful in almost any art, as an opera dancer, 

..and even a hair-dresser or a cook. 

Ar-tist'i-e , ) a. Pertaining to , or characterized by , art ; 

Ar-tist'i-e-al, J made in the manner of an artist. 

Artless, a. 1. Free from art, craft, or stratagem; in- 
genuous. 2. Contrived without skill or art ; inartificial. 

Artless-ly, adv. Without art ; naturally. 

Art'less-ness, n. The quality of being artless. 

Art'-CLn/ion, n. An association for encouraging artists 
by the purchase of their works, which are usually dis- 
tributed by lot to the members. 

A-run'di-na'ceoiis, a. [Lat. arundinaceus , from arun- 

^do, reed.] Pertaining to, or resembling, a reed or cane. 

Ar'un-din'e-ous, a. Abounding in reeds. 

A-riis'pice, ft. [Lat amspex, prob. from harvga, harviga, 
harvix or arvix, a ram for offering, and spicere, specere, 
to look.] A priest, in ancient Rome, whose business it 
was to inspect the entrails of victims killed in sacrifice, 
and by them to foretell future events or interpret the will 

_of the gods. [Written also haruspice.] 

A-riis'pi-cy, »•• Prognostication or divination by inspec- 

_ tion of the entrails of beasts slain in sacrifice. 

A§ (az), adv. [A.-S. ase, 0. Eng. als, 0. H. Ger. alsd, from 
al, all, and s3, so.] 1. Like; similar to; of the same 
kind with ; in the manner in which. 2. While ; during, 
or at the same time that. 3. In the idea, character, 
nature, or condition of, — the adverb limiting the view 
to certain attributes or relations, often to the relation of 
identity, in which case it is nearly equivalent to the cop- 
ula to be. 4. For instance ; by way of example ; thus ; 
— used to introduce illustrative phrases, sentences, or 

As if, or as though, of the same kind, or in the same manner, 
that it would be if. —As for, or as to, in regard to, with respect 
to. — As it were, a qualifying phrase used to apologize for or to 
relieve some expression which might he regarded as inappro- 
priate or incongruous, — .4s well, also; too; besides; — a phrase 
which has of late years come much into use. — As yet, until 
now ; up to the present time. 

As'a-fet'i-da, ) ft. [N. Lat. asa, of oriental origin (Cf. 

As'a-foet'i-da, ) Per. aza, mastic, Ar. asa, healing, isa, 
remedy) and La,t.fcetidus, fetid.] A fetid inspissated sap 
from the East Indies, much used in medicine. 

As-bes'ti-f 6rm, a. Having the structure of asbestus. 

As-bes'tine , a. Pertaining to asbestus. 

As-bes'tus, 1 n. [Lat. asbestus, Gr. ao-fieo-ros, from a 

As-bes'tos, | priv. and crfievvvvai, to extinguish.] 
(Min.) A fibrous variety of hornblende and pyroxene. 
The finer kinds are sometimes wrought into cloth, which 
is incombustible. 

As-cend', v. i. [imp. & p. p. ascended ; p. pr. & vb. 
ft. ASCENDING.] [Lat. ascendere, from ad and scandere, 
to climb, mount.] 1. To move upward ; to mount; to 
go up ; to rise. 2. To rise, in a figurative sense. 

As-cend/, v. t. To go or move upward upon; to climb. 

As-cend'a-ble, a. Capable of being ascended. 

As-cend'ant, a. 1. Above the horizon. 2. Superior ; 
predominant ; surpassing. 

As-cend'ant, n. 1. Superior or commanding influence. 
2. An ancestor. 3. (Astrol.) The horoscope, or that de- 
gree of the ecliptic which rises above the horizon at the 
time of one's birth ; supposed to have a commanding in- 
fluence on a person's life and fortune. Hence the phrases 
to be in the ascendant, and lord of the ascendant. 

As-cend'en-cy, n. Superior or controlling influence. 
Syn.— Authority; sway; control. 

As-cen'sion, n. The act of ascending or rising ; spe- 
cifically, the visible elevation of our Savior to heaven. 

Eight ascension (Astron.), that degree of the equinoctial, 
counted from the beginning of Aries, which rises with a star, 
or other celestial body, in a right sphere ; or the arc of the equa- 
tor intercepted betwe'en the first point of Aries and that point 
of the equator that comes to the meridian with the star. 

As-cen'sion-al, a. Relating to ascension ; ascensive. 

As-cen'sion-day, n. The day on which our Savior's 
ascension is commemorated. 

As-cent', n. 1. The act of rising ; a mounting upward. 
2. The way by which one ascends. 3. An eminence, 
hill, or high place. 4. The angle which an object makes 
with a horizontal line ; inclination. 

As'cer-tain', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ascertained ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. ascertaining.] [Lat. ad and cerium, 
sure. See Certain.] 1. To make certain ; to establish 
with certainty or precision. 2. To find out or learn for 

^a certainty, by trial, examination, or experiment. 

As'cer-tain'a-ble, a. Capable of being ascertained. 

As'cer-tain'ment, n. A making or gaining certainty. 

As-cet'i-e, n. One who practices undue rigor or self-denial 
in religious things. 

As-cet'i-e, a. [Gr. cio-ktjtiko?, from do-»cetv, to exercise.] 
Unduly rigid or self-denying in religious things. 

As-cet'i-cis_m, n. The practice of ascetics. 

As' ci-Z (ash/M), )n. pi. [Lat. ascii, pi. of ascius, 

As'ciang (ash/yanz), j Gr. acrxio?, without shadow, 

L,e,&c, long; a, 6, &c, short; care, far, ask, all, what; 6re, veil, term; pique, firm; son, 6r,dft, wolf, 




from a priv. and cr/aa, shadow.] ( Geog.) Inhabitants of 
the torrid zone, who have, twice a year, a vertical sun, 
and hence no shadow at noon. 

As-Cit'ie, ) a- [Gr. do-KiTTj? (sc. vocro?, disease), from 

As-cit'le-al } aaxos, belly.] Tending to dropsy of the 

As-erlfo'a-ble, a. Capable of being ascribed. 

As-erlbe', v. t. [imp. & p.p. ascribed ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ASCRIBING.] [Lat. ascribere, to ascribe, from ad and 
scribere, to write.] To attribute to, as a cause or quality ; 
to impute ; to assign. [thing ascribed. 

As-crip'tion, n. 1. The act of ascribing. 2. The 

Ash,ra. [A.-S. sesc.] 1. A genus of forest trees. 2. The 
wood of the ash-tree.', a. [A p. of the obs. v. ashame.] Affected 
by shame ; abashed or confused by guilt, or a conviction 
or consciousness of some wrong action or impropriety . 

Ash'en, a. 1. Made or formed of ash-wood. 2. Of the 
color of ashes ; ashy. 

Ash'er-y, n. 1. A place for putting ashes. 2. A place 
where potash is made. [Amer.] 

Ash'eg, n. pi. [A.-S. asca, Goth, azgo.] 1. The earthy 
or mineral particles of combustible substances remaining 
after combustion, as of wood or coal ; — among chemists, 
and in composition, used in the singular, as, bone-ask, 
pearlash. 2. The remains of what is burnt ; the remains 
of a dead body. 

Ash/lar, ) n. 1. Free -stones as they come from the quar- 

Ash'ler, ) ry. 2. Hewn stones for the facing of walls. 

Ash'ler-ing, n. 1. The setting of ashlar facing. 
2. Partition timbers in garrets reaching from floor to 

A-shore', adv. On or to shore ; on the land. 

Ash-Wedneg'day (-wenz/dy), n. The first day of Lent, 
so called from a custom in the Roman Catholic church 
of sprinkling ashes, that day, on the heads of penitents, 
then admitted to penance. 

Ash'y, a. Ash -colored ; like ashes. 

A-side', adv. On, or to, one side ; out of the way ; apart. 

As'i-nine, a. [Lat. asininus, from asinus, ass.] Belong- 
ing to, or having the qualities of, an ass, as stupidity and 

. obstinacy. 

Ask: (6), v. t. [imp. & p. p. asked (askt, 108) ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ASKING..] [0. Bng. asche, axe, A.-S. ascian,acsi- 
an; Skr. ish, to desire.] To request ; to seek to obtain 

. by words ; to petition. 

Ask, v. i. 1. To request or petition. 2. To inquire, or 
seek by request. 

Syn.— To request; solicit; petition; beg; entreat; claim; 
demand; require; interrogate. 

As-kance', ) adv. [D. schuin, schuins, sidewise, from 

As-kant', ) schuiven, to shove, schuinte, slope.] Ob- 
. liquely ; sideways ; toward one corner of the eye. 

Ask'er, n. 1. An inquirer. 2. Water-newt ; eft. 

A-skew' (a-skii'), adv. [Prefix a and stew.] Sideways; 
askant ; with a wry or a contemptuous look. 

A-slant', adv. In a slanting manner ; obliquely. 

A-sleep', adv. 1. In a state of sleep ; at rest. Hence, 
2. In the sleep of the grave ; dead. 

A-slope', adv. With a slope or descent. 

A-so'ma-toiis, a. [Gr. do-co/aa-ros, from a priv. and 

cwjua, body.] Without a material body ; 
. incorporeal. 

Asp, n. [Catal. aspit, Sp. & Pg. aspid, 
It. aspide, Lat. aspis, Gr. dcr7ri5.] A 
small, hooded, and poisonous serpent 
of Egypt and Libya, whose bite is fatal. 

As-par'a-gus, n. [Gr. a<nrdpayo<;, 
from a (equiv. to av for avd, up), and 
anapyav, to swell with sap.] A culi- 
nary plant cultivated in gardens. 

As'peet, n. [Lat. aspectus, from as- 
picere, aspectum, to look at, from ad 
and spicere, specere, to look ] 1. Act of seeing ; vision. 
[Rare.] 2. Look, or particular appearance of the face ; 
countenance : mien ; air. 3. Appearance to the eye or 
the mind. 4. Position or situation with regard to see- 
ing; in a more general sense, position in relation to the 
points of the compass. 5. (Astrol.) The situation of 
one planet or star with respect to another. 

As'pen, n. [A.-S. xspe, xsp, 0. H. Ger. aspa.] (Bot.) 
One of several species of poplar bearing this name, espe- 
cially a species with trembling leaves. 

As'pen, a. Pertaining to the aspen. 

As-p6r'i-ty, n. [Lat. asperitas, from asper, rough.] 1. 


Roughness of surface, taste, or sound. 2. Harshnasa 
of spirit and language. 

Syn. — Acrimony ; bitterness ; roughness ; sourness; tart- 
ness; crabbedness; moroseness. 

priv. and 

A-sper'mous, a. [Gr. dcm-ep^os, from 

o-Trepjua, seed.] (Bot.) Destitute of seeds. 
As-perse' (14), v. t. [imp. & p. p. aspersed ; 

& vb. n. ASPERSING.] [Lat. aspergere, aspersum, from 

ad and sparger e, to strow, scatter.] To bespatter with 

foul reports or false and injurious charges. 

Syn. — To calumniate; slander; defame. — To slander and 

calumniate ave to charge with a crime falsely and knowingly; 

to asperse is to cast blots upon the character of some one; to 

defame is to assail reputation by falsehood. 

As-per'sion (as-pSr/shun), n. 1. A sprinkling, as of 
water or dust, in a literal sense. 2. The spreading of 
calumnious reports or charges ; calumny ; censure. 

As-phalt', )n. [Gr. acr</)aA.Tos, of Phenician origin.] 

As-phal'tum, ) Mineral pitch, Jew's pitch, or com- 
pact native bitumen. 

As-phalt'ie , a. Pertaining to, or containing, asphalt. 

As'pho-del, n. [Gr. dcr^oSeAo?. Cf. Skr. sphut, to 
open, as flowers.] (Bot.) A perennial plant cultivated for 
the beauty of its flowers. 

As-phyx'i-a, ) n. [Gr. aa4>v$ia, from d priv. and o-$v£i?, 

As-phyx'y, ) throbbing pulse.] (Med.) Apparent 
death, or suspended animation. 

Asp'i-e,rc. [See Asp.] The asp. 

As-pir'ant, a. Aspiring ; ardently desirous of rising. 

As-pir'ant, n. One who aspires or seeks eagerly. 

As'pi-rate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. aspirated ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ASPIRATING.] [Lat. aspirare, from ad and spirare, 
to breathe, to blow.] To pronounce with a breathing or 

^full emission of breath. 

As'pi-rate (45), n. 1. A letter marked with a note of 
breathing. 2. A mark of aspiration (■) used in Greek; 
the rough breathing. 3. An elementary sound produced 
by the breath alone, without the voice ; a whispered, un- 

J, intonated, surd, or non-vocal consonant. 

As'pi-rate, a. Pronounced with a rough breathing. 

As'pi-ra'tion, n. [Lat. aspiratio, from aspirare.] 1. 
The pronunciation of a letter with a full or strong emis- 
sion of breath. 2. Act of aspiring or ardently desiring ; 
strong wish or desire. 

As-pire', v. i. [imp. & p. p. ASPIRED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
aspiring.] [See Aspirate, v. t.] 1. To desire with 
eagerness ; to pant ; to long. 2. To rise ; to ascend. 

As-pir'er, n. One who aspires or seeks earnestly. 

A-squint', adv. [Prefix a and squint, q. v. Cf. ASKANT.] 

To the corner of the eye ; obliquely ; not in the straight 

# fine of vision. 

Ass ? n. [A.-S. assa, Lat. 
asinus.] 1. ( Zobl. ) A quad- 
ruped of the horse family, 
having a peculiarly harsh { 
bray, and long, slouching 
ears. The domestic ass is pa- 
tient to stupidity, and slow, 
but sure-footed. Hence, 2. 
A dull, heavy, stupid fel- 
low ; a dolt. 

As ; sa-f oet'i-da, n. See As- 


As-sail', v. t. [imp. & p.p. 
ASSAILED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ASSATLING.] [Lat. ad and salire, to leap, spring; assil- 
ire, to leap or spring upon.] 1. To attack with vio- 
lence, or in a hostile manner. 2. To attack morally, or 
with a view to produce changes in the feelings, conduct, 
existing usages, &c. 
Syn.— To assault; beset; fall upon. 

As-sail'a-ble, a. Capable of being assailed. 

As-sail'ant, n. One who attacks or assaults. 

As-sail'ant, a. Assaulting ; attacking ; assailing. 

As-sail'er, n. One who assails or attacks. 

As-sas'sin, n. [Ar. 'haskishin, one who has drunk of the 
hashish, q. v.] One who kins or attempts to kill by 
treachery or secret assault. 

As-sas'sin-ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. assassinated ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. assassinating.] To murder by secret 
assault or by sudden violence. 

As-sas'sin-a'tion, n. The act of assassinating. 

As-sas'sin-a/tor, n. An assassin. 

As-sault', n [From Lat. ad and saltus, a leaping. Seo 
Assail.] 1. A violent attack with physical means, as 
blows, weapons, &c. 2. A violent attack with moral 

food, foot ; urn,, pull ; cell, chaise, -call, eeho ; gem, get ; a§ ; exist ; linger, link ; this. 



means, as words, arguments, appeals, and the like. 3. 
(Law.) An attempt or offer to beat another, accom- 
panied by a degree of violence, but without touching his 
person. If the blow aimed takes effect, it is a battery. 

Syn. — Attack; invasion; incursion; descent; onset; on- 
slaught; charge; storm. 

Assault', v. t. [imp. & p. p. assaulted ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ASSAULTING.] 1. To attack with great physical 
violence. 2. To attack with moral means, or with a 
view of producing moral effects. 

Syn. — Assault is the strongest term, being literally to leap 
upon; to attack is to commence an onset; to invade is to enter 
upon forcibly or by arms; to assail is nearly the same as assault. 

As-sault'a-ble, a. Capable of being assaulted. 

As-sault'er, n. One who assaults or storms. 

As-say', n. [Lat. exagium, a weighing, a balance, from 
ex and agere, to put in motion, to lead, to drive. Cf. 
Gr. egdyiov, weighing, e£ay(.d£eiv, to examine.] 1. Trial; 
attempt. [Obs.] 2. (Chem.) Determination of the quan- 
tity of any particular metal, especially gold or silver, in an 
ore, or other metallic compound alloy. 3. The substance 
to be assayed. 4. A trial of weights and measures. 

As-say', v. t. [imp. kp.p. assayed ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
assaying.] [See supra.] To subject, as an ore or alloy, 
to chemical examination , in order to determine the amount 
of a particular metal contained in it. 

As-say', v. i. To attempt, try, or endeavor. 

As-say'er, n. One who tries or examines metals. 

As-sem'blage, n. 1. Act of assembling, or state of 
being assembled. 2. A collection of individuals, or of 
particular things. 

As-sem'ble, v. t. [imp. & p. p. assembled ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. assembling.] [Low Lat. assimulare, from Lat. 
ad and simul, together.] To bring or call together; 
to convene ; to congregate. 

As-sem'ble, v. i. To meet or come together ; to convene. 

As-sem'bly, n. A company of persons collected to- 
gether in one place, and usually for some common purpose. 
Syn.— Assemblage; company; meeting; collection ; group. 

As-sent', n. [See infra.] The act of assenting, admit- 
ting, or agreeing to any thing. 

Syn. — Consent. — Assent is an act of the understanding, 
consent of the will or feelings. We assent to a statement or a 
proposition ; we consent to a proposal. Assent, however, may 
apply to a case involving but little interest or feeling; a lady 
may assent to a gentleman's opening the window, but she must 
consent to marry him. 

As-sent', v. i. [imp. & p. p. assented ; & vb. n. 
ASSENTING.] [Lat. assentire, assentiri, from ad and 
sentire, to feel, think.] To admit a thing as true ; to 
express an agreement, concurrence, or concession. 

As'sen-ta'tion, n. Assent by way of flattery or dis- 
simulation ; adulation. 

As'sen-ta'tor, n. A flatterer or dissembler. 

As-sent'er, n. One who assents. 

As-sert' (14), v. t. [imp. & p. p. ASSERTED ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ASSERTING.] [Lat. asserere, assertum, to join to 
one's self, to maintain, fr. ad and serere, to join together.] 

1. To affirm positively ; to declare with assurance. 2. 
To maintain or defend by words or measures ; to vindi- 

Syn. — To maintain; aver; affirm.— We assert against de- 
nial, as a right or claim ; we maintain against opposition, as the 
ground we have taken ; we affirm with a great confidence or 
firmness; we aver in a peremptory manner. 
As-ser'tion, n. 1. The act of asserting; affirmation. 

2. Maintenance ; vindication. 
As-sert'ive, a. Positive ; affirming confidently. 
As-sert'or, n. An affirmer ; a maintainer. 
As-sert'o-ry (50), a. Affirming ; maintaining. 
As-sess', v. t. [imp. & p. p. assessed ; p. pr. & 

vb. n. assessing.] [Low Lat. assessare, from Lat. assi- 
dere, to sit by, in Low Lat. to assess, to tax. Cf. As- 
size.] 1. To charge a certain sum to, as a tax. 2. 
To fix the value or profits of, for the purpose of taxa- 
tion. 3. To determine, fix, or ascertain; to estimate. 

As-sess'a-ble, a. Liable to be assessed or taxed. 

As-s£ss'ment, n. 1. Act of assessing. 2. A valuation 
of property or profits of business, for the purpose of tax- 
ation. 3. The specific sum charged. 

As-s6ss'or, n. 1. One who sits by another, as next in 
dignity, or as an assistant and adviser. 2. One appointed 
to assess_persons or property for the purpose of taxation. 

As'ses-so'ri-al, a. Pertaining to assessors. 

As'sets, n. pi. [From Lat. ad and sat or satis, enough.] 
Property in possession or money due, as opposed to lia- 


As-sev'er-ate, v. t. [imp. Sep. p. asseverated \ 
& vb. n. asseverating.] [Lat. asseverate, to assert 
seriously or earnestly, from ad and severus, severe, seri- 
ous.] To affirm with solemnity ; to aver. [ment. 
As-sev'er-a'tion, n. Positive affirmation ; solemn aver- 
As'si-dii'i-ty, n. Constant or close application or at- 

w tention, particularly to some business or enterprise. 
As-sid'vi-ou.s, a. [Lat. assiduus, from ad and sedere, to 
sit.] 1. Constant in application or attention. 2. Per- 
formed with constant diligence or attention. 
Syn. — Unwearied; sedulous; persevering; indefatigable. 

As-sid'-u-ous-ly, adv. Diligently ; closely ; attentively. 

As-sid'u.-oiis-ness, n. Quality of being assiduous. 

As' si-en' to, n. [Sp. assiento, asiento, from asentar, to 
make an agreement.] A contract or convention between 
the king of Spain and other powers for furnishing slaves 
for the Spanish dominions in America. 

As-slgn' (-sin'), v. t. [imp. & p. p. ASSIGNED ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ASSIGNING.] [Lat. assignare, from ad and sig- 
nare, to mark, from signum, mark.] 1. To appoint ; to 
allot; to apportion. 2. To fix, specify, select, designate, 
or point out. 3. ( Law. ) (a. ) To transfer, or make over 
to another, (b.) To transfer to, and vest in, certain per- 
sons, called assignees, for the benefit of creditors. 

As-slgn' (-sin'), n. ( Law. ) A person to whom property or 
an interest is transferred. 

As-sign'a-ble ( -sln'a-bl), a. Capable of being assigned. 

As 1 sig-nat' (asln'ya', or aVig-nat'), n. [Fr., from Lat. 
assignatus, p. p. of assignare.] Paper currency, is- 
sued by the revolutionary government of France, based 

w on the security of the lands of the state. 

As'sig-na'tion, n. 1. Act of assigning or allotting. 
2. An appointment of time and place for meeting ; — 

w used chiefly of love meetings. [assigned. 

As'sign-ee' (as'sl-ne'), n. One to whom something is 

As-sign'er, (as-sln'er), n. One who assigns. 

As-sign'ment (-sln'ment), n. 1. An allotting to a par- 
ticular person or use. 2. (Laiv.) (a.) A transfer of 
title or interest by writing, as of a lease, bond, note, or 
bill of exchange, (b.) The writing by which an interest 
is transferred, (c.) The transfer of the property of a 
bankrupt to certain persons called assignees, in whom it 
is vested for the benefit of creditors. 

As-sign-6r' (-sl-nor'), n. (Laxo.) A person who assigns 
or transfers an interest. 

As-sim'i-la-ble, a. Capable of being assimilated. 

As-sim'i-late, v. t. [imp. & p. p. assimilated ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. ASSIMILATING.] [Lat. assimilare, from 
ad and similare, to make like; similis, like.] 1. To 
cause to resemble. 2. To convert into a like substance. 

As-sim'i-late, v. i. To become similar ; to be converted 
into the substance of the body. 

As-sim/i-la'tion, n. 1. Act of assimilating or bring- 
ing to a resemblance, or identity ; or a state of resem- 
blance or identity. 2. Conversion of nutriment into the 
substance of the body, whether in plants or animals. 

As-sim'i-la-tive, a. Having power of assimilating. 

As-sist', v. t. [imp. & p. p. assisted ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ASSISTING.] [Lat. assistere, from ad and sistere, to 
cause to stand, to stand.] To give support to in some 
undertaking or effort, or in time of distress ; to succor. 

As-sist', v. i. 1. To lend aid ; to help. 2. To be pres- 
ent ; to attend. 

As-sist'ance, n. Help ; aid ; furtherance ; succor ; relief. 

As-sist'ant, a. Helping ; lending aid or support ; aux- 

As-sist'ant, n. One who assists or aids ; an auxiliary. 

As-slze', n. [From Lat. assidere, to sit by, from ad and 
sedere, to sit.] 1. Lit., a sitting. 2. An order or regu- 
lation, particularly about the weight of bread, &c. 3. 
(Law.) (a.) The periodical sessions of the judges of the 
superior courts in the counties of England ; — usually in 
the pi. (b.) Time or place of holding the court of assize ; 
— generally in the pi. 

As-size', v. t. [imp. & p. p. assized ; p pr. & vb. n. 
assizing.] To fix the weight, measure, or price of, by 
an ordinance or regulation of authority. 

As-slz'er, n. One who assizes, or fixes weights, rates, 
&c, by authority. . 

As-so'cia-bil'i-ty (-sha-), \n. The quality of being 

As-so'cia-ble-ness ( -sha-), } capable of association. 

As-so'cia-ble (-sha-), a. 1. Capable of being associated 
or joined. 2. Sociable ; companionable. 3. Liable to be 
affected by sympathy. 

As-so'ci-ate (as-s5'shi-at, 95), v. t. [imp. & p. p. ASSO- 
CIATED ; p. pr. &,vb. n. ASSOCIATING.] [Lat. associare, 
from ad and sociare, to join or unite ; socius, companion.] 

a,,e,&c.,long; a,6,&c, short; care, far, ask, all, what; ere, veil, term; pique, firm; son, 6rde,wolf, 




1. To join in company as a friend, companion, partner, 
or confederate. 2. To unite in the same mass. 

As-so'ci-ate (-shi-at), v. i. To unite in company. 

As-so'ci-ate (-shi-), a. 1. Closely connected or joined 
with some other, as in interest, purpose, employment, or 
office. 2. (Med.) Connected by habit or sympathy. 

As-so'ci-ate, n. 1. A companion; a mate; a fellow. 

2. A partner in interest, as in business. 3. Any thing 
closely connected with another. 

As-so'ci-a'tion (-shl-a'shun), n. 1. Act of associating, 
or state of being associated ; union ; connection. 2. 
Union of persons in a company or society for some partic- 
ular purpose. [ation. 

As-so'ci-a'tion-al (-shi-), a. Pertaining to an associ- 

As-so'ci-a-tive (-shi-), a. Tending or pertaining to 
association. [kind of imperfect rhyme. 

As'so-nance, n. 1. Resemblance of sounds. 2. A 

As'so-nant, a. [Lat. assonans, p. pr. of assonare, to 
correspond to in sound, from ad and sonar e, to sound.] 
1. Having a resemblance of sounds. 2. (Pros.) Per- 
taining to the peculiar species of rhyme called assonance ; 
not consonant. 

As-sort', v. t. [imp. & p.p. assorted; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ASSORTING.] [Lat. ad and sortiri, to cast or draw 
lots, from sors, sort is, lot.] 1. To separate and distrib- 
ute into classes. 2. To furnish with all sorts. 

As-s6rt 'merit, n. 1. Act of selecting and arranging 
things. 2. A number or quantity of things assorted. 

3. A variety of sorts or kinds adapted to various wants, 
demands, or purposes. 

As-suage' (-swaj / ), v. t. [imp. & p. p. assuaged; p. 
pr. & vb. n. ASSUAGING.] [From Lat. ad and suavis, 
sweet.] To soften, in a figurative sense ; to allay or les- 
sen, as pain or grief; to appease, as passion or tumult. 

Syn. — To relieve; soothe; mitigate; alleviate; pacify. 

As-suage'ment (-swaj'-), n. Abatement; mitigation. 

As-suag'er, n. He who, or that which, assuages. 

As-sua'slve (-swa/siv), a. Mitigating ; softening ; easing. 

As-sume', v. t. [imp. & p. p. assumed; & vb. 
ii. ASSUMING.] [Lat. assumere, from ad and sumere, to 
take.] 1. To take, or take upon one's self. 2. To take 
for granted, or without proof. 3. To pretend to possess. 

As-sume'| v. i. To be arrogant ; to claim unduly. 

As-sum'er, n. An assuming or arrogant person. 

As-sump'sit (as-sump / sit), n. [Pret. of Lat. assumere. 
See Assume.] (Law.) (a.) A promise or undertaking, 
founded on a consideration, (b.) An action to recover 
damages for a breach or non-performance of a contract 
or promise. 

As-sump'tion (84), n. 1. Act of taking to or upon 
one's self. 2. Act of taking for granted; supposition. 
3. The thing supposed ; a postulate, or proposition as- 
sumed. 4. (Logic.) The minor proposition in a categor- 
ical syllogism. 5. The taking a person up into heaven. 
Hence (Rom. Cath. & Greek Churches), a festival in 
honor of the ascent of the Virgin Mary into heaven. 

As-sump'tive, a. That is or may be assumed. 

As-sur'ance (-shur'-), n. 1. Act of assuring; a dec- 
laration or pledge tending to inspire credit. 2. The state 
of being assured ; freedom from doubt. 3. Firmness of 
mind ; intrepidity. 4. Excess of boldness ; impudence. 
5. Insurance; a contract for the payment of a sum on 
occasion of a certain event, as loss or death. 6. (Law.) 
Legal evidence of the conveyance of property. 

As-sure' (a-shur', 30), v. t. [imp. & p. p. assured ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. ASSURING.] [L. Lat. assecurare, from Lat. 
ad and securus, secure, sure.] 1. To make sure or cer- 
tain ; to render confident. 2. To confirm. 3. (Law.) 
To covenant to indemnify for loss. 

Syn. — To assert; declare; avouch; protest; insure. 

As-sur'ed-ly (-shur'-), adv. Certainly ; without doubt. 

As-sur'ed-ness, n. State of being assured ; certainty. 

As-sur'er, n. One who assures. 

As-sur'gent, a. [Lat. assurgens, p. pr. of assurgere, to 
rise up.] (Bot.) Rising upward obliquely. 

A-stat'i-e, a. [Gr. a priv. and icr-ravac, to stand.] (Elec- 
tro-Magnetism.) Having little or no tendency to take a 
fixed or definite position or direction. 

As'ter, n. [Gr. aar-qp, star.] (Bot.) A genus of plants 
with radiated compound flowers. 

As'ter-isk, n. [Gr. do-Tepiovcds , dim. of do-Trjp i star.] The 
mark [*] in printing and writing. 

As'ter-igm, n. [Gr. ao-repio-p-os , from da-rrip, star.^ 1. 
(Astron.) (a.) A constellation. [Obs.] (b.) A small clus- 
ter of stars, whether included in a constellation or not. 

2. (Printing.) Three asterisks placed in this manner 

[***] to direct attention to a particular passage. 
A-stern', adv. 1. In, at, or toward, the hinder part of 

a ship. 2. Behind a ship, at any indefinite distance. 
As'ter-oid, n. [Gr. do-repotS^?, star-like, from do-r^p, 

star, and etSos, form.] (Astron.) One of the small planets 
w revolving between Mars and Jupiter. 
As'ter-oid'al, a. Pertaining to the asteroids. 
As-then'ie, a. [Gr. dcrBeviKos, from d priv. and crfleVo?, 

strength.] Characterized by debility. 
Asth'ma (ast'ma, as'ina, or az/ma, 100), n. [Gr. fr. aeiv, 

to blow.] A disorder of respiration, commonly attended 

with cough and difficulty of breathing. 
Asth-mat'ie , ) (ast-, as-, or az-), a. Pertaining to, or 
Asth-mat'ie-al, J affected by, asthma. 
As-ton'isli, v. t. [0. Eng. astone, astony, Latin atto- 

nare, from ad and tonare, to thunder. Cf. A.-S. stunian, 

Eng. stun.] To strike dumb with sudden fear, terror, 

surprise, or wonder ;. to amaze. 
As-tdn'isli-ing, a. Of a nature to excite astonishment. 

Syn. — Amazing; surprising; wonderful; admirable; mar- 

As-toii'isli-ment, n. Confusion of mind from fear or 
surprise, at an extraordinary or unexpected event. 
Syn. — Amazement; wonder; surprise; admiration. 

As-tovuid', v. t. [imp. & p. p. astounded; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ASTOUNDING.] [From 0. Eng. astouned, astound, 
astoned, p. p. of astone, to astonish.] To astonish ; to 
strike dumb with amazement. 

A-strad'dle, adv. With the legs across a thing, or on 
different sides of it. 

As'tra-gal, n. [Gr. acrrpayaAos.] A little round mold- 
ing which surrounds the top or bottom of a column or 
a cannon. 

As'tral, a. Belonging to the stars ; starry. 

As'tral Lamp, n. An Argand lamp having the oil in 
a flattened ring surmounted by a ground glass shade. 

A-stray', adv. Out of, or from the right way ; wrong. 

As-triet', v. t. [imp. & p. p. astricted ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ASTRICTING.] To constrict ; to contract. 

A-stride', adv. With one leg on each side; with the 


As-tringe', v. t. [imp. & p. p. astringed ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ASTRINGING.] [Lat. astringere, from ad and 
stringere, to draw tight, to strain. See Strain.] To 
bind fast ; to constrict ; to contract. 

As-trin'gen-cy, n. Quality of being astringent. 

As-triii'gent, a. Binding ; contracting ; strengthening ; 

„ — opposed to laxative. 

As-trin'gent, n. A medicine that has the property of 
causing vital contraction in the organic textures. 

As'tr, n. [Gr. d<rTpoAa/3o?, 
from aaTpov, star, and Aaju.|3aveiv, 
kafieiv, to take.] An instrument 
formerly used for taking the alti- 
tude of the sun or stars at sea. 

As-trol'o-ger, n. [Gr. do-rpo\6yog, 
from aarpov, star, and Aoyos, dis- 
course.] One who pretends to fore- 
tell events by the aspects of the 

w stars. 

As'tr o-log'ie, ) a. Pertaining 

As'tro-ldg'ie-al, j to astrology. 

As-trol'o-gy, n. The science of predicting events by 
the aspects or situation of the stars. 

@3f Judicial astrology pretended to foretell the fate and acts 
of nations and individuals; natural astrology predicted events 
of inanimate nature, such as changes of the weather, &c. 

As-tron'o-mer, n. [Gr. dcrTpovojuos, from aarpov, star, 
and ovop.o<;, law or rule.] One versed in astronomy. 

As'tro-nom'k , 


As'tro-nom'ie-al-ly, adv. In the manner of astron- 

As-tron'o-my, n. The science that teaches the knowl- 
edge of the heavenly bodies. 

As-tute' (29), a. [Lat. astutus, astus, shrewd; astu$, 
craft, cunning.] Critically examining or discerning. 
Syn. — Shrewd; discerning; subtle; cunning; sagacious. 

As-tu.te'ness, n. Shrewdness ; cunning. 
A-siin'der, adv. Apart; separately; into two parts. 
A-sy'lum, n. ; pi. Eng. a-sy'lums, Lat. a-sy'la. [Gr. 

Pertaining to astronomy. 

food, foot ; -ftrn, rude, pull ; fell, flxaise, eall, eelxo ; gem, get ; a§ ; ejist ; linger, link ; tiiis. 




dav\ov, from acrvAos, inviolable, from d priv. and crv\ov, 
spoil.] 1. A place of refuge, where criminals and debtors 
found shelter, and from which they could not be taken 
without sacrilege. 2. Any place of retreat and security. 
3. Specifically, an institution for the protection or relief 
of the unfortunate, as the deaf and dumb, or the insane. 

A-sym'me-try, n. [Gr. dcrv^eTpia, from d priv. and 
avixfxeTpta, symmetry, q. v.] The want of proportion 
between the parts of a thing. 

As'ymp-tote (as'im-tot, sometimes pron. a-sym/tot, 84) 
n. [Gr. dcrvju.7TTtoTos, from a priv., <rCv, with, and ttLtt- 
reiv, to fall, 7ttu>t6s, falling.] (Math.) A line which ap- 
proaches nearer and nearer to some curve, but, though 
infinitely extended, would never meet it. 

As'ymp-tot'ie, \a. Pertaining to, or partaking of 

As'ymp-tot'ie-al, j the nature of, an asymptote. 

A--syri'de-ton, n. [Gr., from d priv. and o-vvSeros, bound 
together.] (Rhet.) A figure which omits the connective, 
as, veni, vidi, vici (I came, saw, conquered). 

At, prep. [A.-S. set, Goth, at, Lat. ad.] Primarily, this 
word expresses the relations of presence, nearness in 
place or time, or direction toward. From this origi- 
nal import are derived all the various uses of at, which 
denotes, — 1. The relation of an external or outward 
situation, or of attendant circumstances or appendages. 

2. The relation of some state or condition. 3. The re- 
lation of some employment or action. 4. A relation of 
degree. 5. The relations of occasion, reason, conse- 
quence, or effect. [tabor. 

At'a-bal, n. [Ar. l at- tail, drum.] A kettle-drum; a 

At'a-glian (-gan), n. A long Turkish dagger. See Yat- 

Ate, pret._of Eat. See Eat. [aghan. 

Ath/a-na'sian (-zhan), a. Pertaining to Athanasius, 

_ bishop of Alexandria, or his doctrines. 

A'the-igm, n. A disbelief in the being of a God. 

A'the-Ist, n. [From Gr. aOeos, without god, from d priv. 
and 0e6?, god.] One who denies or disbelieves the exist- 

_ ence of a Supreme Being. 

A'the-ist'ie, i a. Pertaining to atheism ; denying a 

A'tlie-Ist'ie-al, j God ; impious. 

A'tlie-Ist're-al-ly, adv. In an atheisticaljnanner. 

Ath/e-ne'um ) n - ! Pi- Eng. ATH'E-NE'UMg, Lat. 

Atli'e-nae'um, j ath'e-N&'a. [Gr. 'AO^vaiov, a 
temple of 'A^Tjva, or Minerva, at Athens.] 1. In ancient 
Athens, a place where philosophers and poets declaimed 
and repeated their compositions. 2. An association of 
persons of literary or scientific tastes, for the purpose of 
mutual improvement. 3. A building where a library, 
periodicals, and newspapers are kept ibr public use. 

A-the'ni-an, a: Pertaining to Athens, in Greece. 

A-ther'ma-noiis, a. [Gr. d priv. and Oepfxaiveiv , to 
heat, from Oep/xa, heat.] ( Chem.) Not transmitting heat. 

A-thirst' (18), a. 1. Thirsty. 2. Having a keen desire. 

Ath/lete, n. [Gr. d^A^Tr??, from d6\elv, to contend for a 
prize, a0Ao?, aOKov, prize.] A contender for victory in 
wrestling or other games. 

Ath-let'ie , a. 1. Belonging to wrestling, boxing, and 
other manly exercises, which were practiced by the an- 
cients. Hence, 2. Strong ; lusty ; robust ; vigorous. 

A-thwart', prep. Across ; from side to side of. 

A-thwart', atft\ 1. Sidewise; obliquely. 2. In a man- 
ner to cross and perplex. 

A-tilt', adv. 1. In the position, or with the action, of a 
man making a thrust. 2. In the manner of a cask 
j tilted, or_ with one end raised. 

At/lan-te'an, a. Pertaining to or resembling Atlas, who 
was represented as bearing the world on his shoulders. 

At-lan'te§, n. pi. [See Atlantean.] Figures or half- 
figures of men, used instead of columns to support an 

At-lan'tLe, a. 1. ( Geog.) Pertaining to that division of 
the ocean which lies between Europe and Africa on the 
east and America on the west. 2. Pertaining to the isle 
of Atlantis. 3. Descended from Atlas. 

At'las, n. ; pi. AT'LAS-Eg. 1. A collection of maps in a 
volume ; — supposed to be so called from a picture of 
Atlas supporting the heavens, prefixed to some collec- 
tions. 2. A volume of plates illustrating any subject. 

3. A work in which subjects are exhibited in a tabular 
form. 4. A large, square folio, resembling a volume of 
maps. 5. A kind of silk-satin. 6. A kind of large draw- 
ing paper. 7. (Anat.) The first vertebra of the neck. 

At'mos-phere, n. [Gr. dr^os, vapor, and o-Qalpa, 
sphere.] 1. (Physics.) (a.) The whole mass of aeriform 
fluid surrounding the earth, (b.) Any gaseous envelope 

or medium. 2. (Elect.) A supposed medium around an 
electrical body. 3. Pressure of the air on a unit of sur- 
w face. 

At'mos-pher'i-e, ) a. Relating to, existing in, or de- 
At'mos-pher'ie-al, j pendent on, the atmosphere. 
A -toll', n. [Malay. ; ator, order, rank.] A coral island, 
w consisting of a ring of coral reef surrounding a lagoon. 
At'om, «. 1. (Physics.) (a.) An ultimate indivisible 
particle of matter, (b.) An ultimate particle of matter 
not necessarily indivisible ; a molecule, (c.) A constit- 
uent particle of matter. 2. Any thing extremely small. 

A-t6m'i«-al I a ' Relatm S to > or consisting of, atoms. 

At'om-Igm, n. The doctrine of atoms. [losophy. 

At'om-ist, n. One who holds to the atomical phi- 

At'om-Ize, v. t. To reduce to atoms. 

A-tone', v. i. [imp. & p. p. atoned ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
atoning.] [From at one, i. e.. to be, or cause to be. at 
one.] 1. To agree ; to accord. [Obs.] 2. To stand as an 
equivalent ; to make reparation, compensation, amends, 
or satisfaction for an offense or a crime ; to expiate. 

A-tone', v. t. 1. To reconcile. 2. To expiate ; to an- 
swer or make satisfaction for. 

A'tone'ment, n. 1. Reconciliation after enmity or con- 
troversy. 2. Satisfaction or reparation made by giving 
an equivalent for an injury ; specifically, in theology, the 
expiation of sin made by the obedience and personal 
sufferings of Christ. 

A-ton'er, n. One who makes an atonement. 

A-ton'ie, a. 1. (Med.) Characterized by atony. 2. 
(Gram.) Unaccented. 3. Destitute of vocality ; surd. 

A-ton'ie, n. 1. ( Gram.) A word that has no accent. 
2. An element of speech entirely destitute of vocality, 
or produced by the breath alone ; a whispered, surd, or 
voiceless consonant ; a breathing. 3. (Med.) A remedy 
for organic excitement or irritation. 

At'o-ny, n. [Gr. drovia, from a priv. and to^o?, tone, 
strength.] (Med.) Want of tone; weakness of every 
organ, particularly such as are contractile. 

A -top', adv. At or on the top ; above. 

At'ra-bi-la'ri-an, ) a. [Lat. atra bilis, black bile.] 

At'ra-foi-la'ri-ous, j Affected with melancholy. 

At/ra-bil'ioiis, a. Atrabilarious. [Rare.] 

At/ra-men'tal, ) a. [Lat. atramentum, ink, fr. ater, 

At'ra-men'tous, ) black.] Black, like ink ; inky. 

A-tro'cious, a. [Lat. atrox, cruel, fierce.] 1. Ex- 
tremely heinous ; full of enormous wickedness. 2. 
Characterized by, or expressing, great atrocity. 

Syn. — Flagitious; flagrant. — Flagitious points to an act as 
grossly wicked or vile; flagrant {literally, naming) marks the 
vivid impression made upon us by some great crime; atrocious 
represents it as springing from a violent and cruel spirit. If 
Lord Chatham, instead of saying, " The atrocious crime of 
being a young man," had used either of the other two words, 
his irony would have lost all its point, in his celebrated reply 
to Sir Robert Walpole, as reported by Dr. Johnson. 

A-tro'cioiis-ly, adv. Outrageously ; enormously. 

A-tro'cious-ness, ) n. Extreme heinousness ; enor- 

A-troc'i-ty, j mity, as of guilt. 

At'ro-phy, n. [Gr. drpo<f)ia, fr. d priv. and rpe^eiv, to 
nourish.] A wasting away from lack of nourishment. 

At-tach', v. t. [imp. & p. p. attached ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ATTACHING.] [Fr. attacher ; Eng. tack, a small nail, 
to tack, to fasten.] 1. To bind, fasten, or tie. 2. To 
take by legal authority. 3. To take,. ?eize, and lay hold 
on, by force ; hence, figuratively, to fasten or bind by 
moral influence. 4. To connect, in a figurative sense. 
Syn. — To fasten ; affix ; gain over; win. 

At-tadi'a-Tble , a. Capable of being attached. 

Attache (at'ta'sha'), n. [Fr.] One attached to the suite 
of an embassador. 

At-tacli'meiit, n. 1. Act of attaching, or state of 
being attached ; especially, any passion or affection that 
binds a person. 2. That by which one thing is attached 
to another. 3. Some adjunct attached to an instru- 
ment, machine, or other object. 4. (Civ. Laiv.) (a.) 
A seizure or taking by virtue of a legal process, (b.) 
The writ or precept commanding such seizure or taking. 

At-tack', v. t. [imp. & p. p. attacked ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. attacking.] [See Attach.] 1. To fall upon 
with force ; to assail ; to assault. 2. To fall upon with 
unfriendly words or writing ; to begin a controversy 
with. 3. ( Chem.) To begin to dissolve, or decompose, 
by chemical agents. 

Syn. — To attack is to commence the contest; to assail 
(literally, spring at) is to attack suddenly; to assault (literally, 
leap upon) is to attack violently; to invade is to enter by force 
on what belongs to another. 

a,e,&c, long; a,e,&c.,^ort, care, far, ask, all, what; ere, veil, term; pique, firm; son, or, do, wolf, 



ATTRACTIVE', n. A falling on -with force or violence, or with 
calumny, satire, or criticism. 
Syn.— Assault; onset; inroad; charge. 

At-tain', v. i. [According to its form, from Lat. attinere, 
to hold to, from ad and tenere, to hold, but with the 
sense of Fr. atteindre, Lat. attingere, from ad and tan- 
gere, to touch, reach.] 1. To come or arrive, by motion, 
bodily exertion, or efforts toward a place or object; to 
reach. 2. To come or arrive, by an effort of mind. 

At -tain', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ATTAINED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ATTAINING.] 1. To achieve or accomplish, that is, to 
reach by efforts ; to gain ; to compass. 2. To reach in 
excellence or degree ; to equal. 

Syn. — Obtain; acquire. — To obtain is generic, viz., to get 
possession of; to attain, is to arrive at or reach something 
aimed at and thus obtained, as knowledge, or one's object; to 
acquire is to make one's own by progressive advances, as prop- 
erty or a language. 

At-tain'a-ble, a. Capable of being attained. 

E@- From an inattention to the true sense of this word, as 
explained under Attain, authors have very improperly used 
this word for obtainable, procurable. 

At-tain'der, n. [Fr. atteindre, to reach or come to ; 
Lat. attingere. See Attain.] 1. (Com. Law.) The 
stain, forfeiture, and corruption of blood which followed 
on being condemned for certain crimes. 2. The act of 

At-tain'ment, n. 1. Act of attaining, arriving at, or 
reaching; hence, the act of obtaining by efforts. 2. 
That which is attained to, or obtained by exertion. 

At-taint', v. t. [imp. & p.p. attainted ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. attainting.] [See Attainder.] 1. To stain ; 
hence, to disgrace. 2. (Law.) (a.) To taint or corrupt, 
as blood, (b.) To taint, as the credit of jurors convicted 
of giving a false verdict. 

At-taint', n. 1. A stain, spot, or taint. 2. (Law.) A 
writ which lies after judgment, to inquire whether a jury 
has given a false verdict in any court of record. 3 . ( Far. ) 
A wound on the leg of a horse, made by over-reaching. 

At-taint 'ment, n. State of being attainted. 

At-tem'per, v. t. [imp. & p. p. attempered ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. ATTEMPERING.] [Lat. attemperare, from ad&nd 
temperare, to soften, temper.] 1. To reduce, modify, or 
moderate, by mixture. 2. To soften, mollify, or mod- 
erate. 3. To mix in just proportion. 4. To accommo- 
date ; to make suitable ; to adapt. 

At-tempt^-temt', 84), v. t. [imp. kp.p. ATTEMPTED ; & vb. n. ATTEMPTING.] [Lat. attentare, to at- 
tempt, from ad and tentare, temptare, to try, intens. form 
of tendere, to stretch.] X. To make trial or experiment 
of. 2. To make an attack upon. 

At -tempt', v. i. To make an effort, or an attack. 

At -tempt', n. An essay, trial, or endeavor ; an effort to 
gain a point. 

Syn. — Trial is the generic term; attempt is specific, being 
directed to some definite object; an endeavor is a continued or 
repeated attempt; an effort and exertion is a straining of the 
faculties, the latter being the stronger term. 

At-tempt'a-ble, a. Capable of being attempted. 

At-tend', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ATTENDED ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. ATTENDING.] [Lat. attendere, to stretch (sc. animum, 
to apply the mind to), from ad and tendere, to stretch.] 
1. To go or stay with, as a companion, minister, or ser- 
vant ; to wait on ; to serve. 2. To be present with ; to 
accompany ; to be united or consequent to. 

At-tend', v. i. 1. To pay attention, with a view to per 
ceive, understand, or comply ; to heed. 2. To wait or 
be in waiting. 

Syn. — To listen ; hearken . — We attend with a view to hear 
or learn; we listen with a view to hear correctly or to consider. 
Hearken is to hear with interest, and with reference to obeying. 

At-tend'ance, n. 1. Act of attending or being in 
waiting. 2. The persons attending ; a train ; a retinue. 

At-tend'ant, a. 1. Being present, or in the train. 2. 
Accompanying, connected with, or immediately following, 
as consequential. 3. (Law.) Depending on, or owing 
duty or service to. 

At-tend'ant, n. One who, or that which, attends or 
accompanies in any character whatever, as a friend, com- 
panion, servant, agent, or suitor. 

At-tent', a. [Lat. attentus. See ATTEND.] Attentive. 

At-ten'tion, n. 1. Act of attending or heeding. 2. 
Act of civility. 

Syn.— Care; heed; consideration; respect; regard; notice. 

At-tent'ive, a. Full of attention; regarding with care. 
Syn.— Heedful; intent; regardful; mindful; civil; polite. 

Cheerfully ; needfully ; diligently. 
The state of being attentive ; at- 

At-tentlve-ly, adv. 
At-tent'ive-ness, n. 

tention ; carefulness. 

At-ten'u-ant, a. Making less viscid ; thinning. 

At-ten'u-ant, n. (Med.) A medicine that thins or di» 
lutes the fluids ; a diluent. 

At-ten'u-ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. attenuated ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. ATTENUATING.] [Lat. attenuatns, p. p. of 
attenuare, from ad and tenuare, to make thin, tenuis, 
thin.] 1. To make thin, or less viscid ; specifically, to 
subtilize, as the humors of the body. 2. To break or 
wear into finer or very minute parts ; to comminute. 3. 
To make slender. 4. To draw out or extend in length. 

At-ten'u-ate (45), v. i. To become thin, slender, or 
fine ; to grow less ; to lessen. 

At-ten'u-a'tion, n. 1. Act of attenuating, or making 
thin, as fluids. 2. Act of making fine ; pulverization. 
3. Act or process of making slender. 

At -t6st', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ATTESTED ; p. pr. & vb.n. 
ATTESTING.] [Lat. attestari, from ad and testari, to 
bear witness, from testis, witness.] 1. To bear witness 
to ; to affirm, to be true or genuine. 2. To give proof of. 
3. To call to witness ; to invoke as conscious. 

At'test-a'tion, n. Testimony ; esp., official testimony. 

At-test'or, n. One who attests. 

At'ti-e, a. Pertaining to, or characteristic of, Attica, in 
Greece, or to its principal city, Athens. Thus, Attic wit, 
Attic salt, a poignant, delicate wit ; an Attic style, a style 
pure, classical, and elegant ; Attic faith, inviolable faith ; 

w Attic purity, special purity of language. 

At'ti-e, n. [From Attica. See supra.] (Arch.) (a.) A 
story in the upper part of a house; also, frequently 

w applied to the garret. 

At'ti-cigm, n. Peculiar style or idiom of the Greek lan- 
guage used by the Athenians ; elegant Greek. 

At-tire', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ATTIRED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ATTIRING.] [0. Fr. attirer. See TlRE.] To dress ; to 
array ; to adorn, especially with elegant or splendid 

At-tire', n. 1. Clothes ; apparel ; dress, especially orna- 

^ mental dress. 2. Horns of a buck. 

At-ti-tiide (53), n. [For aptitude. L. Lat. aptitudo, 
from Lat. aptus, suited, fitted.] 1. Posture or position 
of a person. 2. Posture or position of things, in a cor- 
responding relation. 

Syn. —Posture. — An attitude, like a gesture, is suited, and 
usually designed to express, some mental state, as an attitude 
of wonder, &c. ; a posture is either not expressive, as a reclining 
posture, or is less dignified and artistic. 

At'ti-ttt'di-nize, v. i. [imp. & p. p. attitudinized ; & vb. n. attitudinizing.] To assume affected 

At-tol'lent, a. [Lat. attollens, p. pr. of attollere, from 
ad and tollere, to lift.] Lifting up ; raising. 

At-tor'ney (-tur'ny) n.; pi. at-tor'ney§. [0. Fr. 
attorne, atorne, atourne, p. p. of attorner, atorner, L. 
Lat. attornare, atturnare, to commit business to another, 
from ad and tornare, to turn. See TURN.] (Law.) 
One who is legally appointed by another to transact any 
business for him. 

Power of attorney, a letter or document by which a person 
authorizes another to transact business for hirii. 

At-tor'ney-ship (at-tur-ny-), n. Office of an attorney. 

At-torn'ment (-turn'-), n. (Law). Act of a feudatory, 
vassal, or tenant, by which he consents, upon the aliena- 
tion of an estate, to receive a new lord or superior, and 
transfers to him his homage and service ; the agreement 
of a tenant to acknowledge the purchaser of the estate 
as his landlord. 

At-tract', v. t. [imp. & p. p. ATTRACTED ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. ATTRACTING.] [L. Lat. attractare, from Lat. at- 
trahere, from ad and trahere, to draw.] To draw or cause 
to tend toward ; to draw to, or cause to adhere or com' 

Syn.— To allure; to invite; to engage. 

At-traet'a-bil'i-ty, n. Quality of being attractable. 

At-traet'a-ble, a. Capable of being attracted. 

At-traet'ile, a. Having power to attract. 

At-tra-e'tion, n. 1. (Physics.) An invisible power in 
a body by which it draws any thing to itself ; the power 
in nature acting mutually between bodies or ultimate 
particles, tending to draw them together, or to produce 
their cohesion or combination, and conversely resisting 
separation. 2. Act of attracting. 3. Power or act of 
alluring, inviting, or engaging. 

At-tra-et'Ive, a. 1. Having the power of attracting. 
2. Drawing by moral influences. 

food, f<Tot ; urn, rude, pull; fell, chaise, «all, echo; gem, get; a§; ejist; linger, link ; tnis. 




Syn. — Alluring; enticing; inviting. 

At-traetlve, n. That which attracts or incites. 

At-traet'rve-ly, adv. With the power of attracting. 

At-traet'Ive-ness, n. The quality of being attractive. 

At-traet'or, n. One who attracts ; one who draws. 

At'tra-hent, n. That which attracts. 

At-trib'u-ta-ble, a. Capable of being attributed. 

At-trib'ute, v. t. [imp. & p. p. attributed ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. ATTRIBUTING.] [Lat. attribuere, attributum, 
from ad and tribuere, to bestow.] To consider as belong- 
ing to ; to ascribe to, as an effect to a cause. 
Syn.— To impute; refer; charge. 

At'tri-bute (119), n. 1. A thing that may be attributed ; 
inherent quality ; characteristic disposition ; essential or 
necessary property. 2. ( Gram.) Particular quality or 
6tate of a noun as modified by an adjective or a phrase. 

At'tri-bu'tion, n. 1. The act of attributing. 2. The 
quality attributed. [bute ; attributing. 

At'trib'u-tive, a. Relating to, or expressing, an attri- 

At-trlb'u-tive, n. A word which denotes an attribute 
or quality. 

At-trite', a. [Lat. altritus, p. p. of atterere, from ad and 
terere, to rub.] Worn by rubbing or friction. 

At-trite'ness, n. State of being worn. 

At-trl'tion ( -trlsh'un ) , n . 1 . Act of wearing by friction ; 
abrasion. 2. State of being worn. 

At-tune', v. t. [imp. & p. p. attuned ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
ATTUNING.] [From ad and tune, q. v.] 1. To tune or 
put in tune. 2. To arrange fitly ; to make accordant. 

AuTburn, a. [Equiv. to alburn, from Low Lat. albur- 

"nus.] Reddish brown. 

Aue'tion, n. [Lat. audio, from Lat. augere, auctum, to 
increase.] A public sale of property to the highest bid- 
der, and regularly, by a person licensed and authorized 
for the purpose ; a vendue. 

eg** The English say, to sell by auction (auctio?ie, by an in- 
crease of bids). In America, the more prevalent expression is, 
to sell at auction. 

Aue'tion-a-ry, a. Belonging to an auction. 

Aue'tion-eer', n. The person who sells by auction. 

Aue'tion-eer', v. t. To sell by auction. 

Au-da'cioiis, a. [Lat. audax, from audere, to dare.] 

"1. Contemning the restraints of law, religion, or deco- 
rum; bold in wickedness. 2. Committed with, or pro- 
ceeding from, daring effrontery or contempt of law. 

Au-da'cioiis-ly, adv. Boldly ; impudently. 

Au-da'cioiis-ness, ) n. 1. Daring spirit, resolution, 

Au-dac'i-ty, j or confidence ; venturesomeness. 

2. Presumptuous impudence ; implying a contempt of 
law or moral restraint. 

Syn. — Hardihood; boldness; impudence. Hardihood and 
boldness may be used either in a good or bad sense, the former 
indicating a disregard of consequences, the latter more of spirit 
and enterprise. Effrontery is stronger than impudence, and 
audacity than either, when used in a bad sense. 

Au'di-ble, a. [Low Lat. audibilis, from audire, to hear.] 
Capable of being heard. 

Au'di-ble-ness, n. The quality of being audible. 

Au'di-bly, adv. In a manner to be heard. 

Au'di-ence, n. 1. The act of hearing. 2. Admittance 
to a hearing. 3. An auditory, or assembly of hearers. 

Au'dit, n. [Lat., from audire, to hear.] An examination 
in general; but specifically, an examination of an ac- 
count or of accounts, with the hearing of the parties con- 
cerned, by proper officers. 

Au'dit, v. t. [imp. & p. p. AUDITED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
auditing.] To examine and adjust, as accounts 

Au'dit-or, n. 1. A hearer or listener. 2. A 
authorized to examine and adjust accounts. 

Au'dit-or-ship, n. The office of auditor. 

Au'dit-o-ry, a. Pertaining to the sense of hearing. 

Au'dit-o-ry, n. An assembly of hearers ; an audience. 

Au'dit -r ess, n. A female hearer. 

Au-ge'an, a. Belonging to Augeas or his stable, which 
contained 3000 oxen, and was not cleaned for thirty 
years ; hence filthy ; dirty. 

Au'ger, n. [A.-S. nafegar, from nafa, nafu, the nave of 
a wheel, and gar, a dart or javelin, prop, and orig. a nave- 
borer.] 1. A carpenter's tool to bore holes with. 2. An 
instrument for boring or perforating soils or rocks. 

Aught (awt), n. [A.-S. auht, awiht, owiht, wiht, Goth 


Aug-mgnt', v. t. [imp. & p. p. augmented ; p. pr. & 

" vb. n. AUGMENTING.] [Lat. augmentare, from augere, to 
increase, kindred with Gr. aiigeiv, Eng. wax.] To enlarge 
or increase in size or extent, amount, degree, or magni- 
tude ; to swell ; to make bigger. 

Aug-ment', v. i. To increase ; to grow larger. 

Aug'ment, n. 1. Enlargement by addition; increase. 

'"2. ( Gr. Gram.) A sign of past time: it is either a 
syllable prefixed to a word, or an increase of the quantity 
of the initial vowel, called, in the former case, the syl- 
labic augment, and in the latter, the temporal augment. 

Aug-ment'a-ble, a. Capable of augmentation. 

Aug'men-ta'tion, n. 1. Act of augmenting, or the state 

"of being augmented. 2. The thing added by way of en- 
largement. 3. (Mus.) In counterpoint and fugue, a 
repetition of the subject in tones of twice their original 
length. [ing. 

Aug-ment'a-tive, a. Having the quality of augment- 

Au'gur, n. [Lat. ; most prob. a Tuscan word. The first 

"part is equiv. to Lat. avis, bird ; the last syllable, gur, 
to the Celt. giXr, man.] 1. (Rom. Antiq.) An officer who 
pretended to foretell future events by the singing, flight, 
and feeding of birds, or by other signs. 2. One who pre- 
tends to foretell future events by omens ; a soothsayer. 

Au'gur, v. i. [imp. & p. p. AUGURED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 

"auguring.] To conjecture by signs or omens ; to prog- 
nosticate ; to guess. 

Au'gur, v. t. To predict or foretell ; to betoken. 

Au'gu-ral, a. Pertaining to augurs or augury. 

Au'gu-ra'tion, n. Act or practice of augury. 

Au-gu'ri-al, a. Of or relating to augury. 

Au'gu-ry, n. 1. Art or practice of foretelling events by 

"observing the actions of birds, or other phenomena. 2. 
An omen ; prediction ; prognostication. 

Au-giist', a. [Lat. augustus, from augere, to increase ; 

"to honor by offerings.] Creating extraordinary respect, 
mingled with the veneration inspired by grand and sub- 
lime objects. 

Syn. — Grand; imposing; majestic. 

Au'gust, n. [Lat. Augustus. Cf. the preceding word.] 
The eighth month of the year. 

Au-gus'tan, a. Pertaining to Augustus or to his times. 
BST" The Augustan age of any national literature is the sup- 
posed period of its highest state of purity and refinement. 

Au-gust'me, (Eccl. Hist.) One of an order 
Au'gus-tin'i-an, j of monks, so called from St. Au- 
"gustine ; — popularly called Austin friars, and also White 

Au'gus-trn'i-an, n. One of a class of divines, who, fol- 
lowing St. Augustine, maintain that grace is effectual 
from its nature, absolutely and morally, not relatively 
and gradually. 
Au-gust'uess, n. Dignity ; majesty ; grandeur. 
Au-let'i-e, a. [Gr. atiATj-nxos, from avAos, flute.] Per- 
" taming to pipes, or to a pipe. [Rare.] 
Au'li-e, a. [Gr. avAi/co?, from auArJ, hall, court.] Per- 
" taining to a royal court. 
Au'lie, n. In some European universities, the ceremony 

observed in conferring the degree of doctor of divinity. 
Aunt (ant), n. [0. Er. ante, Lat. amita.] A father's 

or mother's sister. 
Am'tA, n. ; pi. av'rje. . [Lat., air.] Any subtile, invisible 
"fluid, supposed to flow from a body. [to an aura. 

Au'ral, a. [From aura, q. v.] Pertaining to the air, or 
Au'ral, a. [From Lat. auris, ear.] Belonging to the 
Au'ra-ted, a. [Lat. auratus.] Resembling gold. [ear. 
'Au^re'o-ld, \ n. [Lat. aureolus, of gold, a dim. of aureus, 
Au're-ole, j golden.] The circle of rays, with which 
"painters surround the body of Christ, saints, and others 

held in special reverence. 
Au'ri-ele, n. [Lat. auricula, dim. of auris, ear.] 
"1. (Anat.) (a.) The external ear. (b.) One of two mus- 
cular sacs situated at the base of the heart ; — so called 
from their resemblance to the external ear of some quad- 
rupeds. 2. A kind of ear-trumpet. 
Au-rle'u-lar, a. [See Auricle.] 1. Pertaining to the 
"ear, or to the sense of hearing. 2. Told in the ear. 3. 
Recognized by the ear. 4. Received or traditional. 5. 
(Med.) Pertaining to the auricles of the heart. 
Au-ri-e'u-late, a. Shaped like an ear. 

S a thin S^ Cf - WIGHT, WHlT.'and OUGHT.] "Any i Au-rlf 'er-'oul' a. [La! aurifer, from aurum, gold, and 
mmg, any part. > ^ j " f&ne to bear-] yielding or producing gold. 

Au gite, n. [Gr. auyirr;?, from avyr,, brightness.] A ' Au'ri-form, a. [Lat. auris, ear, and forma, form./ 
greenish mineral (called by Haiiy pyroxene), consisting ; "Ear-shaped. 

chiefly of silica, magnesia, and lime, and occurring as a i Au'rist, n. One skilled in disorders of the ear. 
constituent of lavas, trap, basalt, and many other rocks, i Au'ro-ebs, n. [Ger. aurochs, from ftr, ftre, Lat. urus. Gr. 


, long; a, g, &c, short ; care, far, ask, all, what ; ere, veil, term ; pique, firm ; son, 6r, do, wolf , 




ovpos, a wild ox, and ochs, ox.] ( Zo'dl.) The Bos urus, or 
bison, of Poland. 
Au-ro'ra, n. ; pi. au-ro / b.A2. [Lat., from aurea hora, 
golden hour, or Gr. avpio? aipa, morning hour, or from 
Skr. us/iasa, aurora.] 1. The dawn of day ; the redness 
of the sky just before the sun rises. 2. A species of 

Auro'ra borea'lis, (i. e., northern daybreak), a luminous 
meteoric phenomenon, witnessed only at night, and supposed 
to be of electrical origin ; popularly called northern lights. 
Au-ro'ral, a. Belonging to, or resembling, the aurora, 
"or northern lights. 

Aus'etil-ta'tion, n. [Lat. auscidtatio , from ausicula, 
"for auricula, dim. of auris, ear ] 1. Act of listening, 
2. (Med.) A method of distinguishing diseases, particu- 
larly in the thorax, by obseiwing the sounds in the part, 
generally by means of a stethoscope. 
Au'spi-eate, v. t. [Lat. auspicare, auspicari, from aus- 
" pex, a bird seer, a contraction of avispex, from avis, bird, 
and specere, spicere, to view.] To give a favorable turn 
to in commencing. 
Au'spice, n.; pi. AU'spi-ces. [Lat. auspicium, from 
auspex. See supra.] 1. The omens of an undertaking, 
drawn from birds ; augury. 2. Protection extended ; 
favor shown ; patronage ; — generally in the pi. 
Au-spi'cial (-splsh'al), a. Pertaining to auspices. [Rare.] 
Au-spi'cioiis (-splsh / us), a. [See Auspice.] 1. Hav- 
"ing omens of success or favorable appearances. 2. 
Prosperous ; fortunate ; lucky. 3. Favorable ; propitious. 
Au-spi'cioiis-ly (-spish'us-), adv. With favorable to- 
"kens; prosperously; happily. 

Au-stere', a. [Gr. avo-T-qpog.] 1. Sour with astrin- 
"gency; having acerbity. 2. Severe in modes of judg- 
ing, or living, or acting. 

Syn. — Severe; rigid; harsh; rough; stern. 
Au-stere'ly, adv. Severely ; rigidly ; sternly. 
Au-stere'ness, ) n. Severity of manners or living ; 
Au-ster'i-ty, j strictness ; roughness. 
Au'stral, a. [From Lat. auster, the south wind.] Of or 
"tending to the south ; southern : being in the south. 
Au-tlien'ti-c, ) a. [Gr. avQevTucos , from av9ivrin<;, 
Au-then'tie-al, j contr. for avroOewnis, suicide, real 
author of any act, from aurds, self, and deivetv, Oevelv, 
to kill.] 1. Of approved authority ; to be relied on. 2. 
(Mus.) Having an immediate relation to the tonic, in 
distinction from plagal, having a correspondent relation 
to the dominant below the tonic. 

Syn.— True; certain; faithful; credible; reliable; genuine. 
Authentic and genuine were once used as convertible terms, 
but a distinction is now made between them, the former being 
opposed to false, and the latter to spurious, as an authentic his- 
tory, a genuine manuscript. 

Au-thcn'tie-al-ly, adv. "With marks of credibility. 

Au-tlien'ti-eate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. authenti- 
cated; p. pr. & vb. n. AUTHENTICATING.] To es- 
tablish by proof; to render authentic ; to prove to be 

Au-then'ti-ea/tion, n. Act of authenticating. 

Au'then-tic'i-ty, n. Quality of being authentic ; re- 
liability; genuineness. 

Au/tlior, n. [Lat. auctor, (sometimes erroneously, autor 
or author,) fr. augere, to increase, to produce.] 1. The 
beginner, former, or first mover of any thing ; hence, 
the efficient cause of a thing ; creator ; originator. 2. 
Specifically, one who composes or writes a book. 

Au'tlior-ess, n. A female author or writer. 

Au-thor'i-ta-tive , a. 1. Having authority. 2. Hav- 
ing an air of authority ; positive. 

Au-thor'i-ta-tive-ly,arfi\ With authority ; positively. 

-4n-thor'i-ty, n. 1. Legal or rightful power ; right to 
command or to act ; dominion. 2. The persons or the 
body exercising power or command, — chiefly in the pi. 
3. Influence of character, office, or station, or mental or 
moral superiority, and the like. 4. Testimony ; witness ; 
or the person who testifies. 5. A precedent, a decision 
of a court, an official declaration, or an opinion, saying, 
or statement worthy to be taken as a precedent ; also, a 
book that contains them, or the name of its author. 

Syn. — Force; rule; sway,- command; dominion; control; 
influence; warrant. 

Au'thor-i-za/tion, n. Establishment by authority. 

Avi'thor-ize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. authorized ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. AUTHORIZING.] 1. To clothewith authority, 
warrant, or legal power ; to empower. 2. To legalize. 
3. To establish by authority, as by usage or public 
opinion. 4. To give authority, credit, or support to. 

Au'thor-ship, n. The state of being an author. 

Au'to-bl-og'ra-pher, n. One who writes a lite of 
himself. [ing, autobiography. 

Au'to-bi'o-graph'ie-al, a. Pertaining to, or contain- 

Au'to-bi-og'ra-phy, n. [Gr. civtos, self, and Eng. biog- 
raphy, q. v.] A memoir or biography of a person writ- 
ten by himself. 

Au-to-eh'thon n. [Gr. avroxOojv, from the land itself, 
from avro?, self, and x&oi/, gen. x 9oi, o<r, earth, land.] 

1. One who is supposed to spring from the same ground 
or soil he inhabits ; hence, an aboriginal or native. 2. 
That which is original to a particular country. 

Au'toeh-thon'ie, \a. Indigenous; aboriginal ; na- 

Au-to€h'tho-nous, j tive. 

Au-toe'ra-cy , n. 1. Independent or self-derived power ; 
autonomy. 2. Supreme, uncontrolled, unlimited au- 
thority, or right of governing in a single person, as of 
an autocrat. 3. Sole right of self-government in a state. 

Au'to-erat, n. [Gr. auTo/cpai-Ty?, avTOKpartop, from euros, 
self, and Kparo?, strength.] 1. An absolute prince or 
sovereign ; — a title assumed by the emperors of Russia. 

2. A person invested with absolute, independent power 
by which he is rendered unaccountable for his actions. 

Au/to-erat'i-e, ) „ ,, , , . , ... 

Au'to-erat'ie-al, j a ' Absolute ! independent m power. 

JLu'to-da-fe' (au-to-da-fa/), n. ; pi. au'toijs-da-FE'. 
[Pg., act of faith.] 1. The punishment of a heretic 
by burning, in conformity with a judgment of the In- 
quisition. 2. The sentence then read. 

Au'to-graph, n. [Gr. avroypafyos, from avro's, self, and 
ypa^eiv, to write.] A person's own handwriting; an 
original manuscript. 

Au/to-grapli'i-e, \a. 1. Pertaining to an autograph, 

Au/to-graph/i-e-al, ) or one's own handwriting. 2. 
Pertaining to, or used in, autography. 

Au-tog'ra-phy, n. 1. A person's own writing. 2. 
Science of autographs. 3. A process in lithography for 
transferring writing. 

Aii/to-mat ; i-e, \a. 1. Pertaining to, or performed 

Au/to-mat'i-e-al, ) by, an automaton ; self-acting ; — 
"especially applied to' machinery, in which certain move- 
ments commonly made by hand are made by the ma- 
chine itself. 2. Not depending on the will ; ~ applied 
to animal motions. 3. Belonging to an automaton, 
self-moving ; acting involuntarily. 

Au-tom'a-ton, n.; pi. au-tomXA-tons ; Lat. pi. AV^ 
tom'a-ta. [Gr. avroixaTov, from civto?, self, and /u-aetv, 
to strive after, to move.] A machine moved by interior 
machinery which imitates the actions of men or animals ; 
any self-moving machine. 

Au-tom'o-lite, n. [Gr. avTo^oAo?, a deserter, from 
avros, self, and p.oAetv, to go ; so called from the large 
portion of oxide of zinc it contains, though it has nc 
resemblance to an ore.] (Min.) A kind of spinel. 

Au-ton'o-my, n. [Gr. avrovofj-Ca, fr. avros, self, and 

"v6(nos, law.] 1. Power or right of self-government. 2. 
Man's power, as possessed of reason , to give law to himself. 

Au'top-sy, n. [Gr. avro\f/Ca, from avros, self, and 07rro9, 
seen ; 6»/us, sight.] 1. Personal observation or exami- 
nation. 2. (Med.) Post-mortem examination. 

Au'tumn (aw'tum), n. [Lat. auctumnus, autumnus, 

"from auctus, p. p. of augere, to increase, to furnish abun- 
dantly.] The third season of the year; the season be- 
tween summer and winter ; fall. 

An-tiim'Jial, a. Of or belonging to autumn. 

Auj-il'iar, ) a. [Lat. auxiliaris, -Has, from auxilium, 

Auj-il'ia-ry, ) help, from augere, to increase.] Help- 

"ing; assisting; aiding; subsidiary. 

Au$-il'ia-ry,n. 1. A helper ; an assistant ; specifically, 
in the pi. , foreign troops in the service of a nation at 
war. 2. ( Gram.) A verb helping to form the moods and 
tenses of other verbs ; as, have, be, can, &c. 3. (Math.) 
A quantity introduced for the purpose of simplifying or 
facilitating some operation. 

A-vail', v. t. [imp., p. p., & p. a. availed ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. AVAILING.] [Lat. ad and valere, to be strong, to be 
worth.] To turn to the advantage of ; to profit; to as- 
sist ; to promote. [purpose. 

A-vail, v. i. To be of use or advantage ; to answer the 

A- vail', n. Advantage; use; benefit; — pi., profits or 

A-vaiFa-lbfl'i-ty, ) n. State of being available ; power 

A-vail'a-ble-ness, ) of promoting the end in view. 

A-vail'a-ble, a. 1. Capable of being availed of, or used 

food, foot ; tirn, rude, piill ; pell, chaise, -call, echo ; gem, get ; a§ ; e$ist ; linger, link ; this. 




to advantage ; profitable ; able to effect the object. 2. 
Having sufficient power or efficacy for the object ; valid. 

A-vail'a-bly, adv. With success or effect. 

Av'a-laonclie', n. [Ft., from Lat. ad, to, and vallis, 
valley.] A snow-slip ; vast body of snow, ice, or earth 
sliding down a mountain. 

Avant-courier (a-vong'kob'reer), n. [Fr. See infra, 
and Courier.] A person dispatched before another 
person or company, to give notice of his or their ap- 

A-vant'-gnard, n. [Fa avant, before (Lat. ab, from, 
and ante, before), and Eng.guard.] The van or advanced 
body of an army ; vanguard. 

Av'a-rlce, n. [Lat. avaritia, from avere, to covet.] Ex- 
cessive love of money or gain. 
Syn.— Cupidity; greediness; covetousness. 

Av/a-rl'cious (-rlsh'us), a. Actuated by avarice ; greedy 
after wealth or gain. 

Syn.— Covetous; parsimonious; penurious; miserly; nig- 
gardly.— The covetous eagerly desire wealth, even at the ex- 
pense of others ; the avancious hoard it; the penurious, parsi- 
monious, &n& miserly save it by disgraceful self-denial; and the 
niggardly, by meanness in their dealings. 

Av'a-ri'cioiis-ly (-rlsh'us), adv. Covetously ; greedily. 

Av'a-ri'ciou.s-ness, n. Undue love of money. 

A-vast', interj. [Corrupted from D. haudjast, hold fast.] 
(Naut.) Cease; hold; stop. 

Av'a-tar', n. [Skr. avatara, descent.] An incarnation 
or metamorphosis of a deity among the Hindoos. 

A-vaunt', interj. [See AVANT-GUARD.] Begone. 

A've-Ma'ry, n. A prayer to the Virgin Mary, beginning 
Ave Maria [Hail, Mary]. 

Av'e-na'ceoiis, a. [Lat. avena, oats.] Relating to oats. 

A-venge', v. t. [0. Fr. avengier, from Lat. vindicare, to 
revenge, to avenge.] [imp., p. p., & p. a. AVENGED ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. avenging.] To vindicate by inflicting 
pain or evil on the wrong-doer. 

Syn. — Revenge. —It may be right to avenge injuries, but 
never to indulge revenge, which is a spirit of malicious resent- 

A-veng'er, n. One who avenges, or takes vengeance. 

Av'e-nue, n. [Fr., from Lat. advenire, to come to.] 1. 
An entrance to any place ; way ; passage. 2. An alley 
or walk in a path or garden, usually planted on each side 
with trees. 3. A wide street. [An Americanism.'] 

A-ver' (14), v. t. [irnp. & p. p. AVERRED ; Scvb.n. 
AVERRING.] [Low Lat. averare, from Lat. ad, to, and 
verus, true.] To declare positively ; to assert with confi- 
dence ; to asseverate. 
Syn. — To affirm; protest; avouch. — See Affirm, Assert. 

Av'er-age (45), a. 1. Medial ; containing a mean pro- 
portion. 2. According to the laws of average. 

Av'er-age, n. [0. Fr. See Aver.] 1. A contribution 
to a general loss. 2. A mean proportion ; medial sum 
or quantity. 3. A medial estimate or general statement 
derived from a comparison of diverse specific cases. 4. 
A small duty payable to shipmasters on goods. 

Av'er-age, v. t. [imp. & p. p. averaged ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. AVERAGING.] To reduce to a mean ; to proportion. 

Av'er-age, v. i. To be or form a medial sum or quantity. 

A-ver'ment, n. 1. Act of averring : affirmation; posi- 
tive assertion. 2. Verification ; establishment by evi- 
dence. 3. (Law.) Offer of either party to justify or 
prove what he alleges. 

A-verse' (14), a. [See Avert.] 1. Turned away. 2. 
Having a repugnance or opposition of mind. 

Syn. — Disinclined; backward; reluctant. — Averse is strong- 
er than disinclined and backward, but not so strong as reluc- 
tant (struggling against). 

A-verse'ly, adv. 1. Backwardly. 2. Unwillingly. 
A-verse'ness, n. Quality or state of being averse. 
A-yer'sion, n. 1. Opposition or repugnance of mind ; 

dislike ; moderate hatred. 2. Opposition or contrariety 

of nature. 3. The cause of repugnance. 

Syn. — Disgust ; reluctance ; repugnance ; antipathy. — 
Aversion is not so strong as reluctance (lit., struggling against) ; 
nor reluctance as repugnance (lit., fighting against). t)isgust is 
a repugnance of feeling or taste: antipathy is properly a consti- 
tutional disgust, though sometimes an acquired one. 

A-vert', v. t. [imp., p. p.,&, p. a. averted ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. AVERTING.] [Lat. avertere, from ab, a, from, and ver- 
ier e, to turn.] To turn or cause to turn off, aside, or 

A-vert', v. i. To turn away. 

A-vert'er, n. One who averts or turns away. 

A'vi-a-ry , n. [Lat. aviarium , from avis, a bird.] A house 
or inclosure for keeping birds confined. 

A-vid'i-ty, n. [Lat. aviditas, fr. avidus, eager, avere, 
to long.] An intense desire ; strong appetite. 
Syn. — Greediness; hankering; longing; eagerness. 

Av'o-ea'tion, n. [Lat. avocatio, from ab, a, from, and 
vocare, to call.] 1. Act of calling aside, or diverting 
from some employment. 2. The business that calls off. 
e=r" Sometimes improperly used for vocation. 

Av'o-cet, n. (Ornith.) An aquatic bird. 

A-void', v. t. [imp., p. p., & p. a. AVOIDED; & vb. 
n. avoiding.] [Prefix a and void.] 1. To keep at a 
distance from. 2. To make void ; to annul or vacate. 
3. (Pleading.) To defeat or evade, as a plea. 

Syn.— To shun. — Avoid is negative ; it is simply to keep 
away from. Shun is positive ; it is to turn from. Prudence 
may induce us to avoid, fear or dislike lead us to shun. We 
avoid bad habits ; we ought to shun vices. 

A-void', v. i. (Law.) To become void, vacant, or empty, 
as a benefice. 

A-void' a-lble, a. Capable of being avoided. 

A-void' ance, n. 1. The act of avoiding or shunning. 
2. The act of annulling. 3. The act of becoming va- 
cant, or the state of being vacant, as a benefice. 

A-void'er, n. 1. One who avoids ; one who shuns. 2< 
One who carries any thing away, or a vessel in which 
things are carried away. [ble. 

A-void'less, a. Incapable of being avoided ; unavoida- 

Av'oir-du-pois' (av'er-du-poiz'),?!. or a. [Fr. avoir du 
poids, to have (a fixed) weight, from Fr. avoir (Lat. 
habere), to have, and poids (0. Fr. poix, pois), portion 
weighed, from Lat. pensum, portion weighed] A weight 
for ordinary commodities, in which a pound contains 16 
ounces, or 7000 Troy grains. 

A-vouch', v. t. [imp., p. p., &jd. a. AVOUCHED ; 
& vb. n. AVOUCHING.] [Lat. advocare, to call to, from 
ad and vocare, to call.] To declare positively ; to main- 
Syn. — To vouch ; to affirm ; to assert ; to support. 

A-vouch'a-lble, a. Capable of being avouched. 

A-voucli'er, n. One who avouches or affirms. 

A-vow', v. t. [imp. k,p.p. avowed; & vb. n. 
AVOWING.] [Fr.avoiter; a for ad, and vouer (Lat. vovere), 
to vow.] 1. To declare openly ; to own ; to acknowledge ; 
to confess. 2. (Law.) To acknowledge and justify, as 
an act done. 
Syn. — See Confess. 

A-vow'a-ble, a. Capable of being avowed or confessed. 

A-vow'al, n. An open or frank declaration. 

A-vow'ed-ly, adv. In an avowed manner ; openly. 

A-vow-ee', n. See Advowee. 

A-vow'er, n. One who avows. 

A-vow'ry, n. (Law.) Act of a distrainer of goods, who, 
in an action of replevin, avows and justifies the taking 
in his own right. 

A-vul'sion, n. [Lat. avvlsio, from avellere, avulsus, to 
tear off, from a for ab, from off, and vellere, to pluck.] 

1. A tearing asunder. 2. A fragment torn off. 3. 
(Laio.) Sudden removal of land from the estate of one 
man to that of another by an inundation, current, or 
the like. 

A-vun'eu-lar, a. [From Lat. avunculus, uncle.] Of or 

pertaining to an uncle. 
A-wait', v. t. [imp. & p. p. AWAITED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 

awaiting.] 1. To wait or look out for; to expect. 

2. To be in store for ; to be ready for. 

A-wake', v. t. [imp. awoke, awaked ; p. p. 
awaked; p. pr. & vb. n. awaking.] 1. To rouse 
from sleep. 2. To arouse from a state resembling sleep, 
as from death, stupidity, or inaction. 

A-wake', v. i. To cease to sieep ; to come out of a state 
of natural sleep ; and, figuratively, out of a state re- 
sembling sleep. 

A-wake', a. Not sleeping ; in a state of wakefulness. 

A-wak'en (a-wak'n), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. awak- 
ENED; & vb. n. AWAKENING.] [Awake, with 
its A.-S. infinitive.] To rouse from sleep or torpor. 

Syn. — To arouse ? excite ; stir up ; call forth ; awake ; 

A-wak'en -er, n. He who, or that which, awakens. 

A-ward', v. t. [imp. & p. p. AWARDED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
AWARDING.] [0. Fr. awarder, from a, equiv. to Lat. 
ad, and warder, garder, guarder, to observe, keep. See 
Guard.] To give by judicial determination ; to assign 
by sentence ; to adjudge. 

A-ward', v.i. To determine ; to make an award. 

A-ward', n. 1. A judgment, sentence, or final decis- 
ion'; specifically, the decision of arbitrators in a case 
submitted. 2. The paper containing such decision. 

si,e,&c.,long; a-,6, &c, short; care, far, ask, all, what; gre, veil, term; pique, firm; son, or, do, wolf, 




A-ward'er, n. One who awards ; a judge 
A-ware', a. Watchful ; vigilant ; hence, apprised ; cog- 
A- way', adv. Absent ; at a distance. 

©3™ Away with has sometimes a peculiar signification in the 
phrase, " 1 can not away with it." (Isa. i. 13), i. e. " I can not 
bear or endure it." — To make away with, to kill or destroy. 

Awe, n. [A.-S. oga, ege, aige, fr. Goth, agan, ogan, to 
"fear.] Profound fear mingled with admiration or rev- 

Syn. — Dread; veneration.— Reverence is a strong sentiment 
of respect and esteem, sometimes mingled slightly with fear. 
Dread is strong personal fear; as, dread of punishment. Ven- 
eration is reverence in its strongest manifestation; it is the 
highest emotion we can exercise toward human beings. 

Awe, v. t. [imp. &,p.p. awed ; & vb. n. AWING.] 

"To strike with fear and reverence. 

A-weatn'er, adv. (Naut.) On the weather side, or 

toward the wind ; opposed to alee. 
A-weigh' (-iva'j, adv. (Naut.) Just drawn out of the 

ground, and hanging perpendicularly ; atrip ; — said of 

the anchor. [miration. 

Aw'ful, a. Striking with awe ; filling with fear and ad- 
Aw'f ul-ly, adv. In an awful manner. 
^Lw'ful-ness, n. The quality of striking with awe. 
A-while', adv. A space of time ; for some time ; for a 

short time. 
Awk'ward, a. [From 0. Eng. awk, left (Fr. gauche), 
"and ward, q. v.] 1. Wanting dexterity ; without skill ; 

bungling. 2. Ungraceful in manner. 
Syn. — Clumsy ; uncouth. — One who is Clvmty (from 

clump) is heavy, and, of course, ungraceful in everything ; 

one who is awkward wants grace of movement; one who is 

uncouth is so for want of training. 

Awk/ward-ly, adv. In an awkward manner. 
Awk'ward-ness, n . The quality of being awkward. 
Awl, n. [A.-S. eel, al.] A pointed instrument for mak- 
ing small holes. 
Awn, n. [Goth, ahana, Gr. "x^*] The bristle or beard 
"of barley, oats, grasses, &c. 

Awn'ing, n. [Of. A.-S. helan. helian, to cover.] 1. A 
"cover of canvas, to shelter from the sun's rays. 2. 

That part of the poop -deck which is continued forward 

beyond the bulk-head of the cabin. 
Awn'less, a. Without awn or beard. 
A-woke', imp. & p. p. of awake. See Awake. 
A-wry' (a-ri'), a. or adv. 1. Turned or twisted toward 

one side ; asquint. 2. Aside from the line of truth, or 

right reason. 
Ax, I n. [A.-S. eax, sex, acas, Gr. dglvr), Lat. ascia.] 
Axe, > An instrument, usually of iron, with a steel edge 

or blade, for hewing timber, chopping wood, &c. [axis. 
Ax'i-al, a. Pertaining, or having resemblance, to an 
Ax-if'er-ous, a. [Lat. axis and ferre, to bear.] (Bot.) 

Consisting of an axis, without leaves or other appendages. 
Ax'il, \n. [Lat.] 1. The armpit. 2. (Bot.) The angle 
Anc-Wla, ) between the upper side of a branch or leaf, 

and a stem or branch. 
Ax'il-lar, ) a. [See Axil.] 1. Pertaining to the 
Ax'il-la-ry, j armpit. 2. (Bot.) Situated in, or rising 

from, the axilla. 
Ax'i-om, n. [Gr. d£iw^a, from a£ toi)v, to think worthy, 

a£ios, worthy.] 1. A self-evident and necessary truth 
or proposition. 2. An established principle in some art 
or science. 

Syn. — Maxim ; aphorism ; adage. — Axioms are the founda- 
tions of science ; maxims are guiding principles in our prac- 
tical concerns. An aphorism is a detached sentence express- 
ing a weighty sentiment ; an adage is a saying of long-estab- 
lished authority. 

Ax'i-o-mat'ic, ) a. Pertaining to an axiom ; having 

Ax'i-o-mat'ie-al^ j the nature of an axiom. 

Ax'is, n. ; pi. ax'es. [Lat.] 1. The straight line, real 
or imaginary, on which a body revolves, or may be sup- 
posed to revolve. 2. (Anat.) (a.) The second vertebra 
of the neck ; (b.) A tooth-like process, on its upper sur- 
face, serving as a pivot on which the second vertebra 
turns. 3. (Bot.) The central part or column of a plant, 
around which the other parts are disposed. 4. A cen- 
tral or medial line between corresponding parts. 

Ax'le (aks'l), n. [A.-S. sex, eax. 
Cf. Axis.] 1. A transverse bar 
connecting the naves of the op- 
posite wheels of a carriage. 2. 
An axis. 

Ax'le-tree, n. An axle. 

Ay, ) (33), adv. Yes ; yea ; — a word 

Aye, j expressing assent, or an 

#< affirmative answer to a question. 

Aye('ai),rc. 1. An affirmative vote. 

_2. A voter in the affirmative. 

Aye (a), adv. [A.-S. a, aa, awa, 
Gr. aiei, del.] Always ; ever ; con- 
tinually ; for an indefinite time. B » Axle. 

Aye'-aye, n. (Zool.) A singular nocturnal quadruped 
found in Madagascar ; so called from its cry. 

A-za'le-a, n. ; pi. A-ZA/LE-As.. [Gr. d£a\eo<;, dry, so 
called because growing best in dry ground ] A genus of 
flowering plants. 

Az'i-mutli, n. [Ar. as-samt, pi. as-sumttt, a way or 
path.] An arc of the horizon intercepted between the 
meridian of the place and a vertical circle passing through 
the center of any object. 

Azimuth compass, a compass resembling the mariner's 
compass, but with a more accurate graduation of the card, and 
vertical sights.— llagnetical azimuth, an arc of the horizon, in- 
tercepted between the vertical circle passing through any object 
and the magnetic meridian. 

Az'i-muth-al, a. Pertaining to the azimuth. 

A-zo'ie, a. [Gr. d prfv. and &rj, life.] Destitute of any 
vestige of animal life. 

A-zote', n. [Gr. d priv. and &y, life.] ( Chem.) A kind 
of gas unfit for respiration ; nitrogen. 

A-zot'ic, a. Pertaining to ; formed or consisting of azote. 

Az'o-tize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. azotized ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. AZOTIZING.] To impregnate with azote, or nitro- 
gen ; to nitrogenize. 

A-zo'tous, a. Nitrous ; as, azotous acid. 

Az'ure (azh'ur or a/zhur), a. [Per. lajawardov lajuward,. 
a blue color, lajawardi, lajuwardi, azure, the initial I 
having been dropped.] Of a sky-blue ; cerulean. 

Az'ure (azh'ur or a/zhur), n. 1. The fine blue color of 
the sky. 2. The blue vault above. 3. (Her.) A blue 
color, represented in engraving by horizontal lines. 


B(be), is the second letter, and the first consonant, in the 
English alphabet. (See Prin. of Pron., § 62.) It is 
etymologically convertible with m,p,f, v, and w, letters 
representing sounds having a close organic affinity to its 
own. In Music, B is the nominal of the seventh tone in 
the model major scale (the scale of C major), or of the 
second tone in its relative minor scale (that of A minor.) 
B[j stands for B flat, the tone or half-step, or semitone 
lower than B. 

Baa, n. The cry or bleating of sheep. 

Baa, v. i. To cry or bleat as sheep. 

Bab'foitt-met/al, n. A soft alloy of copper, zinc, and 
tin, named from the inventor. 

Bab'ble, v. i. [imp. & p. p. babbled ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BABBLING.] [D. babbelen, H. Ger. bappeln, bappern, Fr. 
babiller, It. babbolare.] 1. To utter words imperfectly 

or unintelligibly. 2. To prate ; to chatter: 3. To make 

a constant murmuring noise, as a small stream running 

over rocks. 
Bablble, v. t. To prate ; to utter. 

Bab'ble, \n. Idle talk; senseless prate; un- 

B&b'ble-ment, ) meaning words. 
BabTbler, n. 1. An idle talker ; a tell-tale. 2. One of 

a group of long-tailed, thrush-like birds, remarkable for 

their singular chattering notes. 
Babe, n. [W. baban, maban.] An infant ; a young child 

of either sex ; a baby. 
Ba'bel, n. [Heb. Babel, capital of Shinar, or Babylonia ; 

confusion, fr. balal, to confound, according to Scripture, 

but more prob. a contr. from Mth-bel, house of Belus, 

or Baal. See Gen. xi.] A confused combination of 

sounds ; confusion ; disorder. 

food, t&bt ; urn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, call, eelio ; gem, get : 

ag ; exist ; linger, link ; tni*. 




Bab-dbn', ft. [0- En S- babion, bab- 
ian, prob. akin to babe.] A kind of 
monkey , having a long face, a broad, 
high muzzle, cheek pouches, dog- 
like tusks, or canine teeth, and 
naked callosities on the buttocks. 

Ba'by, n. [See Babe.] 1. An in- 
fant ; a babe. 2. A doll. 

Ba'by, a. Pertaining to, or resem- 
bling, an infant. 

Ba'by, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BABIED ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. BABYING.] To treat 
like a young child. [baby. 

Banby-liobd, n- State of being a 

Ba'by-liouse, n. A place for chil- 
dren's dolls and babies. 

Ba'by -ish, a. Like a baby ; childish. 

Ba'by-jiimp'er, n. A suspensory Baboon, 

support for a child, attached to the ceiling of a room by 
a strap of vulcanized india-rubber, and used for exercise. 

Bab'y-lo'ni-an, I a. Pertaining to Babylon, or the an- 

Bab'y-lo'nish, ) cient kingdom of Babylonia. 

Bab'y-lo'ni-an, n. 1. An inhabitant of Babylonia. 
2. An astrologer ; — so called because the Chaldeans 
were remarkable for the study of astrology. 

Bae, ) n. [Fr. bac, a ferry-boat, Arm. bag, bak, a bark, 

Back, ) D. bak, tray, bowl.] I. (Brewing & Distil- 
ling.) A large tub or vessel into which the wort, &c, is 
drawn for the purpose of cooling, straining, mixing, &c. 
It has different names, according to its position and use. 
2. A broad, flat boat, for carrying carriages, cattle, &c, 
over ferries, by means of a rope stretched across. 

Ba^oa-lau 're-ate, n. [N. Lat. baccalaureatus , from 
baccalaureiis, a bachelor of arts, from Lat. bacca lauri, 
bayberry, from the practice of the bachelor's wearing a 
garland of bayberries. See Bachelor.] The degree 
of bachelor of arts. 

Ba-e'-ea-lau're-ate, a. Pertaining to a bachelor of arts. 

Baccalaureate sermon, in some American colleges, a farewell 
discourse delivered to a graduating class. 

Bae'-eate, a. [Lat. baccatvs, fr. bacca, berry 
Having a pulpy nature, like a berry. 

Bae'ea-ted, a. Having many berries. 

Ba-e'-eha-nal, ) n. [See infra.] A devotee of Bac- 

Bae'elia-na'li-an, j chus ; one who indulges in 
drunken revels. 

Bae'elia-nal, ) a. Beveling, or pertaining to revel- 

Bae'eha-na'li-an. } ing, in intemperate drinking. 

Ba-e'eha-nal§, \ n. pi. [Lat. Bacchanal, a place de- 

Hd^'-eha-na'li-d, j voted to Bacchus, Bacchanalia, a 
feast of Bacchus, the god of wine.] (Myth.) Feasts in 
honor of Bacchus ; hence, drunken feasts or revels. 

Bae-ehant',n. ; ~L& BAC-CHAN'TEg. [Lat. baccans, of bac.chari, to celebrate the feast of Bacchus.] 1. 
A priest of Bacchus- 2. A bacchanal ; a reveler. 

Ba-c-chaiite', n. 1. A priestess of Bacchus. 2. A 
female bacchanal. 

Ba-e'-elii-e, i a. Relating to Bacchus ; hence, jovial 

Bae'ehie-al, 1 with intoxication ; drunken. 

Bae-clf'er-ous, a- [Lat. baccifer, from bacca, berry, 
em&ferre, to bear.] Producing berries. 

Bae-crv'o-roiis, a. [Lat. bacca, berry, and vorare, to 
devour.] Subsisting on berries. 

B&ch'e-lor, n. [L. Lat. baccalarius, afterward changed 
to baccalaureus. See BACCALAUREATE. The orig. 
sense of the word is little, small, young, from W. bach, 
Ir. beag, beg.] 1. A man of any age who has not been 
married. 2. One who has taken the first degree in the 
liberal arts, at a college or university. 3. A young 

B&cli'e-lor's-but'ton, n. An herbaceous perennial 
plant, the flower of which was formerly carried by coun- 
try fellows in their pockets to know whether they should 
succeed with their sweethearts. 

B&ch'e-lor-ship, n. State of being a bachelor. 

Back, n. [A.-S. bsec, bac. Cf. Sw. backe, hill.] 1. The 
upper or hinder part of an animal, from the neck to the 
loins. 2. The part opposed to the front ; the rear. 3. 
The outward or upper part of a thing, as opposed to the 
inner or lower part. 4. The part opposite to or most 
remote from that which fronts the speaker or actor, or 
the part out of sight. 

Back, adv. 1. To the place from which one came. 2. 
To or toward a former state, condition, station, or time. 
3. Away from the front. 4. In a state of restraint or 
hindrance. 5. Again ; in return- 
Back, v. t. [imp. & p. p. backed ; p. pr. & vb, 

BACKING.] 1. To get upon the back of. 2. To sup- 
port, second or strengthen by aid. 3. To drive or force 
backward. 4. To furnish with a back. 

To back an anchor (Naut.), to lay down a small anchor ahead 
of a large one, to which it is fastened.— To back astern, in row- 
ing, to manage the oars in a direction contrary to the usual 
method. — To back the oars, to row backward with the oars. — 
To back the sails, to arrange them so as to take out the wind, 
and thus to cause the ship to move astern. — To back up, to sup- 
port or sustain. 

Back, v. i. To move or go back. 

To back out, or back down, to withdraw from an engage- 
ment or pledge. 

Back, a. In the rear ; remote. 

BackHbite, v. t. To speak evil of, in the absence of the 

person traduced. 
Back'bite, v. i. To censure or revile the absent. 
BackHbit/er, n. A secret calumniator or detractor. 
BackHbone, n. 1. The spine. 2. Firmness ; moral 

B&ck'er, n. One who, or that which, backs or supports 

Back-gam'mon, n. [W. bach, little, and cammawn, 

cammon, combat.] A game played by two persons, upon 

a table, with box and dice. 
Back'ground, n. 1. Ground in the rear or behind. 

2. A place of obscurity or shade. 
Back'hand'ed, a. 1. With the hand turned backward. 

2. Indirect ; oblique. 3. Inclining to the left. 
Back'hand'ed, adv. With the hand directed back* 

Back'Jiouse, n. A building behind the main or front 

building ; specifically, a privy or necessary. 

"Rark'liillte' I n ' ■*■ P* ece of armor for covering the back. 

Sack' sliisJi, ) n. [Pers. bakhshish, from bakhshidan, 

HacTt'sheesh, } to give.] In India, a present or gra- 
tuity of money. 

Back'side, n. Back or hinder part of any thing ; the 

Back'sight (-sit), n. The first reading of the leveling 
staff, taken from any position of the leveling instrument. 

Back-slide', v. i. [imp. backslid ; p. p. backslid- 
den, BACKSLID ; p. pr. & vb. n. BACKSLIDING.] To 
fall back or off ; to apostatize. 

Back-slid'er, n. One who backslides ; a renegade. 

Back'staff, n. [So called from its being used with the 
observer's back toward the sun.] An instrument for- 
merly used for taking the altitude of the heavenly bodies. 

Back'-stayg, n. pi. (Naut.) Long ropes extending from 
the top -mast heads to both sides of a ship, to assist the 
shrouds in supporting the mast. 

Back'sword (-sord), n. A sword with one sharp edge. 

Back'ward, ) adv. [back and ward. See WARD.] 1. 

Back'wardg, J With the back in advance. 2. To- 
ward the back. 3. On the back, or with the back down- 
ward. 4. Toward or in past time. 5. By way of re- 
flection. 6. From a better to a worse state. 7. In a 
contrary or reverse manner, way, or direction ; contrarily. 

Back'ward, a. 1. Unwilling; averse; reluctant. 2. 
Dull ; not quick of apprehension. 3. Late or behind- 
hand in time. 4. Already past or gone. [ner. 

Back'ward-ly, adv. In a reluctant or unwilling man- 

Back'ward-ness, n. State or quality of being back- 
ward ; aversion ; reluctance. 

Back'wa-ter, n. 1. Water held back, as in a stream, 
by some"obstruction, as a dam. 2. Water thrown back 
by the turning of a water-wheel. 

Back -woods/man, n. An inhabitant of the forest in 
new settlements, especially on the western frontier ef the 
United States. 

Ba'-eon (ba'kn), n. [0. H. Ger. bacho, back, 0. D. baec, 
ham. Cf. Ger. bache, a wild sow, and bacher, a wild boar.] 
Hog's flesh salted or pickled and dried, usually in smoke. 
To save one's bacon, to preserve one's self from harm. 

Ba-eo'ni-an, a. Pertaining to Lord Bacon, or to his 

system of philosophy. 
Bad, a. [comp. worse ; superl. worst.] [Cf. Per. bad, 

Ger. bbse, 0. H. Ger. busi,posi, bad, Goth, bauths, deaf, 

dumb, dull.] Wanting good qualities, whether physical 

or moral ; evil ; ill ; vicious. 

**§■* | (bad, 57). The past tense of bid. See BID. 

Badge, n. [A.-S. beag, beah, bracelet, collar, crown, 
from beogan, bugan, to bow, bend.] 1. A distinctive 
mark, token, or sign worn on the person. 2. Some- 
thing that gives prominence or distinctiveness. 

,. v. ^iiijj. ix/ p. p. aji.^a.s^u , p. pr. o& vo. n. ming mat gives prominence or uisuiiici/iv caeca. 

,long; a,e,&c. ,short; care, far, ask, all, what; 6re,vgil term, pique, firm; son, ordo, wolf, 





Bad'ger, n. [Corrupted 

from L. Lat. bladarius, 

bladerius, from bladum, 

bladus, blada, corn, of 

Celtic origin ; the badger 

was so called because be 

carried away bis store of 

corn from tbe fields of 

the peasants.] 1. A 

burrowing quadruped re- 
lated to tbe bear. It is a Indian Badger. 

clumsy animal, witb sbort, thick legs, and long claws on 

tbe fore feet. 2. (Eng. Law.) A person licensed to buy 

corn in one place and seU it in another 
Bad'ger, v. t. [imp. & p. p. badgered; p. pr. & vb. 

n. badgering.] To follow up with great eagerness, as 

the badger is hunted ; to pester or worry. 
Ba-dig'eon (ba-dlj'un), n. [Fr.] 1. A mixture of 

plaster and freestone, used to fill small boles in statues. 

2. A mixture of saw-dust and glue, used by joiners to 

fill up defects in their work. 
Badinage (bad'e-niizh'), n. [Fr., from badiner, to joke.] 

Light or playful discourse. 
Bad'ly, adv. In a bad manner ; not well. 
Bad'ness, a. State of being bad ; want of good qualities, 

natural or moral. 
Baffle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. baffled : p. pr. & vb. n. 

BAFFLING.] [From Prov. Ger. baffen, baffen, to bark, 

chide.] 1. To treat with insult or mockery. 2. To 

check by shifts and turns. 3. To check by perplexing. 

Syn. — To balk; frustrate; disappoint; confound; defeat; 
elude; foil. 

Baffler, n. One who baffles. 

Bag, n. [Low Lat. baga, A.-S. bselg, bselig, bag, budget, 
belly, Goth, balgs, pouch, Ger. balg, case, skin.] A sack 
or pouch, used to hold, preserve, or convey any thing. 

Bag, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BAGGED ; p. pr. & vb. n. BAG- 
GING.] 1. To put into a bag. 2. To seize or intrap. 

Bag, v. i. 1. To swell hke a full bag. 

Bagatelle (bag/a-tel'), n. [From 0. Fr. bague, bundle. 
Cf. Bag.] 1. A trifle; a thing of no importance. 2. A 
game played with balls and a rod on a board having holes 
at one end. 

Bag'gage, n. [See Bag.] 1. The tents, clothing, uten- 
sils, and other necessaries of an army. 2. Trunks, car- 
pet-bags, &c, containing tbe clothing, &c, which one 
carries with him on a journey ; luggage. 

Bag'gage, n. [Cf. Fr. bagasse, Sp. bagasa, It. bagascin, 
prostitute, from baga, bagua, bundle.] 1. A strumpet. 
2. A playful, saucy young woman. 

Bag'ging, n. The cloth or materials for bags. 

Bagn'io (ban-yo), n. [It., from Lat. balneum, bath.] 1. 
A bath-house. 2. A brothel. 

Bag'pipe, n. A musical instru- 
ment, used in Scotland. 

I3SF" It consists of a leathern bag, 
which receives the air by a tube, 
which is stopped by a valve ; and of 
pipes, into which the air is pressed 
by the performer. 

Bag'pip'er, n. One who plays 
on a bagpipe. 

Bah, interj. An exclamation 
expressive of disgust or con- 
tempt; pah. 

Bail, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BAILED 

ING.] [Lat. bajulare, to bear a burden, bajulus, he who 
bears burdens.] 1. (Law.) (a.) To set free from arrest, 
or custody, and deliver to the keeping of other persons, 
on their undertaking to be responsible for the appearance 
at a certain day and place of the person bailed. (b.) To 
deliver, for some special object or purpose, upon a con- 
tract, expressed or implied, that the trust shall be faith- 
fully executed. 2. To free from water. 

Bail, n. 1. (Law.) (a.) The person or persons who pro- 
cure the release of a prisoner, by becoming surety for bis 
appearance in court. (6.) The security given. 2. The 
handle of a kettle or similar vessel. 

Bail'a-ble, a. 1. Capable of being admitted to bail. 2. 
Admitting of bail. 

Bail'-bond, n. ( Law.) (a.) A bond or obligation given 
by a prisoner and his surety, to insure the prisoner's ap- 
pearance in court, at the return of the writ, (b.) Special 
bail in court to abide the judgment. [mitted in trust. 

Bail-ee', n. (Law.) The person to whom goods are com- 

Bail'er, ) (126), n. (Law.) One who delivers goods to 

Bail'or, ) another in trust, for some particular purpose. 

p. pr. & vb. n. BAIL- 

Bail'iff, n. [See Bail, v. t.] A sheriff's deputy, ap- 
pointed to make arrests, collect fines, summon juries, &c. 

Bail'i-wick, n. [0. Fr. baillie, jurisdiction of a baiUff, 
and A.-S. wic, a termination signifying station, residence.] 
(Law. ) Tbe precincts in which a bailiff has jurisdiction. 

Bail'ment, n. (Law.) A delivery of goods hi trust. 

Bait, n. [See infra.] 1. Any substance used to catch 
fish, &c ; a lure. 2. Any thing serving to allure ; entice- 
ment; temptation. 3. Refreshment taken on a journey. 

Bait, v. t. [imp. & p p. baited ; & vb. n. bait- 
ing.] [A.-S. batan, from bitan, to bite.] 1. To put on c: 
in, as on a hook or in an inclosure, to allure fish, fowls, 
&c. 2. To give food and drink to, upon the road. 

Bait, v. i. To stop to take refreshment on a journey. 

Bait, v. t. [See supra.] To provoke and harass. 

Baize, n. [Perhaps from Eng. base, of little comparativ* 
value.] A coarse woolen stuff, with a long nap. 

Bake, v. t. [imp. & p. p. baked (bakt, 108) ; p. pr. &| 
vb. n. BAKING.] [A.-S. bacan, Skr. patsk.] 1. To heat. 1 
dry, and harden, by natural or artificial means ; specifi- 
cally, to prepare for food, in a close place heated, [baked. 

Bake, v. i. 1. To do the work of baking. 2. To be 

Bake'house, n. A house or building for baking. 

Bak'er, n. 1. One whose occupation is to bake bread, 
biscuit, &c. 2. A small portable tin oven. [Amer.] 
Baker's dozen, thirteen in number. 

Bak'er-y, n. . 1. The trade of a baker. 2. A place used 
for baking ; a bakehouse. 

Bak'ing, n. The quantity baked at once. 

Bak'shish, n. See Backshish. 

Bal'ance, n. [Lat. bilanx, bilancis, having two scales, 
from bis, twice, and lanz, plate, scale.] 1. An apparatus 
for weighing bodies. 2. That which is necessary to 
make two quantities or sums equal. 3. Act of com- 
paring or weighing ; estimate. 4. An equipoise or just 
proportion. 5. A wheel in a watch serving to regulate 
the motion of the other wheels. 6. (Astron.) A sign in 
the zodiac, called Libra. 

Bal'ance, v. t. [imp. & p. p. balanced ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. BALANCING.] 1. To bring to an equipoise, or 
equilibrium ; to weigh in a balance. 2. To render equal 
in importance, force, proportion, &c. 3. To compare 
in relative force, importance, value, &c. ; to estimate. 
4. To settle and adjust, as an account. 5. (Dancing.) 
To move toward, and then back from, reciprocally. 

Bal'ance, v. i. 1. To be in equipoise. 2. To hesitate. 
3. (Dancing.) To move toward a person opposite, and 
then back. 

Bal'an-cer, n. One who balances, or uses a balance. 

Bal'ance-sheet, n. (Book-keeping.) A paper giving a 
summation and balance of accounts. 

Bal'eo-ny, n. [From 0. H. Ger. balcho ,palcho , Eng. balk, 
beam.] A kind of gallery on the outside of a building. 

Bald, a. [Perhaps the p. p. of to ball, to reduce to the 
roundness or smoothness of a ball, by clearing away the 
hair. But cf. also Sp. baldo, baldio, bare; W. moel, 
Gael. & Ir. maol, bald.] 1. Destitute of the natural or 
common covering, as of hah, feathers, foliage, &c. 2. 
Destitute of suitable ornament ; unadorned. 

Bal'da-ehin (baPda-kin), n. [From Bald ach, for Bag- 
dad, It. Baldacco, a city in Turkish Asia whence came 
rich silks such as were used in canopies.] (Arch.) (a.) 
A structure in form of a canopy, (b.) A canopy or orna- 
ment over doors, thrones, &c. 

Bal'der-dash, n. [Prob. in its primary sense, the froth 
or foam made by barbers in dashing their balls backward 
and forward in hot water. But cf. W. baldorduss, a prat- 
tling.] 1. A worthless mixture, especially bad mixed 
liquor. 2. A senseless jargon of words ; ribaldry. 

Bald'ness, n. State of being bald. 

Bald'pate, n. A pate without hair ; a bald person. 

Bal'drie, n. [0. H. Ger. balderich,A.-S. belt, Lat. balteus, 
girdle.] A girdle, or belt, worn pendent from one shoulder 
across the breast, and under the opposite arm. 

Bale, n. [0. H. Ger. balla, Icel. bollr, ball, round pack.] 
A bundle of goods corded for transportation. 

Bale, v. t. [imp. & p.p. baled ; & vb. n. BAL- 
ING.] To make up in a bale. 

Bale, n. [A.-S. beal, balo, Goth, balos.] Misery ; calam- 
ity ; misfortune ; sorrow. 

Bale'-fire, n. A signal-fire ; an alarm-fire. 

Bale'ful, a. 1. Full of bale or misery ; calamitous. 2. 
Full of grief or sorrow ; woful ; sad. 

5- Jrl- *f *' \ n. [Lat. balista, ballista.] A cross-bow. . 

Ba-lize' (-leez'), n. [Fr., from pal, stake, pale, Lat. pa- 
lus.] A pole raised on a bank. 

food, fo"bt ; urn, rude, pull ; fell, chaise, «all, e«ho; gem, get ; ag ; ejist ; linger, link ; thi». 




Balk (bawk), n. [A.-S. bale, Ger. balken, beam.] 1. An 
iinpiowed ridge or strip. 2. A great beam, or rafter, or 
timber. 3. (Mil.) One of tbe beams connecting the suc- 
cessive supports of a trestle-bridge or bateau-bridge. 4. 
A hindrance or disappointment. 

Balk (bawk), v. t. [imp. & p. p. BALKED (bawkt) ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. BALKING.] [From balk, beam ; orig. to put a 
beam in one's way, in order to stop or hinder.] 1. To 
leave untouched in plowing. 2. To disappoint ; to frus- 

Balk (bawk), v. i. To stop abruptly in one's course. 

Balk'er (bawk'er), n. One who balks. 

Balk'y (bawk'y), a. Apt to turn aside or stop abruptly. 

Ball, n. [0. H. Ger. balla,palla. Cf. Bale.] 1. Any 
round body, or one nearly so. 2. Any part of the body 
that is round or protuberant. 3. (Print.) A cushion 
formerly used to put ink on the types in the forms. 4. 
A well-known and familiar game. 

' Ball and socket joint, a joint in which a ball moves within a 
socket, so as to admit of motion in every direction. 

Ball, n. [Fr. bal, Ger. ball, a dancing ; from Gr. fiaWeiv, 
to toss or throw, or 7rdAAeiv, ndWeaOai, to leap, bound.] 
A social assembly for the purpose of dancing. 

Ball, v. i. [imp. & p.p. balled ; p. pr. & vb. n. ball- 
ing.] To form, as snow, into balls, as on horses' hoofs, 
or on the feet. 

Bal'lad, n. [It. ballata, a dancing song, from ballare, to 
dance. See Ball.] A popular song, narrative or senti- 
mental, in simple, homely verses. 

Bal'last, n. [Either from A.-S. bat, boat, and hlsest, load ; 
or of Celt, origin, lit. sand -load, the first syllable having 
been taken from Ir. beal, sand. Cf. W. balasam, ballast.] 

1. (Naut.) Any heavy substance, &c, placed in the hold 
of a vessel, to steady it. 2. Gravel, broken stone, &c, 
laid on the bed of a railroad to make it firm and solid. 

Bal'last, v. t. [imp. & p. p. ballasted ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. BALLASTING.] To load or furnish with ballast. 

Ball'-cock, n. A contrivance which allows water to 
enter a cistern, but shuts of itself by means of a float- 
ing ball, when the cistern is full. 

Bal'let, n. [Fr., from bal. See BALL, dancing-party]. A 
theatrical exhibition with music, dancing, decorations, &c. 

JBal-lis'td,n. ;pl. bal-lis'T^. [Lat. from Gr. fidWetv, 
to throw.] A machine or engine, in the form of a cross- 
bow, used by the ancients in war for throwing stones. 

Bal'lis-ter, or Bal-lis'ter, n. [Lat. ballista.] A cross- 

Bal-lis'li-e, a. [See supra.] Pertaining to the ballista. 

Bal-lxs'tles, n. sing. The science of projectiles. 

Bal-loon', n. [Augm. of Fr. 
balle, Sp. bala, It. balla. See 
Bale and Ball.] 1. A bag, 
made of silk or other light ma- 
terial, and filled with hydrogen ^ 
gas or heated air, so as to rise 
and float in the atmosphere. 

2. (Arch.) A ball or globe on 
the top of a pillar. 3 . ( Chem. ) 
A spherical glass receiver. 

Bal-ldon'ist, n. An aeronaut. 
Bal'lot,7i. [Fr. ballote, Sp. ba- 

lota, a little ball. See Ball.] 

1. Originally, a ball used in 

voting ; hence, a written or 

printed vote. 2. Act of voting 

by balls or tickets. 3. Whole 

amount of votes cast. 
Ballot, v. i. [imp. & p. p. BALLOTED ; p. pr. & vb. n, 

BALLOTING.] To vote or decide by ballot. 
Bal'lot-oox, n. A box for receiving ballots. 
Ball'-valve, n. (Mach.) A ball, placed in a circular cup 

with a hole in its bottom, and operating as a valve. 
BaU'-vein (-van), n. (Mining.) A sort of iron ore, 

found in loose masses of a circular form. 
Balm, (bam) n. [Lat. balsamum, Gr. fi6.kcra.tJ.ov balsam 
1. A kind of aromatic plant. 2. The 'resinous 


q. v.j 

and odoriferous sap or juice of certain trees. 3. Any 
fragrant or valuable ointment. 4. Any thing which 
heals, or which soothes or mitigates pain. 

Balm of Gilead a plant of the terebinthine family, and the 
balsam obtained from it. 

Balm, i\ «. 1. To anoint with balm. 2. To assuage 
Balm'y (bam/y), a. 1. Having the qualities of balm; 

odoriferous; aromatic; soothing. 2. Producing balm. 
Bal'sam, n. [Lat. balsamum, Gr. fidKo-a/jiov.] 1. An 

aromatic resinous substance, containing an essential or 

volatile oil. 2. (Bot.) (a.) A species of tree, (b.) A pop. 
ular annual garden plant ; balsamine. 3. (Med.) A 
mixture composed of natural balsams and other articles. 

Bal-sam'i-e, I a. Having the qualities of balsam ; con- 

Bal-sam'i-e-al, j taming, or resembling, balsam. 

Bal-sam'i-e, n. That which has the properties of a bal- 

Bal'sa-mxf'er-oiis, a. [Lat. balsamum andferre, to 
bear.] Producing balsam. 

Bal'sa-mliie, n. [Gr. /SaAo-d^uvos, of balsam, q. v.] 
(Bot.) The touch-me-not, or garden -balsam. 

Bal'sa-mous, a. Having the quality of balsam. 

Bal'us-ter, n. [From Lat. balaustium, Gr. PaAavo-Tiov, 
flower of the wild pomegranate, on account of the simi- 
larity of form.] (Arch.) (a.) A small column or pilaster, 
used as a support to the rail of a staircase, &c. (b.) The 
lateral part of the volute of the Ionic capital. 

Bal'u.s -trade, n. [See Baluster.] A row of balus- 
ters, joined by a rail. 

Bal'za-rine', n. [Fr.] A fight mixed material of worsted 
and cotton, for ladies' dresses. 

Bam, n. [Probably a contraction of bamboozle.] An im- 
position ; a cheat. [ Vulgar.] 

Bam, v.J. To cheat ; to wheedle. [ Vulgar.] 

Bam-too', «. [Malay.] (Bot.) A plant of the family of 
grasses, growing in tropical countries. 

Bam-bdo'zle, v. t. [Said to be of Gypsy origin.] To 
play tricks upon. [Low.] 

Ban, n. [Fr. ban, L. Lat. bannus,bannum,bandum,0, 
H. Ger. ban. Cf. ABANDON.] 1. A public proclamation 
or edict. 2. (pi.) Public notice of a marriage proposed, 
or of a matrimonial contract. 3. Interdiction ; prohi- 
bition. 4. A curse. 5. A pecuniary penalty for offend- 
ing against a ban, or for the commission of some crime, 

Ban, n. [Serb, ban, Buss. & Pol. pan, a master, lord.] 
A title given to the viceroy of Croatia. 

Ban, v. t. [See Ban, n.] To curse; to 

Ba-na'na, n. [Sp. banana, banano, 
bananas, Fr. banane.] (Bot.) A spe- 
cies of the plantain-tree, and its fruit. 

Band, n. [A.-S. banda, from bindan, 
to bind. See Bind.] 1. Any liga- 
ment or belt with which a thing is 
bound, tied, or fastened, or by which 
a number of things are confined to- 
gether. 2. (Arch.) (a.) Any broad, 
flat, low molding, (b. ) Any continuous 
tablet or series of ornaments, &c, on 
a building, (c). In Gothic architec- 
ture, the molding which encircles pil- Banana, 
lars and small shafts. 3. Means of union or connection 
between persons. 4. A linen ornament worn about the 
neck by clergymen. 5. A company of persons united in 
any common design, especially a body of armed men. 

Band, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BANDED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
banding.] 1. To bind, tie, or mark with a band. 2. To 
unite in a troop, company, or confederacy. 

Band, v. i. To confederate for some common purpose. 

Band'age, n. [See Band.] 1. A fillet, roller, or swathe, 
used in dressing and binding up wounds, &c. 2. Some- 
thing resembling such a fillet. 

Band'age, v. t. [imp. k-p.p. bandaged; .p. .pr. Scvb.n. 
BANDAGING.] To bind T.ith a bandage. 

Ban-dan'a, ) n. [Sp. bandana, from bandano, a neck- 

Ban-dan'na, } erchief made of bast.] A species of silk 
or cotton handkerchief. 

BandTjox, n. A slight paper box for bands, caps, bon- 
nets, or other light articles. 

Bandeau (biin'do), n. ; pi. BANDEAUX (ban'd5z). [Fr.] 
A narrowband or fillet ; a head-dress. 

Ban'de-role, n. [Fr., from bandiere, banner.] A small 
flag, carried on the masts of vessels, or on military 

B&n'dit, n. ; pi. BANDITS or BAN-DIT'Ti. [It. bandito, 
p. p. of bandire, to proclaim, to banish. See ABANDON.] 
A lawless or desperate fellow ; a robber ; a brigand. 

Band-let, \ n. [See Band.] (Arch.) Any little band 

Band'e-let, ) or flat molding. 

Ban'dog, n. [band and dog, i. e., bound dog.] A large, 
fierce kind of dog, kept chained. 

Ban'do-leer', n. [Fr. bandouliere, from bande, band.] 
1. A large leathern belt, thrown over the right shoulder, 
and hanging under the left arm, worn by ancient mus- 
keteers for sustaining their fire-arms. 2. A small leath' 
er case for powder. 

Ban'dore, or Ban-dore', n. [Gr. iravSovpa, a musi- 

,e,hc.,long; a,6,&c.,sAo«; care, far, ask, all, what; ere, veil, term; pique, firm; son, 6r, do, wolf, 




cal instrument, invented by Pan.] A musical stringed 
instrument, very similar in form to a guitar. 

Band'rol, j See Banderole. 
Ban'ner-ol, J 

Ban'dy, n. [Fr. bande, p. p. of bander, to bind, to bandy, 
from bande. See Band] 1. A club bent at the lower 
part for striking a ball. 2. The play with such a club. 

Ban'dy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bandied ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BANDYING.] 1. To beat to and fro, as a ball in play- 
ing at bandy. 2. To give and receive reciprocally ; to 
exchange. 3. To toss about ; to agitate. 

Ban'dy-16g, n. [bandy and leg.] A crooked leg. 

Ban'dy-legged (-legd), a. Having crooked legs. 

Bane, n. [A.-S. bana, Goth, banga, stroke, wound, Gr. 
</>eVeiv, to slay.] 1. A deadly poison ; hence, any fatal 
cause of injury or destruction. 2. Ruin ; destruction. 

Bane'f ul. a. Having poisonous qualities ; noxious. 

Bane'f ul-ly, adv. In a baneful manner. 

Bane'f ul-ness, n. Quality of being baneful. 

Bang, v. t. [imp. & p. p. banged; & vb. n. 
BANGING.] [Icel. banga, to beat, Goth, banja, stroke.] 
To beat, as with a club or cudgel ; to handle roughly. 

Bang, n. A blow, as with a club ; a heavy blow. 

Ban'ian (or ban-yan'), n: [Skr. pan, to sell, panya, 
salable, banik, merchant. Cf. punya, holy, the banian- 
tree being held sacred.] 1. A Hindoo merchant. 2. A 
morning gown. 3. The Indian fig-tree. See Banyan. 
Banian days (Naut.), days in which sailors have no flesh meat. 

Ban'ish, v. t. [imp. & p.p. banished ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BANISHING.] [Low Lat. bannire, bannisare, bannizare. 
See Ban.] 1. To condemn to exile ; to compel to leave 
one's country. 2. To drive away ; to compel to depart. 

Syn. — To exile, expel. — A man is banished when forced to 
depart; exiled when sent from his own into a foreign country; 
expelled when forcibly ejected, usually with disgrace. 

Ban'ish-er, n. One who banishes. [banished. 

Ban'ish- ment, n. Act of banishing, or state of being 

Ban'is-ter, n. [A corrupt, of baluster.] A baluster. 

Ban'jo, n. [Corrupt, of bandore.] A stringed musical in- 
strument, resembling both the guitar and tamborine. 

Bank (82), n. [A.-S. banc. See Bench.] 1. A ridge 
of earth. 2. Any steep acclivity. 3. An elevation in 
the sea ; a fiat ; a shoal. 4. A bench, or a bench of 
rowers, in a galley. 5. {Com.) A collection of money 
deposited by a number of persons for a particular use. 

6. Place where such a collection of money is deposited. 

7. A company of persons concerned in a bank, whether 
a private association or an incorporated company. 

Bank, v. t. [imp. & p. p. banked (bankt) ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. banking.] To raise a mound or dike about ; to 
inclose, defend, or fortify with a bank. [banking. 

Bank, v. i. To deposit money in a bank; to carry on 

Bank'a-ble, a. Receivable at a bank, as bills; or dis- 
countable, as notes. 

Bank'-bill, n. 1. In America, a promissory note of a 
bank payable to the bearer on demand, and forming 
part of the currency ; a bank-note. 2. In England, a 
note, or a bill of exchange, of a bank, payable to order, 
and usually at some future specified time. Such bills 
are negotiable, but form, in the strict sense of the term, 
no part of the currency. 

Bank'-bobk, n. A book in which a person's bank ac- 
counts are entered. 

Bank'er, n. One who keeps a bank ; one who receives 
and remits money, negotiates bills of exchange, &c. 

Bank'ing, n. The business of a banker. 

Bank'-note, n. A promissory note issued by a bank 
or banking company, payable to bearer on demand, and 
intended to circulate as money. 

S3- Such notes, in America, are popularly termed bank-bills. 

Bank'rupt, n. [Fr. banqueroute, It. banco rotto, bank- 
ruptcy, from Fr. banque, It. banco, bank, and Norm. Fr. 
roupt, It. rotto, Lat. ruptus, broken, p. p. of rumpere, to 
break.] 1. A trader who breaks or fails, or becomes 
unable to pay his debts ; an insolvent trader. 2. Any 
individual unable to pay his debts. 

Bank'rupt, a. Unable to pay debts ; insolvent. 

Bank'rupt, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bankrupted; 
& vb. n. bankrupting.] To break in trade ; to make 

Bank'rupt-cy, n. 1. State of being bankrupt; insol- 
vency. 2. Act of becoming a bankrupt ; failure in trade. 

Bank'-stock, n. A share or shares in the capital stock 
of a bank. 

Ban'ner, n. [Fr. banniere, bandiere, from bande, band. 

Cf. Goth, bandva, bandvo, a sign.] A military i 
principal standard of a prince or state ; a pennon ; a 

Ban'ner-et, n. [From Low Lat. banneretus. See Ban- 
ner.] Orig. a military rank conferred only on such as 
were able to bring a certain number of vassals into the 
field ; hence, a rank corresponding to this. 

Ban'nock, n. [Gael, bonnach.] A cake made of oat, 
rye, pease, or barley meal. 

Ban'quet (bank/wet), n. [Fr. banquet, feast, banquette, 
a Utile seat. Banquet is originally a sitting, and hence 
& feast.] A feast ; a rich entertainment. 

Ban'quet. v. t. [imp. & p. p. banqueted; p. pr. 
& vb. n. banqueting.] To treat with a feast or rich 

Ban'quet, v . i. To regale one's self with good eating 
and drinking ; to feast. 

Ban'quet-ei- (bank'wet-er), n. One who banquets. 

Banquette (ban-ket'), n. [Fr., from banc, bench, seat. 
See Bank.] (Fort.) A little raised way, running along 
the inside of a parapet, on which musketeers stand to 
fire upon the enemy in the ditch or in front of it. 

Ban'sliee, ) n. [Gael, bean-shith, fairy, from Gael. & 

Ben'shie, j Ir. bean, woman, and sith, fairy.] An 
Irish fairy that warns of impending death. 

Ban'tam, n. A very small variety of fowl, with feath- 
ered legs, brought, probably, from Bantam, in Java. 

Ban'ter, v. t. [imp. Szp.p. bantered; p. pr. & vb. 
n. BANTERING.] [Prob. corrupted from the Fr. badi- 
ner, to joke.] To play upon in words and in good humor. 

Syn. — To rally; joke; jest; sport; ridicule; deride. — We 
banter in good humor, turning the laugh upon a person for 
something he has done or neglected to do. We rally when we 
attack a person with ridicule, raillery, or sarcasm. This is 
always more pungent, and often ill-natured. 

Ban'ter, n . Humorous raillery ; pleasantry. 

Ban'ter-er, n. One who banters 
or rallies. 

Bant'ling, n. [Corrupt, from the 
Ger. bankling, bastard, from bank, 
bench, prop, a child begotten on 
a bench, and not in the marriage- 
bed. Cf. Bastard.] A young or 
small child ; an infant. 

Ban'yan, or Ban-yan', n. A 
kind of fig-tree, whose branches 
drop shoots to the ground, which 
take root and form new stocks, till they cover a space 
of many hundred feet in circumference. 

Ba/o-bab, n. [Ethiopic] The 
largest known tree in the world, 
a native of tropical Africa. 
The trunk is from 20 to 30 
feet in thickness, while the 
branches are often 70 feet long, 
and form a hemispherical head , 
of 150 feet in diameter. 

Bap'tigm, n. [Gr. /?a7TT<.o-|u.a, Baobab. 

from (3a.TTTL<seLv, to baptize, Pdnreiv, to dip in water.] Act 
of baptizing ; the application of water to a person, as a re- 
ligious ceremony, by which he is initiated into the visible 
church of Christ. 

Bap-tls/mal, a. Pertaining to baptism. 

Bap'tist, n. 1. One who administers baptism, specifi- 
cally applied to John, the forerunner of Christ. 2. As 
a contraction of Anabaptist, one who rejects infant bap- 
tism, and holds to immersion as the only proper mode 
of administering this rite. [tcred. 

Bap'tis-ter-y, n. A place where baptism is adminis- 

Bap-tist/ie, j a pertaining t baptism ; baptismal. 

Bap-tize', v. t. [imp. & p. p. baptized; p. pr. & 
vb. n. baptizing.] [See Baptism.] To administer 
the sacrament of baptism to ; to christen. 

Bap-tlz'er, n. One who baptizes. 

Bar, n. [Fr. barre, It. & Sp. barra, from W. bar, branch 
of a tree, bar, bolt.] 1. A long piece of wood, metal, or 
other solid matter, used for various purposes, but espe- 
cially for a hindrance or obstruction. 2. Any obstacle 
which obstructs, hinders, or defends; a barrier. 3. A 
bank of sand, gravel, or other matter, at the mouth of 
a river or harbor. 4. (Law.) (a.) The railing that in- 
closes the place which counsel occupy in courts of justice. 
(b.) The place in court where prisoners are stationed, (c.) 
The legal profession, (d.) A special plea constituting a 
sufficient answer to the plaintiff's action. 5. Any tribu- 
nal. 6. The inclosed place of a tavern, where liquors 

Banyan Tree. 

food, foot ; urn, rude, prill ; pell, chaise, -call, echo ; gem, get ; a§ ; e^ist ; linger, link; this. 




are kept for sale. 7. (Her.) 
A horizontal mark across the 
escutcheon. 8. (Mus.) A line 
drawn perpendicularly across 

Measure. Measure. 


Bar, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bar. Bar. Double bar. 
barred ; p. pr. & vb. n BARRING.] 1. To fasten 
with a bar. 2. To hinder ; to obstruct ; to prevent. _ 3. 
To except. 4. To cross with one or more stripes or lines. 

Barb, n. [Lat. barba, beard.] 1. Beard, or that which 
resembles it. 2. The point that stands backward in an 
arrow, fish-hook, &c. 3. Defensive armor anciently 
worn by horses, made of leather, set with iron spikes, 
4. A horse of the Barbary stock, noted for speed. 5. 
A pigeon of a black or dun color, from Barbary. 

Barb, v.t. 1. To furnish with barbs, as an arrow, fish- 
hook, or the like. 2. To clothe, as a horse, with armor. 

Bar'ba-ean, ) n. [Fr., of Arabic origin. Ar. barbakhun, 

BarHbi-ean, J aqueduct, sewer.] 1. (Fort.) An ad- 
vanced work defending the entrance to a castle or city. 
2. An opening in the wall of a fortress for guns. 

Bar-ba'ri-an (89), n. [Gr. fidpfiapos.] 1. A foreigner. 
[Obs.] 2. A man in his rude, uncivilized state. 3. A 
cruel, savage, brutal man. 

Bar-ba'ri-an, a. Pertaining to, or resembling, savages ; 
rude ; uncivilized ; cruel ; inhuman. 

Bar-bar'i-e, a. 1. Foreign. 2. Pertaining to, or re- 
sembling, an uncivilized person or people ; barbarous. 

Bar'ba-rigm, n. 1. An uncivilized state or condibion. 
2. Any form of speech contrary to the pure idioms of a 
particular language. 

Syn. — A solecism is a violation of syntax, or of the neces- 
sary laws of thought. 

Bar-bar'i-ty, n. Manners of a barbarian ; savageness ; 
cruelty ; inhumanity. 

Bar'ba-rize, v. i. 1. To become barbarous. 2. To 
use or adopt a foreign or barbarous mode of speech. 

Bar'ba-rize, v. t. To make barbarous. 

Bar'ba-roiis, a. 1. Uncivilized or savage. 2. Cruel ; 
ferocious. 3. Contrary to the pure idioms of a language. 

Bar'ba-roiis-ly, adv. In a barbarous manner. 

Bar'ba-rous-ness, n. Quality or state of being barba- 
rous ; barbarity ; barbarism. 

BarTbate, a. [Lat. barbatus, from barba, beard.] (Bot.) 
Bearing fines, spots, or tufts of hair ; bearded. 

Bar'ba-ted, a. Having barbed points. 

Bar'be-eue, n. [Supposed by some to be corrupted from 
the Fr. barbe-a-queue , i. e., from snout to tail. Cf. CAP- 
A-PIE.] 1. A hog, ox, or other large animal roasted 
whole. 2. A large social entertainment, in the open air, 
at which animals are roasted whole. 

Bar'be-eue, v. t. [imp. & p. p. barbecued ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. BARBECUING.] To dress and roast whole. 

Bai*'bel, n. [Dim. of Lat. barbus, from barba, beard.] 

1. A small process appended to the mouth of certain 
fishes. 2. (Ichth.) A large fresh -water fish, found in 
many European rivers. 3. Superfluous flesh growing in 
a horse's mouth. 

Bar'ber, n. [Lat. barba, beard.] One who shaves the 

beard, and cuts and dresses the hair, of others. 
Bar'ber, v. t. To shave and dress the hair of. 
Bar'ber-ry, n. [Ar. barbaris, N. Lat. berberis.] (Bot.) 

A shrubby plant, common in hedges. Its berries are 

used for preserves. 
Bar'bet, n. [Fr.,from barbe, beard, long hair.] 1. A 

variety of dog having long curly hair. 2. (Ornith.) A 

kind of bird having five bunches of stiff bristles at the 

base of the beak. 3. A species of worm. 
Bar-bette', n. [Fr.] (Fort.) A mound of earth on which 

guns are mounted to fire over the top of the parapet. 
GOT" Guns are en barbette when they are elevated so as to fire 

over the top of a parapet, and not through embrasures. 
BarHbi-ean, n. See Barbacan. 
Bard, n. [W. bardd.] A minstrel among the ancient 

Celts ; hence, in modern usage, a poet. 
Bard'ie, a. Pertaining to bards, or their poetry 
Bare, a. [A.-S. bar, bser.~\ 1. Without covering 

2. With the head uncovered. 3. Destitute; empty; 
unfurnished. 4. Mere ; simple. 

Under bare poles {Naut.), having no sail set. 

Baro, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bared ; p. pr. & vb. n. BAR- 
ING.] To strip off the covering of; to make naked. 

Bare. _The old preterit of bear; now bore. See Bear. 

Bare'fa£ed(-fast-), a. 1. With the face uncovered. 2. 
Without concealment ; hence, shameless ; impudent. 

Bare'faced-ly (fast-), adv. Without disguise or reserve ; 

Bare'faced-ness, n. Quality of being barefaced; ef- 
frontery ; assurance. 

Bare'f dot, a. & adv. With the feet bare. 

Bare'fddt-ed, a. Having the feet bare. 

Barege (ba-raj'), n. [Fr., from Bareges, a town In the 
Pyrennees.] A thin stuff for ladies' dresses, vails, &c. 

Bare'-head-ed, a. Having the head uncovered, either 
from respect or other cause. 

Bare'-legged, a. Having the legs bare. 

Bare'ly, adv. Only ; merely ; nakedly. 

Bare'ness, n. The state of being bare ; nakedness. 

Bar'gain (42), n. [Low Lat. bargania, barcaniare, from 
barca, a boat for merchandise ; hence, to traffic to and 
fro. See Bark, n.] 1. An agreement between parties 
concerning the sale of property. 2. An agreement or 
stipulation of any kind. 3. A gainful or satisfactory 

To strike a bargain, to ratify an agreement, originally by 

striking or shaking hands. 
Syn. — Contract; stipulation; purchase; engagement. 
Bar'gain, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bargained ; p. pr. & 

vb. n. BARGAINING.] To transfer for a consideration. 
Bar'gain, v. i. To make a contract ; to agree. 
Bar'gain-ee', n. (Law.) The party in a contract who 

agrees to receive the property sold. 
Bar'gain-er, n. The party in a contract who stipulates 

to sell and convey property to another. 
Bar'gain-dr'^G), n. (Law.) One who makes a bargain, 

or contracts with another. 
Barge, n. [L. Lat. barga, bargia. See Bark.] 1. An 

elegant pleasure-boat. 2. A large boat for the convey- 
ance of passengers or goods. 
Barge'-board, «. [A corruption of verge-board.] (Arch.) 

A board placed at the gable of a building to hide the hor- 
izontal timbers of the roof. 
Barge'-man, n. ; pi. barge '-men. The man who man- 
ages a barge. 
Barge'-mas'ter, n. The proprietor of a barge. 
Ba-ril'la, n. [Sp. barrilla.] 1. (Bot.) A sea-shore plant 

from which soda is made. 2. (Com.) (a.) The alkali 

produced from the plant, (b ) Impure soda obtained 

from the ashes of any sea-shore plant. 
Bar'i-tone, a. & n. See Barytone. [of baryta. 

Ba'ri-um, n. [Gr. Papv<; heavy.] The metallic basis 
Bark, n. [Icel. bbrkr, L. & H. Ger. borke.] The exterior 

covering of a tree ; the rind. 
Bark, v. t. [imp. & p. p. barked (barkt, 108) ; p. pr. 

& vb. n. BARKING.] 1. To strip the bark from ; to 

peel. 2. To cover or inclose with bark. 
Bark, n. The noise made by a dog. 
Bark, v. i. [A.-S beorcan. Cf. Icel. barki, throat.] 1. 

To make the noise of dogs. 2. To clamor. 
Bark, ) n. [Ger. barke, 
Barque, J L. Lat. barca, 

Icel. barkr, skiff, barki, 

prow, Lat. baris, Gr. /3apt?, 

a small and flat Egyptian 

row-boat.] 1. (Naut.) A 

three-masted vessel, having 

her fore and main masts 

rigged as a ship, and her 

mizzen as a schooner. 2. 

Any small vessel. 
Bark'-bound, a. Having the bark too firm or close. 
Bark'er, n. 1. One who barks or clamors. 2. One 

who strips trees of their bark. 
Bark'y, a. Consisting of, or containing, bark. 
Bar'ley, n. [A.-S. bere, Goth, baris, W. barlys.] (Bot.) 

A valuable grain, of the family of grasses, used chiefly 

for making malt. 
Bar 'ley-brake, ) n. An ancient game, commonly played 
Bar'ley-break, ) round stacks of barley , or other grain. 
Bar'ley-eorn, n. [See Corn.] A grain of barley, 

about the third part of an inch in length. 
Bar'ley-sug'ar (-shoog/ar), n. Sugar boiled till brittle 

(formerly with a decoction of barley), and candied. 
Bar'ley-wa/ter, n. A decoction of barley. 
Barm, n. [A.-S. beorma, from beoran, beran, to bear.] 

The foam rising upon beer, or other malt liquors, when 

fermenting, and used as leaven in bread to make it swell. 
Barm'y, a. Containing barm or yeast. 
Barn, n. [A.-S. berern, bern, from bere, barley, and em, 

sern, a secret or close place.] A building for storing 

grain, hay, &c. ; also for stabling cattle and horses. 
Bar'na-ele (bar'na-kl), n. [Low Lat. bernacula, berni- 

cla, probably for lepas or anas hibernica, or hibernicula, 

because they were found in Hibernia, or Ireland.] 1. 


a, e, &c. , long ; a, 6, &c. , short ; care, far, ask, all, what ; 6re, veil, term ; pique, firm ; s6n, or, do, wolf, 




The whole body of barons or peers. 
i. baron. 3. The land which gives 

(Conch.) A shell -fish, common along sea -shores, where 
they are found adhering to rocks, timber, vessels, &c. 2. 
( Ornith.) A species of goose found in the northern seas ; 
i — formerly thought to grow out of the barnacles at- 
tached to wood in the sea. 3. (pi.) (Far.) An instru- 
ment to put upon a horse's nose, to confine him. 4. 
(pi. ) A pair of spectacles ; — so called from their re- 
semblance to farriers' barnacles. [Cant. Eng.] 

Ba-rom'e-ter, n. [From Gr. /3<xpo?, weight, and fxerpov, 
measure.] An instrument for determining the weight or 
pressure of the atmosphere, and hence the changes of 
weather, or height of any ascent. 

Bar'o-met'rie, (a. Pertaining to the barometer; 

Bar'o-met'rie-al, J made by a barometer. 

Bar'on, n. [Prob. of Ger. origin, from Goth, vair, A.-S. 
ver, Lat. vir, man.] 1. In Eng. the lowest title of nobil- 
ity ; one who holds rank between a viscount and bar- 
onet. 2. (Law.) A husband. 

Baron of beef, two surloins not cut asunder. 

Bar 'on-age, n. 1 

2. The dignity of 

title to a baron. 
Bar'on-ess, n. A baron's wife or lady. 
Bar'on-et, n. [Dim. of baron.] A dignity or degree of 

honor next below a baron and above a knight. 
Bar'on-et-age, n. 1. The collective body of baronets. 

2. The state of a baron. 
Bar'on-et-cy, n. The rank of a baronet. 
Ba-ro'ni-al, a. Pertaining to a baron. 
Bar'o-ny, n. The lordship, honor, or fee of a baron. 
Bar'o-scope, n. [Gr. /3apo9, weight, and o-Korrelv, to 

view.] Any instrument showing the changes in the 
weight of the atmosphere. 

Bar'o-seop-ie, ) a. Pertaining to, or determined 

Bar'o-seop-ie-al^ { by, the baroscope. 

Ba-rouche' (ba-roosh / ), n. [From Lat. birotus, two- 
wheeled, from bis, twice, and rota, wheel.] A four- 
wheeled carriage, with a falling top, a seat on the out- 
side for the driver, and two seats on the inside. 

Bar'ra-ean, n. [Ar. barrakan, barkan, a kind of black 
gown. Cf. Per. barak, a garment made of camel's hair, 
Ar. bark, a troop of camels, barik, camel.] A thick, 
strong stuff, somewhat like camlet. 

Bar'rack, n. [Sp. barraca, from barra, bar.] (Mil.) 
A hut or house for soldiers, especially in garrison. 

Bar'ra~edbn / , n. [From barrack, q. v.] A slave ware- 
house, or an inclosure where slaves are quartered. 

Bar'ra-tor, n. [L. Lat. baratare, most prob. from Gr. 
7rpaTTetv, to do, to use practices or tricks.] 1. An en- 

- courager of litigation. 2. The master of a ship who 
commits any fraud in the management of it. 

Bar'ra-troiis, a. (Law.) Tainted with barratry. 

Bar'ra-try, n. 1. (Law.) Practice of encouraging law- 
suits. 2. (Com.) A fraudulent breach of duty on the 
part of a master of a ship, or of the mariners. 

Bar'rel, n. [Gael, baraill, from barra, bar. Cf. Fr. bar- 
rique, cask ; Sp. barrica.] 1. A round, bulgy vessel or 
cask. 2. The quantity which such a vessel contains, 
varying from 31£ to 36 gallons. 3. Any hollow cylin- 
der or tube. 

Bar'rel, v. t. [imp. & p. p. barreled ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. BARRELING.] To put or pack in a barrel. 

Bar'rel-or'gan, n. The common hand-organ. 

Bar'ren, a. [Norm. Fr. barein, 0. Fr. baraigne ; Arm. 
brekhan, markhan.] 1. Incapable of producing offspring, 
whether animal or vegetable. 2. Producing nothing. 

Syn. — Unfruitful ; sterile ; scanty ; unproductive ; dull, 
uninventive ; empty. 

Bar'ren, n. ; pi. bar'ren§. Elevated lands or plains 
on which grow small trees, but not timber. [Amer.] 

Bar'ren-ly, adv. Unfruitfully. 

Bar'ren-ness(109), n. Quality of being barren ; sterility. 

Bar'ri-eade', n. [Orig. a barring up with casks, from 
Fr. barrique, Sp. & Pg. barrica, cask.] 1. (Mil.) A de- 
fensive fortification, made in haste, of any thing that 
will obstruct the progress of an enemy. 2. Any bar, 
obstruction, or means of defense. 

Bar'ri-eade', v. t. [imp. & p. p. barricaded ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. BARRICADING.] To fortify with any slight 
work that prevents the approach of an enemy. 

Bar'ri-er, n. [Fr. barricre, from barre, bar, q. v.] 1. 
(Fort.) A kind of fence made to stop an enemy. 2. A 
fortress or fortified town on the frontier of a country. 

3. Any obstruction. 4. Any limit or boundary. 
Bar'ring-out, n. Act of fastening the doors of a school- 
room against a schoolmaster. 

Bar'rls-ter, n. [From bar.] A counselor learned in 
the laws, qualified and admitted to plead at the bar. 

Bar'row, n. [A.-S. berewe, bser, from beran, beoran, to 
bear.]_ A light, small carriage, borne by hand. 

Bar-row, n. [A.-S. bearg, Skr. baralia, waraha, hog.] 
A hog, especially a male hog castrated. 

Bar'row, n. [A.-S. beorg, beorh, hill, mound, from be- 
organ, to project, shelter]. A hillock or mound of earth, 
intended as a repository of the dead. 

Bar'-shot, n. Shot, consisting 
of a bar, with a half ball or round 
head at each end. 

Bar'ter, v. i. [0. Fr. borate-,, 
bareter, to exchange. See BAR- 
RATOR.] To traffic by exchanging one commodity for 

Bar'ter, v. t. \ir.*p. & p.p. bartered ; p. pr. & vb. 
bartering .] To exchange, or give in exchange. 

Bar'ter, n. 1. Act or practice of exchanging commodi- 
ties. 2. The thing given in exchange. 
Syn. — Exchange; dealing; traffic; truck; interchange. 

Bar'ter-er, n. One who barters. 

Bar'ti-zan', n. A small overhanging turret, projecting 
from the angles of towers or the parapet and other parts 
of the building. 

Bar'tram, n. [Corrupted from Gr. nvpeOpov, a spicy 
plant, from nip, fire, from its acrid quality.] A plant ; 

Ba-ry'ta, n. [Gr. 0aptS?, heavy.] (Min.) The heaviest 
of the earths ; an oxide, the basis of which is a metal- 
lic substance called barium or barytum. 

Ba-ry'te§, n. (Min.) Sulphate of baryta, generally 
called heavy-spar. [containing, it. 

Ba-ryt'i«, a. Pertaining to baryta, or formed of, or 

Bar'y-tone, a. [Gr. (JapvTovos, from fiapvs, heavy, and 
twos, tone.] [Sometimes written baritone.] 1. (Mus.) 
Grave, and deep, as a kind of male voice. 2. ( Greek 
Gram.) Not marked with an accent on the last syllable, 
the grave accent being understood. 

Bar'y-tone, n. 1. (Mus.) A male voice, the compass 
of which partakes of the common bass and the tenor. 
2. ( Greek Gra?n. ) A word which has no accent marked 
on the last syllable, the grave accent being understood. 

Ba-ry'tum, n. (Min.) A metal, the base of baryta. 

Ba'sal, a. Pertaining to, or constituting, the base. 

Ba-salt' (ba-sawlt') n. [Lat. basaltes, a dark and very 
hard species of marble in Ethiopia, an African wood.] 
1. (Min.) A rock of igneous origin, consisting chiefly of 
augite and feldspar. It is usually of a greenish-black 
color. 2. A kind of black porcelain. 

Ba-salt'ie (-sawhVik), a. Pertaining to basalt, or formed 
of, or containing, basalt. 

Eas-bleu (ba/blu' or D'a-bloo'), n. [Fr. bas, abridged 
from bas-de-chausse, stocking, and bleu,, blue.] A lite- 
rary lady ; a blue-stocking. 

Bas'eule Bridge. A land of drawbridge, with a 
counterpoise, swinging up and down. 

Base, a. [Fr. bas, L. Latin bassus, thick, fat, short, 
humble. Cf. W. bas, shallow.] 1. Of humble birth and 
low degree. 2. Illegitimate by birth. 3. Low in value 
or estimation. 4. Morally low ; hence, unworthy ; 
mean. 5. Not classical or refined. 6. Deep or grave 
in sound. [In this sense, written also bass.] 7. (Law.) 
Not held by honorable service. 

Syn. — "Vile, mean. — Base is a stronger term than vile, 
and vile than mean. The two first denote what is wicked as 
well as low, the latter what is disgraceful or dishonorable. 

Base, n. [Gr. /?aa-ig, step, base, pedestal, from Paiveiv, 
to step.] 1. The bottom ; the part of a thing on which 
it stands or rests. 2. (Arch.) (a.) The part of a col- 
umn between the top of the pedestal and bottom of the 
shaft, (b.) The lower projecting part of the wall of a 
room. 3. That extremity of any thing, as a leaf, fruit, 
&c, by which it is attached to its support, or to some 
more important part. 4. (Chem.) The principal ele- 
ment of a compound, usually electro-positive in quality. 
See Radical. 5. (Dyeing.) A substance used as a 
mordant. 6. [Fr. basse, boss, base, f. of bas, low. See 
supra.] (Mus.) The lowest part ; the gravest male voice. 
[Also written bass.] 7. ( Mil. ) A tract of country protected 
by fortifications, or by natural advantages, from which 
the operations of an army proceed. 8. (Surv.) A line 
which serves as the origin from which to compute the 
distances and positions of any points or objects con- 
nected with it by a system of triangles. 

food, foot ; urn,, pull ; fell, chaise, -call, echo ; gem, get ; a§ ; e^cist ; linger, link ; this. 




Base, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BASED (bast) ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BASING.] To put on a base or basis ; to found. 

Base'-lball, n. A game of ball, so called from tbe bases 
or bounds (usually four in number) whicb designate 
the circuit each player must make after striking the ball. 

Base'-born, a. Born of low parentage. 

Base'less, a. Having no foundation or support. 

Base'-llne, n. 1. A main line taken as a base of oper- 
ations. 2. A line round a cannon at rear of the vent. 

Base'ly, adv. 1. In a base manner. 2. Illegitimately. 

Base'ment, n. [See Base.] (Arch.) The lower story 
of a building, whether above or below the ground. 

Base-uess, n. The quality of being base. 

Base'-plate, n. The foundation-plate of heavy ma- 

Base'- ring, n. (Mil.) A projecting band of metal ad- 
joining the base of a breech engine. 

Ba-shaw', n. A title of honor in the Turkish domin- 
ions. "[Now usually written pasha.] 

Basli'f ul, a. [See Abash.] Having a down-cast look ; 
hence, Very modest. 

B&sh-f ul-ly, adv. In a bashful manner. 

Basli'f ul-ness, n. The quality of being bashful. 

Syn. — Modesty, diffidence. — Modesty arises from a 
low estimate of ourselves; bashfulness is an abashment or agi- 
tation of the spirits at coming into contact with others; diffi- 
dence is produced by an undue degree of self-distrust. 

Ba'si-e, a. (Chem.) 1. Relating to, or performing the 
office of, a base. 2. Having the base in excess. 

Ba'si-fy, v. t. [Lat. basis, base, and facere, to make.] 
( Chem.) To convert into a salifiable base. 

Bas/il, n. [From base, q. v.] The angle to which the cut- 
ting edge of a tool is ground. 

Bas/il, v. t. [imp. & p. p. basiled; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BASILING-.] To grind or form the edge of to an angle. 

Bas/il, n. [From Gr. /3<xo-iAik<5?, royal, from pacn\ev<;, 
king.] A fragrant aromatic plant, one species of which 
is much used in cookery. 

Bas/il, n. [Corrupt, from Low Lat. basanium, bazan.] 
Tiie skin of a sheep tanned. 

Bas/i-lar, ) a. [See Base, n.] Relating to, or situated 

Bas/i-la-ry, J at, the base. 

Ba-gil'i-e, ) n. [Gr. /3aa-tAuc>j (sc. olicia, or a-rod), fr. 

Jia-siVi-ea, ( /BacaAiKos, royal, from fia.o-i\ev<;, king.] 
1. Orig. the palace of a king ; afterward, and hence, any 
large hall or court of justice. 2. A church, chapel, or 

Ba-gil'i-e, ) a. 1. In the manner of a public edifice 

Ba-gil'i-e-al, j or cathedral. 2. (Anat.) Pertaining 
to the middle vein of the right arm. 

JSa-sll'i-edn, n. [See supra.] ( Med. ) An ointment com- 
posed of wax, pitch, resin, and olive-oil. 

Bag'i-lisk, n. [Gr. /WcAio-ko?, dim. of /SacriAev?, a king ; 
so named from some prominences on the head resembling 
a crown.] 1. A fabulous serpent, called a cockatrice, 
and said to be produced from a cock's egg brooded by a 
serpent. Its breath, and even its look, were thought to 
be fatal. 2. (Nat. Hist.) A genus of lizards. 3. (Mil.) 
A large piece of ordnance. 

Ba'sin (bd/sn), n. [L. Lat. bacchinus, from bacca, a water 
vessel. Cf. D. bah, trough, bowl, and Ger. bach, brook, 
orig. a cavity where the water flows, 0. Eng. beck.] 1. 
A hollow vessel, to hold water for washing, and for vari- 
ous other uses. 2. Any hollow place containing water. 
3. A hollow vessel of different kinds used in the arts or 
manufactures. 4. ( Geol. ) A formation-, where the strata 
dip inward, on all sides, toward the center. 5. ( Physical 
Geog.) (a.) A circular or oval valley, (b.) The entire 
tract of country drained by a river. 

Ba'sis, ii.; pi. BA/ser. [Gr. jSao-ij. See Base.] 1. 
That on which a thing rests. 2. Groundwork or first 

Bask (6), v. i. [imp. & p. p. basked (baskt) ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. basking.] [Cf. D. bakeren, Ger. bdehern, Eng. 
bake.] To lie in warmth ; to be exposed to genial 'heat. 

Bask, v. t. To warm with genial heat. 

Bas'ket, n. [W. basgawd, basged, bascod, basg, plait- 
ing.] 1. A vessel made of twigs, rushes, or other flexible 
things, interwoven. 2. The contents of a basket. 

Bas'ket-fish, n. A kind of star -fish. [basket-work. 

Bas'ket-hilt, n. A hilt having a covering wrought like 

Ba'son (ba'sn), n. See Basin. 

Basque (bask), n. [Prob. so called because this fashion 

of dress came from the Basques.] A part of a lady's 

dress, resembling a jacket with a short skirt. 

Bas-relief ' (bd-re-leef ), n. See Bass-relief. 

Bass, n. sing. & pi. [A.-S. bears, baers, Lat. perca, Gr. 
irepicT).] A fish of several species, much esteemed for food. 

Bass, n. [A corruption or modification of bast, q. v.' 
The tiel-tree, or its bark, which is used for mats, &c. 

Bass, n. (Mus.) The lowest part in a musical composi- 
tion. [Written also base.] 

Bas'set, or Bas-set', n. [See Base, n.] A game at 
cards, resembling the modern faro. [outcrop. 

Bfts'set, n. ( Geol. ) Emergence of strata at the surface ; 

Bas'set, v. i. [Cf. 0. Fr. basset, somewhat low, dim. of 
bas, low, and basil.] (Geol.) To crop out. 

Bas'set, a. Inclined upward. 

Bas'set-ing, n. Upward direction of a vein or stratum. 

Bas'so,n. [It. See Base, a.] (Mus.) (a.) The bass or 
lowest part, (b.) One who sings this part. 

Bas'so-r'i'Vi-e'vo. [It.] See Bass-relief. 

Bas-soon', n. [It. bassone, augm. of basso, low. See 
Base , a.] ( Mus. ) A wind instrument with eleven holes, 
which are stopped by the fingers, as in flutes. 

Bas-sdon'ist, n. A performer on the bassoon. 

Bass'-re-lief (bas're-leeP), n. [Fr., from bas, low, and 
relief, raised work. See Relief.] Sculpture, whose 
figures do not stand out far from the ground on which 
they are formed. 

Bass'- vi'ol, n. (Mus.) A stringed instrument used for 
playing the bass or gravest part ; the violoncello. 

Bast, ii. [A.-S. biest, 0. H. Ger. bast, past.] Inner bark 
of the lime-tree, and hence matting, cordage, &c, made 
of the bark. 

Bas'tard, n. [From 0. Fr. bast , N. Fr. bat, a pack-saddle 
used as beds by the muleteers, and the term, ard, art. 
0. Yv.fils de bast, son of the pack-saddle.] 1. Anillegit- 
imate or spurious child. 2. (a.) An inferior qimlity of 
soft brown sugar, (b.) A large size of mold, in which 
sugar is drained. 

Bas'tard, a. 1. Illegitimate. 2. Lacking in genuine- 
ness ; spurious ; adulterate. 

Bas'tard-ize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bastardized; p. 
pr. & vb. 11. bastardizing.] To make or prove to be 
a bastard. 

Bas'tar-dy, n. State of being a bastard ; illegitimacy. 

Baste, v. t. [Cf. Icel. beysta, to strike, powder.] 1. To 
beat ; to cudgel. 2. To sprinkle flour and salt and drip 
butter or fat on, as on meat in roasting. 

Baste, v. t. [imp. & p. p. basted : p. pr. & vb. n. 
basting.] [From 0. H. Ger. bestan, to sew.] To sew 
slightly, or with long stitches. 

Bas-t'ile' (bas-teeP or bas'teel), n. [0. Fr. bastille, for- 
tress, from bastir, to build.] Orig., a temporary wooden 
tower used in warfare ; hence, any tower or fortification. 

133*- The name has been specifically applied to an old fortifi- 
cation in Paris, long used as a state prison, but demolished ia 

Bas'ti-nade', ) n. [From 0. Fr. baston, now baton, a 
Bas'ti-na'do, } stick or staff. Cf. Baste.] A sound 

beating or cudgeling ; specifically , a punishment among 

the Turks, Chinese, and others, consisting in beating an 

offender on the soles of his feet. 
Bas^i-nade', ) v. t. To beat with a cudgel, especially 
Bas'ti-iia'do, ) on the soles of the feet. 
Bas'tion (bast'yun), n. [From 

0. Fr. & Sp. bastir, It. bast ire, to 

build.] (Fort.) A part of the 

main inclosure which projects to- 
ward the exterior, consisting of 

the faces and the flanks. 
Bas'yle, n. [Gr. /3acr<.?, base, and " A, Bastion. 

{,'Atj, wood, a base.] ( Chem.) An electro-positive ingredient 

of a compound. 
Bat, n. [A.-S. bat, allied to beatan, to beat.] 1. A heavy 

club, used in playing ball. 2. A sheet of cotton prepared 

for filling quilts or comfortables. 3. A piece of a brick. 
Bat, v. i. To manage a bat, or play with one. 
Bat, ii. [Corrupt, from 0. 

Eng. back, backe, Scot, back, 

backie, bird.] {Nat. Hist.)' 

One of a class of mammals 

having a body resembling that 

of a mouse, and a kind of 

wings made by a membranous 

expansion stretching from the 

fore extremities to the tail. 
Batch, n. [From bake, A.-S. bacan.] 1. The quantity 

of bread baked at one time- 2. Any business dispatched 

at once, or any quantity of things so united as to have 

like qualities. 


a,e,&c.,Zong7 &,e,8tc, short; care, far, ask, all, what ; ere, veil, term; pique, firm; sou, or, do, wolf , 





Bate, v t. [imp. kp.p. bated ; p. pr. & vb. n. BAT- 
ING.) [Abbreviated from abate, q. v.] 1. To lessen; to 
abate. 2. To allow by way of abatement or deduction. 

Bateau (bat-o'), n. ; pi. bateaux (bat-oz')- [Fr.] A 
ligbt boat, long in proportion to its breadtb, and wider 
in the middle tnan at the ends. 

Bateau-bridge, a floating bridge supported by bateaux. 

Bat'-fowl'ing, n. A mode of catching birds at night, 
by torch-light. 

Bath, n.; pi. BATH§. [A.-S. baeth, Skr. bad, vad, to 
bathe.] 1. A place to bathe in. 2. Act of exposing the 
body, for purposes of cleanliness, health, &c, to water or 
vapor. 3. ( Chem.) A medium, as heated sand, through 
which heat is applied to a body. 4. A Hebrew measure 
containing 7 gallons and 4 pints, as a measure for liquids ; 
and 3 pecks and 3 pints, as a dry measure. 

Order of the Bath, a high order of British knighthood. 

Bath'-brielc, n. A brick made of calcareous earth for 
cleaning knives. 

Bathe, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bathed; p. pr. & vb. n. 
bathing.] 1. To wash by immersion. 2. To moisten 
with a liquid. 

Bathe, v. i. 1. To be, or lie, in a bath. 2. To immerse, 
as in a bath. 

Bathe, n. The immersion of the body in water ; bath. 

Bath'er, n. One who bathes. 

Bath'ing-tulb), n. A vessel for bathing. 

Ba/thos, n. [Gr. /3a0o?, from jSaflu's, deep.] (Rhet.) A 
ludicrous descent from the elevated to the mean. 

Bat'ing, prep., or, more properly, & participle. With the 
exception of; excepting. 

Bat'let, n. [From bat.] A small bat for beating linen 
when taken out of the buck. 

Jidtoti (bti-tong/), \ n. [Fr. baton.] A staff or trun- 

Ba-tdbn' (ba-toon'), j cheon, used for various pur- 

Ba-tra'elxi-an, a. (Zool.) Pertaining to animals of the 
order Batrachia, which includes the frog and related 

Ba-tra'ehi-an, n. (Zool.) An animal of the order Ba- 

Bat's'-wlng, n. A gas-burner, the flame from which is 
shaped like a bafs wing. 

Bat-tal'ia (bat-taFya), n. [Lat., battle, combat. See 
BATTLE.] Disposition or arrangement of troops, brig- 
ades, regiments, battalions, &c, as for action. 

Bat-tal'ion (-tal'yun), n. [Fr. bataillon. See BAT- 
TALIA.] (Mil.) A body of infantry ; in the British army 
about eight hundred men, under the command of a 
lieutenant-colonel. In the United States service, an ag- 
gregation of from two to ten or twelve companies. 

Bat'tel (bat'tl), n. [See Battle.] (Law.) A species 
of trial in which a person accused of felony was allowed 
to fight with his accuser, and make proof thereby of his 
guilt or innocence. 

Bat'tel, v. i. 1. To stand indebted, at the buttery, at 
Oxford, Eng., for provisions and drink. 2. To reside at 
the university. 

Bat'tel, n. [From 0. Eng. bat, increase, and A.-S. dssl, 
deal.] Provisions taken by Oxford students from the 
buttery, and also the charges thereon. 

Bat'tel-er, ) n. [See Battel, n.] 1. A student at 

Bat'tler, j Oxford who stands indebted at the buttery 
for provisions and drink. 2. One who resides at the 

Bat'ten, v. t. [imp. & p. p. battened ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. battening] [See Battel.] 1. To fatten. 2. 
To fertilize, as land. 

Bat'ten, v. i. To grow fat ; to live in luxury. 

Bat'ten, n. [From Fr. baton, stick.] 1. A narrow piece 

of board, or scantling. 2. The movable bar of a loom. 
Bat'ten, v. t. To form or fasten with battens. [to. 

Bat'ten-ing, n. Battens fixed to walls for nailing laths 
Bat'ter, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BATTERED; p. pr. & vb. 
n. BATTERING.] [Lat. batnere, to strike, beat.] 1. 
To beat repeatedly and with violence, so as to bruise, 
shake, or demolish ; specifically, to attack with artillery. 
2. To wear or impair with beating or by use. 
Bat'ter, v. i. (Arch.) To slope gently backward. 
Bat'ter, n. (Arch.) A backward slope in the face of a 

Bat'ter, n. [From batter, v. t.] A mixture of several in- 
gredients, beaten up with some liquid, used in cookery. 
BS,t'ter ) 
BSts'fp' \ n ' One who holds the bat in cricket. 

Bat'ter-er, n. One who batters or beats. 

Bat'ter-ing-ram, n. 1. 

(Mil.) An engine used to beat 
down the walls of besieged 
places. 2. A blacksmith's 
hammer, suspended, and 
worked horizontally. 

Bat'ter-y, n. [Fr. batttrie, 
from buvore. See Batter. j- 
1. Act of battering. 2. (Mil.f 
(a.) Any place where cannon "Battering-ram. 

are mounted, for battering a fortification or attacking an 
enemy, (b.) A body of cannon taken collectively. 3. 
(Elec.) A number of coated jars, so connected that they 
may be charged and discharged simultaneously. 4. 
(Galv.) An apparatus for generating galvanic electric- 
ity. 5. (Law.) The unlawful beating of another. 

Bat'ting, n. Cotton or wool in sheets ; bat. 

Bat'tle, n. [Lat. battalia, battualia, fighting and fenc- 
ing exercises, from batuere, to strike, to beat.] A fight 
or encounter between enemies or opposing forces. 

A drawn battle, one in which neither party gains the victory. 
— A pitched battle, one in which the armies are previously 
drawn up in form, with a regular disposition of the forces. 

Syn. — Combat; fight; engagement. — Combat is a close en- 
counter, and may be (like fight) between single individuals; a 
battle is more general and prolonged; engagement supposes 
large numbers on each side engaged or intermingled in the 

Bat'tle, v. i. [imp. & p. p. battled ; p. pr. & vb. n. 

BATTLING. ]_ To contend in fight. 
Bat'tle-ar-ray', n. Order of battle. 
Bat'tle-ax, )n. (Mil.) A kind of ax for- j 

Bat'tle-axe, j merly used as an offensive 1 

weapon. /f9 

Bat'tle-door (bat'tl-dor),n. [Corrupted from [l|ff|>- 

Sp. battallador , a great combatant, from batal- 

lar, to combat.] An instrument of play, with 

a handle and a fiat board, used to strike a 

Bat'tle-ment, n. [Either from battle, or 

fr. Low Lat. bastilla, bastillus, tower, fortifica- 
tion.] (Arch.) An indented parapet, originally 

used only on fortifications. 
Bdt'tue, n. [Fr., from battre, to beat.] 1. Act 

of beating woods, &c, for game. 2. The 

game itself. 
Bau'ble, n. [Fr. babiole, It. 

babbola, a child's plaything ; 

Lat. babulus, foolish.] A trifling 

piece of finery ; a gew-gaw. 

[Written also bawble.] 
U@** A fool's bauble was a short 

stick with a head ornamented with 

ass's ears fantastically carved on it. 

Bawd, n. [From Goth, balths, 

Eng. bold.] A person who keeps a brothel, and con- 
ducts criminal intrigues ; — usually applied to females. 

Bawd, v. i. To procure women for lewd purposes. 

Bawd'i-ly, adv. Obscenely ; lewdly. 

Bawd'i-ness, n. Obscenity ; lewdness. 

Bawd'ry, n. 1. Practice of procuring women for the 
gratification of lust. 2. Obscenity. 3. Illicit intercourse- 

Bawd'y, a. Obscene ; filthy ; unchaste. 

Bawd'y-liouse, n. A house of prostitution. 

Bawl, v. i. [imp. & p. p. BAWLED ; p. pr. k vb. n- 
BAWLING.] [Icel. baula, to low, A.-S. bellan, Ger. 
belle.n, to bark ; Lat. balare, to bleat.] To cry with ve- 
hemence, as in calling or exultation, or as a child from 
pain or vexation. 

Bawl, v. t. To proclaim by outcry ; to cry. 

Bawl, n. A loud, prolonged cry. 

Bawl'er, n. One who bawls. 

Bay, a. [Lat. badius.] Red or reddish, inclining to a 
chestnut color ; — applied to the color of horses. 

Bay, n. [Low Lat. baia, Ir. & Gael, badh or bas;h.] 1. 
An inlet of the sea, usually smaller than a gulf, but of 
the same general character. 2. (Arch.) A principal 
compartment or division in the architectural arrange- 
ment of a building. 3. A low inclosed place in a barn 
for depositing hay. 

Bay, n. [Lat. baca, bacca, berry.] The laurel-tree ; hence, 
in the pi., an honorary garland or crown, anciently made 
of branches of the laurel. 

Bay, n. [See infra.] A state of being obliged to face an 
antagonist when escape has become impossible. 

Bay, v. i. [0. Fr. abayer, fr. Lat. ad and baubari, to 
bark moderately.] To bark, as a dog at his game. 

Bay, v.t. To bark at. 



food, foot; urn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, «all, echo; gem, get; a§ ; exist; linger, link; this. 




Sword bayonet. I 


Ba'ya-dere', n. [Pg. bailadeira, from bailar, to dance.] 

A 'female dancer in the East Indies. 
Bay'ard, n. [From bay, and the termination ard. See 

Bay, a.] Properly a bay horse, but often any horse. 
BayHber-ry, n. (Bot.) (a.) The fruit of the bay-tree. 

(b.) The fruit of the wax myrtle, and the plant itself. 
Bay'o-net,«. [So called, 

it is said, because first 

made at Bayonne.] 

(Mil.) A short, pointed 

instrument of iron, fitted 

to a gun. 
Bay'o-net, v. t. [imp. 

& p. p. BAYONETED ; 

p. pr. & vb. n. BAYONETING.] 1. To stab with a 

bayonet. 2. To drive by the bayonet. 

Bay'ou, (bl'oo), n. [Fr., from Lat. botellus, a small sau- 
sage".'] The outlet of a lake ; a channel for water. [ South- 
ern States.] 

Bay'-rum, n. A fragrant liquor obtained by distilling 
the leaves of the bay-tree. 

Bay'-salt, n. Salt obtained from sea-water, by evapora- 
tion by the heat of the sun. 

Bay'-tree, n. A species of laurel. 

Bay'- will 7 do w, n. (Arch.) A projecting window form- 
ing a bay or recess in a room. 

Ba-zaar', \ n. [Per. bazar, market.] 1. In the East, a 

Ba-zar', J market-place, or assemblage of shops, for 
the sale of goods. 2. A spacious hall or suite of rooms 
for the same purpose. 

Bdell'ium (dtPyum), n . [Gr. 6Se'AA.iov,Heb. Vdolakh.] 
A gummy, resinous exudation from an Oriental tree. 

Be, v. i. and auxiliary, [imp WAS ; p. p. BEEN ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. BEING.] [A.-S. beon, beonne, Skr. bhu, to be, 
Lat. fui, I have been. This verb is defective, and its 
defects are supplied by verbs from other roots, is, was, 
which have no radical connection with be.] 1. To exist 
logically, or in thought. 2. To exist actually, or in the 
world of fact. 3. To exist in some particular state, or 
in some relation. 4. To pass from one state or relation 
to another ; to become. 
Let be, to omit, or leave untouched; to let alone. 

Beach, n. [Cf. Dan. & Sw. bakke, hill, margin.] A sandy 
or pebbly shore ; strand. 

Beach, v. t. To run upon a beach. 

Bea'-eon, n. [A.-S. beacen, becen.] 1. A signal-fire to 
notify the approach of an enemy. 2. (Naut.) A signal 
or conspicuous mark on an eminence near the shore, or 
in shoal water, as' a guide to mariners. 3. That which 
gives notice of danger. 

Bea'-eon, v. t. [imp. & p. p. beaconed ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. beaconing.] To give light to, as a beacon. 

Bea 'con-age, n. Money paid to maintain a beacon. 

Bead, n. [A.-S. bead, prayer, from biddan, to pray.] 1. 
A little perforated ball, to be strung on a thread, and 
worn for ornament ; or used to count prayers, as by Ro- 
man Catholics. 2. Any small globular body. 

Bead, v. t. To ornament or distinguish with beads. 

Bead'ing, n. (Arch.) A molding in imitation of beads. 

Bea'dle (bS'dl), n. [A.-S. bydel, bsedel, from beodan, to 
command, bid.] 1. A messenger or crier of a court. 2. 
An officer in a university, who precedes pub he proces- 
sions. 3. (Church o/Eng.) An inferior parish officer 
having a variety of duties. 

Bea'dle-ship, n. The office of a beadle. 

Bead'-roll, n. (Rom. Cath. Church.) A catalogue of 
deceased persons, for whom prayers are to be counted oft 
on the beads of a chaplet ; hence, a catalogue in general. 

Beads/-man, n. ; pi. beads'-men. A man employed in 
praying, who drops a bead at each prayer. 

Bea'gle, n. [Prob. of Celtic origin, and so named from 
littleness ; Ir. & Gael, beag, small, little, W. bach.] A 
small hound, formerly used in hunting hares. 

Beak, n. [Ir. & Gael, bee, TV. pig; D. bek,It. becco, Sp. 
pico.] 1. (Nat. Hist.) The bill or nib of a bird, tur- 
tle, &c. 2. Any thing ending in a point, or projecting 
like a beak. 

Beaked (beekt), a. Having a beak; ending in a point, 
or having a process, like a beak. 

Beak'er, n. [Lat. bacar, bacrio, wine-glass.] A large 
drinking-cup or vessel. 

Beam, n. [A.-S. beam, beam, post, tree, ray of light, 
Goth, bagms, N. H. Ger. baum, tree.] 1. Any large 
piece of timber, long in proportion to its thickness. 2. 
A main timber of a building, ship, loom, plow, or other 
structure. 3. The part of a balance, from which the 
Bcales hang. 4. The pole of a carriage. 5. The straight 

part or shank of an anchor. 6. A collection of parallel 
rays from any luminous body. 

Beam, v. t. To send forth ; to emit. 

Beam, v. i. [imp. & p. p. beamed ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BEAMING.] To emit rays of light ; to shine. 

Beam'-en/gliie, n. A steam-engine having a working- 
beam to transmit power. 

Beam'y, a. 1. Emitting rays of light ; radiant. 2. 
Resembling a beam in size and weight ; massy. 

Bean, n. [A.-S. bean. Cf. Gr. nvavos, TV. ffaen.] A well- 
known leguminous plant, and its seed, of many varieties. 

Bean'-fly, n. A beautiful fly, of a pale purple color, 
found on bean flowers. 

Bean'- goose, n. A species of goose, probably so called 
from its fondness for beans. 

Bear, v. t. [imp. BORE (formerly BAKE) ; p.p. BORN, 
BORNE ; & vb. n. bearing.] [A.-S. beran, beo- 
ran, geberan, Goth, bairan, gabairan, Lat. ferre, Gr. 
4>epeiv, Skr. bhri.] 1. To support or sustain. 2. To 
support and remove ; to convey. 3. To possess and use, 
as power. 4. To possess or carry, as a mark of authority 
or distinction ; to wear. 5. To' possess mentally ; to en- 
tertain. 6. To endure ; to tolerate ; to suffer. 7. To 
sustain, or be answerable for. S. To show or exhibit; 
to relate. 9. To carry on, or maintain. 10. To admit 
or be capable of. 11. To behave ; to act. 12. To af- 
ford; to supply with. 13 . To bring forth; to give birth. 

Ggf- In the passive form of this verb, usage restricts the p. p . 
born to the sense of brought forth, while borne is used in the 
other senses of the word. In the active form, borne alone is 
used as the past participle. 

To bear a hand (Xaut.), to assist ; to make haste, be quick. 

— To bear date, to be dated. — To bear the bell. See Bell. — 
To bear down, to overthrow or crush by force. — To bear out, 
to maintain and support to the end. 

Bear, v. i. 1. To produce, as fruit ; to be fruitful. 
2. To press. 3. To take effect ; to succeed. 4. To be 
situated, as. to the point of compass, with respect to 
something else. 5. To relate or refer to. 

To bear away, or vp (Navt.,) to change the course of a ship, 
and make her run before the wind. — To tear back, to retreat. 

— To bear down upon (Aauf.), to drive or tend to. — To bear off 
(Naut.), to steer away from land or from another vessel. — To 
bear up, to be supported; to stand firm.— To bear upon, to act 
upon or be in position to act upon. — To bear with, to endure; 
to be indulgent to. 

Bear, n. [A.-S. bera.] 1. 
( Zool. ) A wild quadruped of , 
the genus Ursus. 

E3=- Among the species are the 
brown bear of Europe, the white 
polar bear, the grisly bear of the 
Rocky Mountains, the black 
bear of North America. 

2. ( Astron . ) One of two con- 
stellations in the northern Black Bear, 
hemisphere, called respectively the Greater and Lesser 
Bear, or Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. 

Bears and bulls, in cant language, gamblers in stocks. A 
bear is one who contracts to deliver, at a specified future time, 
stocks which he does not own; a bull is one who contracts to 
take them. 

Bear'a-hle, a. Capable of being borne ; tolerable. 
Beard, n. [A.-S. beard, Ger. bart, Lat. barba,W. barf.] 

1. The hair that grows on the chin, Ups, and adjacent 
parts of the face. 2. Any thing that resembles the 
beard of the human face ; particularly, the long stiff 
hairs on a plant ; the awn. 

Beard, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BEARDED; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BEARDING.] 1. To seize, pluck, or pull the beard of. 

2. To set at defiance. 
Beard'ed, a. Having a beard. 
Beard'less, a. Without a beard ; youthful. 
Bear'er, n. 1. One who, or that which, bears, sustains, 

or carries. 2. Specifically, one who assists in earning 
a body to the grave. 3. ( Com.) One who holds a check, 
note, draft, or other order for the payment of a sum of 

Bear'-gar'den, n. 1. A place where bears are kept for 
sport. 2. A rude, turbulent assembly. 

Beftr'ing, n. 1. The manner in which a person bears 
himself. 2. The situation of an object, with respect to 
another object ; hence, relation. 3. Act of producing 
or giving birth. 4. (Arch.) Span of a beam, rafter, or 
other piece of timber. 5. (Her.) Any single emblem or 
charge in an escutcheon. 6. (Mach.) (a.) The part in 
contact with which a journal moves, (b. ) That part of 
a shaft or axle which is in contact with the supports. 

a,,e,kc.,long; a.,e\&c, short; care, far, ask, all, what ; ere, veil, term; pique, firm; son, or, do, wolf , 




Syn. — Deportment; gesture; mien; behavior; direction; 
relation; tendency; influence. 

Bear'ish, a. Partaking of the qualities of a bear. 

Bear'§'-fobt, n. ( Bot.) A species of hellebore. 

Bear'-skln, n. 1. The skin of a bear. 2. A coarse, 
shaggy, woolen cloth for overcoats. 

Bear'- ward, n. A keeper of bears. 

Beast, n." [0. Fr. beste, beeste, now bete, Lat. bestia, H. 
Ger. bestie.] Any four-footed animal, which may be used 
for labor, food, or sport; as opposed to man, any irra- 
tional animal. 

Syn. — Brute. — They are called beasts, as mere animals 
governed by animal appetite, and brutes, as destitute of reason 
and moral feeling. Hence we say, figuratively, a drunkard 
makes himself a beast, and then treats his family like a brute. 

Beast'li-ness, ». The state or quality of being beastly ; 

brutality ; filthiness. 
Beast'ly, a. Pertaining to, having the form and nature 

of, or resembling, a beast ; brutal ; filthy. 
Beat, v. t. [imp. beat ; p. p. beat, beaten ; p. pr. 

& vb. n. BEATING.] [A.-S. beatan, Lat. batuere.] 1. 

To strike repeatedly. 2. To break, bruise, or pulverize 

by beating. 3. To form by beating. 4. To scour or 

range over. 5. To overcome in contest. 6. To indicate 

by the signal of beating a drum. 

To be beat out, to be extremely fatigued. — To beat time, to 
measure or regulate time in music by the motion of the hand 
or foot. — To beat up, to attack suddenly. 

Syn. — To strike ; pound ; bang ; buffet ; maul ; drub ; 
thump; baste; thwack; thrash; pommel; break; bruise; bray; 
conquer; defeat; vanquish; overcome. 

Beat, v. i. 1. To strike repeatedly. 2. To throb ; to 
pulsate. 3. To come or act with violence. 4. To be 
in agitation or doubt. 5. (Naut.) To make progress 
against the direction of the wind, by sailing in a zigzag 
line or traverse. 

To beat about, to try to find. —To beat up for, to go about to 
enlist men for the army. 

Beat, n. 1. A stroke, or the manner of giving one ; a 
blow. 2. A recurring stroke; a pulsation. 3. (Mus.) 
(a.) The rise or fall of the hand or foot, in regulating 
the divisions of time, (b.) A transient grace -tone, 
struck immediately before the one it is intended to orna- 
ment. 4. A round or course, which is frequently gone 
over. 5. A place of habitual or frequent resort. 

Beat, a. Weary ; tired ; fatigued. 

Beat'en, p. a. Made smooth by beating or worn by use. 

Beat'er, n. 1. One who beats, cr strikes. 2. An in- 
strument for pounding. 

Be'a-tlf'ie, ) a. [See Beatify.] Imparting or com- 

Be'a-tif 'ie-al, ) pleting blissful enjoyment. 

Be'a-tif 'ic-al-ly, adv. In a beatific manner. 

Be-at'i-fi-ea'tion, n. 1. Act of beatifying. 2. (Rom. 
Cath. Church.) An act of the pope declaring a person 
beatified after death ; the first step toward canonization. 

Be-at'i-fy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. beatified ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. BEATIFYING.] [Lat. beatificare, from beatus, 
happy, and face re, to make.] 1. To pronounce or re- 
gard as happy, or as conferring happiness. 2. To bless 
with the completion of celestial enjoyment. 3. (Rom. 
Cath. Church.) To declare, by a decree or public act, that 
a person is received into heaven. 

Beat'ing. n. 1. Act of giving blows; punishment by 
blows. 2. Pulsation; throbbing. 3. (Naut.) Process 
of sailing against the wind by tacks in a zigzag direction. 

Be-at'i-tude (53), n. [Lat. beatitudo, from beatus, 
happy.] 1. Felicity of the highest kind. 2. The dec- 
laration of blessedness made by our Savior in regard to 
particular virtues. 3. (Rom. Cath. Church.) Beatifica- 

Beau (bo), n. ; pi. Fr. BEAUX, Eng. BEATJS (boz). [Fr., 
from Latin belius, pretty, fine.] A man of dress ; a fine, 
gay man ; a lady's attendant or suitor. 

Beau I-de'al (bo I-dS'al). [Fr., beautiful ideal.] A 
conception of perfect or consummate beauty. 

Beau'isli (bo / ish). a. Like a beau ; foppish ; fine. 

Beau 3Ionde (bo niond). [Fr., fine world.] The fashion- 
able world. 

Beau'te-oiis (bu'te-us), a. [From beauty, q. v.] Yery 
fair, or very handsome ; beautiful. 

Beau'te-ous-ly (bu'te-us-ly), adv. In a beauteous 

Beau'te-oiis-ness (bu'te-us-nes), n. State or quality 
of being beauteous ; beauty. 

Beau'ti-fl-er, n. One who, or that which, beautifies. 

Beau. 'ti-f \\\ (bu'ti-ful), a. Having the qualities which 
constitute" beauty. 

Syn. — Handsome; pretty 
paratively small, which please by their 

Pretty applies to things com- 
delicacy and grace, as 

pretty girl, flower, cottage. Handsome is more striking and 
the pleasure greater, as a handsome woman, tree, villa; it im- 
plies suitableness, and hence we speak of a handsome fortune 
or ofier. Beautiful implies all the higher qualities which de- 
light the taste and imagination. 

Beau'ti-fiil-ly(bu / ti-fal-ly), adv. In a beautiful manner. 

Beau'ti-f ul-ness (bii'ti-ful-nes), n. The quality of be- 
ing beautiful ; beauty. 

Beau'ti-fy (bu'ti-fy), v. t. [imp. & p. p. beautified ; & vb. n. beautifying.] [Eng. beauty and Lat. 
facere, to make.] To make or render beautiful. 

Syn. — To adorn; grace; ornament; embellish ; deck. 

Beau'ti-fy (bQ'ti-fy), v. i. To become beautiful. 

Beau'ty (bu'ty,) n. [Fr. be aute, from beau. See Beau.] 

1. An assemblage of graces or of properties which 
pleases the sight or any of the other senses, or the mind. 

2. A particular grace, feature, ornament, or excellence. 

3. A beautiful person, especially a beautiful woman. 
Beau'ty-spot, n. A patch or spot placed on the face 

to heighten beauty. 

Bea'ver (b5'ver), n. [A.-S. 
beofer, befer, Lat. fiber.] 1. 
(Zool.) An amphibious, ro- 
dent quadruped. 2. The fur 
of the beaver. 3. A hat made 
of the fur. 4. A cloth, some- 
times felted, used for making 
overcoats, hats, &c. 

Bea'ver, n. [Fr. baviere, It. 

baviera, from Fr. bave, It. ba- ' Beaver. 

va, slaver; hence, lit., that part of the helmet which 

catches the drops or dribblings.] Part of a helmet in 

front, so constructed that the wearer 

could raise or lower it to eat and drink. 

Bec'a^fi'co (-nVko), n. ; pi. bec'ca- 
Fl'cOEg. [It. beccafico, from beccare, 
to peck, and fico, a fig.] ( Ornith.) A 
small bird which feeds on figs, grapes, 
&c, and is highly prized for the deli- 
cacy of its flesh. 

Be-ealni' (be-k'am'), v. t. [imp. & p. p. 
ING.] 1. To render calm; to appease. 2. To keep from 
motion by want of wind. 

Be-eame', imp. of become.- See Become. 

Be-eau§e', conj. [0. Eng. bycause, from by and cause, 
q. v'.] By or for the cause that ; on this account that ; 
for the reason that. 

Be-chauce', v. t. To befall ; to happen to ; to occur to. 

Be-cliarm', v. t. To charm; to captivate ; to enchant. 

Beck, n. [A.-S. beacen, becen, sign, beacnian, becnian, 
to beckon. Perhaps beck is only a contr. of beckon.] A 
significant nod, or motion of the head or hand. 

Beck, v. i. To nod, or make a sign with the head or 

Beck, v. t. To notify or call by a nod, or a motion of 
the head or hand ; to intimate a command to. 

Beck'on (bek'n), v. i. [See Beck.] To make a sign to 
another, by nodding, or with hand or finger, &c. 

Beck'on (bek'n),!'. t. [imp. & p.p. BECKONED ; 
& vb. n. BECKONING.] To make a significant sign to ; 
hence, to summon. 

Be-eloud', v. t. [imp. & p. p. beclouded; p. pr. & 
vb. n. beclouding.] To cause obscurity or dimness 
to ; to make dark or gloomy ; to overshadow. 

Be-eome' (-kum 7 ), v. i. [imp. became ; p. p. be- 
come ; p. pr. & i-6. n. becoming.] [Prefix be and 
come, q. v. ; A.-S. becuman, to come to, to happen ; 
Goth, begviman.] To pass from one state or condition 
to another ; to enter into some new state. 
To become of, to be the fate of; to be the end of. 

Be-come' (-kum/), v. t. To suit or be suitable to ; to be 
congruous with ; to befit. 

Be-eom'ing, a. Appropriate or fit ; congruous ; suit- 
able ; graceful ; befitting. 

Be-eom'ing-ly, adv. After a becoming manner. 

Be-eom'iiig-iiess, n. State or quality of being be- 
coming ; suitableness. 

Bed, n. [A.-S. bed, bedd, Goth, badi.] 1. An article 
of furniture to sleep or take rest on. 2. Matrimonial 
connection ; marriage. 3. A plat of ground in a gar- 
den, usually a little raised above the adjoining ground. 
4. Bottom of a stream, or of any body of water. 5. 
( Geol.) A layer, seam, or stratum. 6. Place on which 
any thing rests. 

food, foot ; urn,, pull ; fell, chaise, call, echo ; gem, get ; a§ ; ejist ; linger, link j this. 




Bed of justice ( Fr. Hist.), a visit of the king to a refractory 
parliament for the purpose of causing his decrees to be regis- 
tered;— so called from his occupying the throne (called lit, 
bed) on such occasions.— To be brought to bed, to be delivered 
of a child. — To make the bed, to put it in order. — From bed 
and board (Law), a phrase applied to a separation by partial 
divorce of man and wife, without dissolving the bands of 
Bed, v. t. [imp. &p. p. bedded ; p. pr. & vb. n. bed- 
ding.] 1. To place in a bed. 2. To plant and inclose 
or cover. 3. To lay or put in place of rest and security, 
surrounded or inclosed. 
Bed, v. i. To go to bed ; to cobabit. 

Be-dab'ble, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bedabbled ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. BEDABBLING.] To sprinkle or wet with moisture. 

Be-dag'gle, v. t. To soil with mud or dirty water. 

Bedash', v. t. [i?np. & p. p. bedashed ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. BEDASHING.] To wet by dashing or throwing 
water or other liquor upon. 

Be-daub', v. t. [imp. & p. p. bedaubed ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. bedaubing.] To besmear or soil with any thing 
thick and dirty ; to daub over. 

Be-daz'zle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bedazzled; p. pr. 
& vb. n. bedazzling.] To dazzle or make dim by too 
strong a light. 
Bed'-biig, n. An offensive bug which infests beds. 

Bed'-cham / ber, n. A chamber for a bed. 

Bed'clotheg, n. pi. Blankets, sheets, coverlets, &c., for 
a bed. 

Bed'ding, n. 1. Materials of a bed, whether for man or 
beast. 2. ( Geol.) State or position of beds and layers. 

Be-deck', v. t. [imp. & p. p. bedecked ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
bedecking.] To deck, ornament, or adorn. 

Be-dev'il, (-deVl), v. t. To throw into utter confu- 
sion, as if by the agency of evil spirits. 

Be-dew' (-du'), v. t. [imp. & p. p. bedewed ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. bedewing.] To moisten with dew, or as with 
dew. [bed. 

Bed'f el-low, n. One who lies with another in the same 

Be-dight' (be-dif), v. t. [be and dight.] To deck with 
ornaments ; to set off. [Rare.] 

Be-dim', v. t. [imp. & p. p. bedimmed ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. bedimming.] To make dim ; to obscure or darken. 

Be-di'zen, or Be-diz'en, v. t. [be and dizen.] To 
dress or adorn tawdrily or with false taste. 

Bed'lam, n. [Corrupted from Bethlehem, a religious 
house in London, afterward a hospital for lunatics.] 1. 
A mad-house. 2. An insane person. 

Bed'lam-ite, n. An inhabitant of a mad-house ; a 

Bed'ou-'in (bed'oo-een), n. [At. bedawi, rural, living 
in the desert, from badw, desert, from bada, to live in the 
desert.] One of a tribe of nomadic Arabs living in tents, 
and scattered over Arabia, and parts of Africa. 

Bed'-piece, ) n. (Mach.) The foundation framing or 

B6d'=plate, ) piece, by which the other parts are held 
in place ; — called also base-plate and sole-plate. 

Be-drag'gle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bedraggled; p. 
pr. & vb. n. BEDRAGGLING.] To soil, by dragging in 
dirt, mud, &c. ; to bedaggle. 

Be-drench, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bedrenched ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. bedrenching.] To drench ; to soak ; to wet 
through ; to saturate. 

Bed'rid, ) a. [bed and ride, p. p. rid, ridden.] Con- 

Bed'rid-den, j fined to the bed by age or infirmity. 

Bed'room, n. An apartment for a bed. 

Be-drop', v. t. To sprinkle, or cover as with drops. 

Bed'side, n. The side of the bed. 

Bedstead, n. A frame for supporting a bed. 

Bed'-tick, n. A case of cloth, for inclosing the mate- 
rials of a bed. 

Bed'-time, n. Usual hour of going to bed. 

Be-diick', v. t. To duck ; to immerse in water. 

Be-dung', v. t. To cover with dung. 

Be-dust', v. t. To sprinkle, soil, or cover with dust. 

Be-dwarf', v. t. To make a dwarf of; to stunt. 

Be-dye', v. t. To dye or stain. 

Bee, n. [A.-S. beo.] 1. (Entom.) A well-known four- 
winged insect of many genera and species. 2. An as- 
semblage of persons who meet to labor for the benefit of 
an individual or family. [Amer.] 3. pi, (Naut.) Pieces 
of plank bolted to the outer end of the bowsprit. 

Bee'=bread, n. A brown, bitter substance, the pollen 
of flowers, collected by bees, as food for their young. 

Beech, n. [A.-S. bece, boc, Latin fagus, Gr. 4>r)y6<;, 
W. ffawydd. ] ( Bot. ) A tree of the genus Fagus. 

Beech'en (bech'n), a. Consisting of, or pertaining to, 
the wood or bark of the beech. 

Bee'-eat'er, n. ( Ornith. ) A bird that feeds on bees. 

Beef, n. [Fr. 
bazuf, ox, beef 
(flesh), fr. Lat. 
bos, bovis, ox, 
Gr. /3ovs, gen. 
/3oos ; Pr. bou, 
Pg. boy, boi.\ 
1. An animal 
of the genus 
Bos, including 
the bull, cow, 
and ox, in their 
full-grown state. 
[In this, which 
is the original 
sense, the word 
has a pi. , beeves.] 

1, neck ; 2, shaking-piece : 

ribs; 5, clod ; 6, Drisket ; 7, flank 

loin, sirloin ; 9, rump; 10, round; 11, 

leg; 12, foot; 13, udder; 14, shin; 15, 


2. The flesh of an ox, bull, or cow, 
or of bovine animals generally, when killed. [In this 
sense, the word has no plural.] 
Beef, a. Pertaining to, or consisting of the flesh of, the 

ox, or bovine animals. 
Beef'-eat'er, n. [beef and eater. Corrupted, in its 
second meaning, from bvffetier, a keeper of the buffet.] 

1. One who eats beef; hence, a large, well-fed person. 

2. One of the yeomen of the guard, in England. 3. 
( Ornith.) A South African bird, that feeds on the mag- 
gots hatched under the skin of oxen, antelopes, &c. 

Beef 'steak, n. A slice of beef broiled, or for broiling. 
Bee'-glue, n. A soft, unctuous matter, with which bees 
cement the combs to the hives, and close up the cells ; — 
called also propolis. 
Bee'-lilve, n. A case or box used as a habitation for 

Bee'- line, n. The shortest line from one place to an- 
other, like that of a bee through the air. 
Bee'-moth, n. (Entom.) A moth whose eggs produce 

larves which occasion great mischief in bee-hives. 
Been (bin). The past participle of be. See Be. 
Beer, n. [A.-S. beor, bear, Icel. bior, D. & Ger. bier.] 1. 
A fermented liquor made from any malted grain, with 
hops and other bitter flavoring matters. 2. A fermented 
extract of the roots and other parts of various plants, 
as spruce, ginger, sassafras, &c. 
Beer'y, a. Of, or resembling, beer ; affected by beer. 
Bee§'-wax, n. The wax secreted by bees, and of which 

their cells are constructed. 
Beet, n. [A.-S. beta, bete, Lat. beta.] (Bot.) A plant, 
having a succulent root much used for food, and also for 
making sugar. 
Bee'tle (be'tl), n. [A.-S. bytl, bitl, biotul, mallet ; beatan, 
to beat ; bitel, the insect beetle, from bitan, to bite.] 
1. A heavy mallet or wooden hammer. 2. ( Zool.) Any 
coleopterous insect characterized by having four wings, 
the outer pair being stiff cases for covering the others 
when they are folded up. 3. A machine used to pro- 
duce figured fabrics by pressure from corrugated rollers. 
Bee'tle (be'tl), v. t. To produce ornamental figures on, 

by the use of the instrument called a beetle. 
Bee'tle (be'tl), v. i. [Cf. A.-S. beotan, beotjan, to 

threaten.] To hang or extend out ; to jut. 
Bee'tle-browed (-broud), a. Having prominent brows. 
Bee'tle-head'ed, a. Having a head like a beetle; 

dull, stupid. 
Beeve, «. [See Beef.] A bull, ox, or cow. 

IS3P - Rarely used in the singular. See Beef, n., No. 1. 
Be-fall', v. t. [imp. befell ; p.p. befallen ; p. pr. 

& vb. n. befalling.] To happen to ; to occur to. 
Be'fall', v. i. To come to pass ; to happen. 
Be-fi't', v. t. To be suitable to ; to suit ; to become. 
Be-fogged' (-fogdO, a. Involved in a fog. 
Be-fobl'^. t. [imp. & p.p. befooled; & vb. 

n. BEFOOLING.] To fool ; to infatuate; to deceive. 
Be-fore', prep, [be and fore. A.-S. beforan .] 1. In front 
of; preceding in space. 2. Preceding in time. 3. Pre- 
ceding in dignity, order, rank, right, or worth. 4. In 
presence or sight of; facing. 5. In the power of. 
Be-fore', adv. 1. On the fore part ; in front. 2. In 

time preceding ; already. 
Be-fore'band, adv. 1. In a state of anticipation or 
pre-occupation. 2. By way of preparation or prelimi- 
Be-f5re'hand, a. In comfortable circumstances as 

regards property ; forehanded. 
Be-fore'time, adv. Of old time ; formerly. 
Be-foul', v. t. To make foul ; to soil ; to dirty. 
Be-friend', v. t. [imp. & p. p. befriended ; p. pr. & 

a,e,&c, long; a,e,&c.,sAorJ/ care, i»r, ask, all, what; ere, veil, term; pique, firm; son, 6r, do, wolf, 




vb. n. befriending,] To act a3 a Mend to ; to favor ; 
to aid, benefit, or countenance. 

Be-fringe', v.t. To furnish with a fringe. 

Beg [or ba), n. [Turk, beg, which is pron. bay.] The 
governor of a town, city, or district in Turkey and some 
other parts of the East ; a bey. 

Beg, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BEGGED ; p. pr. & vb. n. BEG- 
GING.] [Cf. A.-S. biddan, 0. S. biddian, Goth, bidjan, 
the letter d having perhaps been dropped, and i or j 
changed into g. But it is much more probable that beg 
is only a modification of to bag, since mendicants carry 
with them bags, into which they put the provisions given 
to them.] 1. To ask earnestly, with humility or in char- 
ity. 2. To take for granted. 

Syn. — To entreat; solicit; implore; beseech; supplicate. 

Beg, v. i. To ask alms or charity ; to practice begging. 

Be-gan', pret. of begin. See BEGIN. 

Be-get', v. t. [imp. begot, begat; p. p. begot, 
BEGOTTEN ; p. pr. & vb. n. BEGETTING.] [be and 
get] To procreate, as a father or sire ; to generate ; to 
get ; to produce. 

Be-get'ter, n. One who begets. 

Beg'gar, n. [0- Bng. more prop, begger, from beg.] 
One who begs or entreats earnestly, or with humility : 
specifically , one who lives by begging ; a mendicant. 

Beg'gar, v. t. [imp. & p. p. beggared ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
"BEGGARING.] 1. To reduce to beggary ; to impoverish. 
2. To make destitute ; to exhaust. 

Beg'gar-li-ness, n. State of being beggarly. 

Beg'gar-ly, a. In, or partaking of, or resembling, the 
condition of a beggar ; extremely indigent ; mean ; poor. 

Beg'gar-y, n. A state of extreme poverty or indigence. 

Be-gild', v. t. To cover or overlay with gold. 

Begin', v. i. [imp. began ; p. p. BEGUN ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. BEGINNING.] [A.-S. beginnan, ginnan, Goth, du- 
ginnan. The orig. sense of ginnan is to cut, split.] 1. 
To have an original or first existence ; to take rise ; to 
commence. 2. To do the first act ; to take the first step. 

Be-gln', v. t. 1. To enter on; to commence. 2. To 
trace from as the first ground. 

Be-gin'iier, n. One who begins ; specifically, a young 
or inexperienced practitioner ; a tyro. 

Be-gln'ning, n. 1. The first cause ; origin ; source. 2. 
That which is first ; first state ; commencement. 3. 
The rudiments, first ground, or materials. 

Be-gird', v. t. [imp. begirt, BEGIRDED ; p. p. BE 
GIRT ; p. pr. & vb. n. begirding.] 1. To bind with a 
band or girdle ; to gird. 2. To surround, as with a 
band ; to encompass or inclose. 

Be-gnaw' (be-naw'), v. t. To bite or gnaw. 

Be-goiie' (21), inter j. Go away ; depart. 


p. p. of beget. See Beget. 


Be-grea§e', or Be-grease', v. t. To daub with grease. 

Be-grime', v. t. [imp. & p. p. begrimed; p. pr. & 
vb. n. begriming.] To soil with grime or dirt. 

Be-grudge', v. t. [imp. & p. p. BEGRUDGED ; 
& vb. n. begrudging.] To envy the possession of. 

Be-gulle' (-gil'), v. t. [imp. & p. p. beguiled ; p. pr 
& vb. n. beguiling.] 1. To delude by artifice; to im- 
pose on. 2. To evade by craft. 3. To cause to pass 
without notice. 

Syn. — To delude; deceive; cheat; insnare; amuse. 

Be-gulle'ment, n. Act of beguiling or deceiving. 

Be-gull'er, n. One who, or that which, beguiles. 

Be-gun', p.p. of begin. See Begin. 

Be-half (-hatf), n. [Perh. from pref. be and half, in- 
terpreted for my half that is, for my part ; but more 
prob. a corrup. of the A.-S. beliefs, profit, benefit, con- 
venience. See Behoof.] Advantage; convenience; 
benefit ; interest ; profit ; support ; defense. 

Be-have', v. t. [imp. & p. p. behaved ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BEHAVING.] [Prefix be and have ; A.-S. behabban, to 
restrain, to detain.] To carry ; to conduct ; to manage ; 
to bear ; — used reflexively. 

Be-have', v. i. To act ; to bear or carry one's self. 

Be-hav'ior, (-haVyur), n. [See Behave.] Manner of 
behaving, whether good or bad ; conduct ; deportment. 

Syn. — Conduct, deportment. — Behavior is the mode in 
which we have or bear ourselves toward others ; conduct is the 
mode of our conducting or leading ourselves forward, and in- 
volves the general tenor of our actions. The former, like de- 
portment, is shaped chiefly by circumstances; the latter is a 
development of the man. Behavior in society; conduct of life. 

Be-head', v. t. [imp. & p. p. beheaded ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. beheading.] To sever the head from; to take off 
the head of ; to decapitate. 

Be-held', imp. & p. p. of behold. See Behold. 

Be'he-moth, n. [Heb. behemoth, beasts, animals, par- 
ticularly of the larger kind, pi. of Vhemah, beast. Cf. 
Egypt, p-ehe-moout, i. e., water-bull.] An animal de- 
scribed in the book of Job, xl. 15-24, and variously sup- 
posed to be the ox, the elephant, the crocodile, the mas- 
todon, and the hippopotamus. 

Behest', n. [be and hest ; A.-S. behses.] That which ia 
willed or ordered ; command : mandate ; injunction. 

Behind', jorej?. [be and hind; A.-S. behind an.] 1. On 
the side opposite the front or nearest part ; at the back 
of; on the other side of; as, behind a door; behind a 
hill or rock. 2. Left after the departure of another. 3. 
Left at a distance by, in progress of improvement ; hence, 
inferior to. 

Be-hind', adv. 1. At the back part; in the rear. 2. 
Toward the back part or rear ; backward. 3. Not yet 
brought forward or exhibited to view ; remaining. 4. 
Backward in time or order of succession ; past. 

Be-hind'hand, a. 1. In arrear ; in a state where ex- 
penditures have preceded the receipt of funds, or are in- 
adequate to the supply of wants. 2. In a state of back- 
wardness, in seasonableness or appropriateness. 

Be-hold', v. t. [imp. &p.p. beheld (p. p. formerly 
beholden, now used only as a p. a.) ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BEHOLDING.] [A.-S. behealdan, to behold, to hold in 
sight, from pref. be and bealdan, gehealdan, to hold, 
keep.] To fix the eyes upon ; to look at ; to see with at- 

Be-hold', v. i. To direct the eyes to an object ; to look. 

Be-hold'en (be-hold'n), p. a. [The p. p. of behold, used 
in the primitive sense of the simple verb hold.] Obliged ; 
bound in gratitude ; indebted. 

Be-hold'er, n. One who beholds ; a spectator. 

Be-liold'ing, a. Obliged; under obligation. [Improp- 
erly used for beholden.] 

Behoof, n. [See Behoove.] That which is advan- 
tageous ; advantage ; profit ; benefit. 

Be-hdove', v. t. [A.-S. behofian, from 0. Sax. biheffian, 

0. H. Ger. biheffan, to take, contain.] To be necessary 
for ; to be fit or meet for, with respect to necessity, duty, 
or convenience. 

Be-hove', and its derivatives. See Behoove. 

Be'in'g, p. pr. of be. See Be. 

Be'ing, n. 1. Existence in fact or in thought. 2. 
That which exists in any way. 

Be-la'foor, v. t. 1. To work diligently upon. 2. To 
beat soundly ; to cudgel. 

Be-late', v. t. [imp. & p. p. belated ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
belATING.] To retard or make too late. 

Be-lay', v. t. [imp. & p. p. belayed ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
belaying.] (Naut.) To make fast, as a rope, by taking 
several turns with it round a pin or cleat. 

Be-lay'ing-pin, n. (Naut.) A strong pin round which 
ropes are wound when they are belayed. 

Belch (66), u. t. [imp. & p. p. BELCHED (belcht) ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. belching.] [A.-S. bealcjan. Cf. belcan, 
to inflate.] 1. To throw up from the stomach with vio- 
lence ; to eruct. 2. To eject violently from within. 

Belch, v. i. 1. To eject wind from the stomach. 2. 
To issue with violence. 

Belch, n. Act of belching ; eructation. 

Bel'dam, ) n. [Fr. belle-dame, fine or handsome lady; 

Bel'dame, J — a term of respectful address, therefore 
used to elderly people ; hence the meaning was corrupted.] 

1. Grandmother. 2. An old woman in general, espe- 
cially an ugly old woman ; a hag. 

Be-lea'guer (-le'ger), v. t. [imp. & p. p. BELEA- 
GUERED ; p. pr. & vb. n. beleaguering.] [be and 
leaguer, n. ; Ger. belagern, fr. pref. be, and lagern, to en- 
camp.] To surround with an army so as to preclude 
escape ; to besiege ; to blockade. 

Syn. — To block up; besiege; environ; invest; encompass. 

Be-lem'nite, n. [Gr. /3e\etxviTns, from fiiXefxvov, dart, 
from /3aAAeii/, to throw.] (Paleon.) A small calcareous 
fossil, cylindrical and hollow, tapering to a point ; the 

Bel-esprit (bel'es-pree'), n. ; pi. BE AUX-E SPRITS 
(boz'es-pree'). [Fr.] A fine genius, or man of wit. 

Bel'fry, n. [M. H. Ger. bervrit, bercvrit, N. H. Ger. 
bergfriede, burgfriede, from Ger. berg, mountain, or burg, 
castle, citadel, and friede, peace, security.] 1. A mova- 
ble tower, erected by besiegers for attack and defense. 

2. A bell-tower. 3. A cupola or turret, or a room in a 
tower, in which a bell is hung. 

Be-lle', v. t. [imp. & p. p. BELIED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BELYING.] 1. To give the he to ; to show to be false. 

food, foot ; firn, rude, pull; cell, chaise, call, echo; gem, get ; a§; e^ist ; linger, link ; this 




2. To give a false representation or account of. 3. To 
tell lies concerning ; to slander. 4. To counterfeit. 
Be-lief, n. [From believe, q. v.] 1. An assent of m i n d 
to the truth of a declaration, proposition, or alleged fact, 
on the ground of evidence, of internal impressions, or 
of arguments and reasons furnished by our own minds. 
2. The thing believed ; a tenet, or body of tenets. 
Syn. — Credence; trust; faith; credit; confidence. 

Be-liev'a-ble, a. Capable or -worthy of being believed. 

Be-lieve', v. t. [imp. & p. p. believed ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. BELIEVING-.] [Prefix be and A.-S. lefan, lyfan, to al- 
low, permit.] To be persuaded of the truth of; to regard 
as true ; to place confidence in ; to credit. 

Be-lieve', v. i. 1. To have a firm persuasion, which 
often approaches to certainty. 2. To think ; to suppose. 

Be-liev'er, n. One who believes or credits; esp., one 
who believes in the Scriptures as a revelation from God. 

Be-like', adv. It is likely ; probably ; perhaps. 

Be-Kt'tle, v. t. To make little or less in a moral sense ; 
to lower in character. [American. Rare.] 

Bell, n. [A.-S. belle, bellan, to bellow, to make a loud 
noise.] 1. A hollow metallic vessel which gives forth a 
clear, ringing sound on being struck. 2. Any thing in 
the form of a bell, as the cup or calyx of a flower. 

To bear away the bell, to win the prize at a race where the 
prize was a bell; hence, to be superior in something. — To bear 
the bell, to be the first or leader, in allusion to the bell-wether 
of a flock, or the leading horse of a team or drove that wears 
bells on his collar. — To bell the cat, to encounter and cripple 
one of a greatly superior force;— a phrase derived from the 
fable of the mice resolving to put a bell on the cat, to guard 
them against his attack. 

Bel'la-don'na, n. [It., prop, fine lady.] Deadly night- 
shade, formerly employed as a cosmetic. 

Belle, n. [Fr., from Lat. bellus.] A young lady of supe- 
rior beauty and much admired. 

JBelles-lettres (bel-let'ter), n. pi. [Fr.] Polite or ele- 
gant literature ; the humanities. 

Bell'-f low-er, n. A genus of plants ; — so named from 
the shape of the flower, which resembles a little bell. 

Bell'-f ound'er, n. One who founds or casts bells. 

Bell'-f ound'er-y , ) n. A place where bells are founded 

Bell'-f ouiid'ry, ) or cast. 

Bei'li-eose', a. [Lat. bellicosus.] Disposed to conten- 
tion; pugnacious. 

Bel-Kg'er-ent, a. [Lat. bellum, war, and gerens, p. pr. 
of gerere, to wage.] 1. Waging war. 2. Tending to, 
or disposed for, war. [on war. 

Bel-lig'er-ent, n. A nation, power, or state, carrying 

Bel-lip'o-tent, a. [Lat. bellipotens, from bellum, war, 
andpotens, powerful, p. pr. of posse, to be able.] Pow- 
erful or mighty in war. 

Bell'man, n. ; pi. bell'men. A man who rings a bell, 
especially to give notice of any thing in the streets ; — 
formerly a watchman. 

Bell'-met'al (-nieMi or -me^al), n. An alloy of copper 
and tin ; — used for making bells, &c. 

Bel'low, v. i. [A.-S. bellan.'] 1. To make a hollow, 
loud noise, as a bull. 2. To bawl ; to vociferate ; to 
clamor ; to roar. 

Bel'low, n. A loud outcry ; roar ; vociferation. 

Bel'lows (bel'lus), n. sing. & pi. [A.-S. bselg, bag, belly, 
bellows, blast-belg, a blast-bag, bellows ; Goth, balgs, a 
leather bag or bottle. It is allied to Lat. follis. The 
root is contained in 0. H. Ger. and A.-S. belgan, to swell.] 
An instrument for propelling air through a tube, for vari- 
ous purposes. 

Bel'lows-fish, n. {Ichth.) A kind offish distinguished 
by a long, tubular snout, like the pipe of a beUows ; — 
called also trumpet-Jish. 

BeU'-rlng'er, n. One whose business is to ring a bell. 

Bei'lu-ine, a. [Lat. belluinus, from bellua, beast.] Per- 
taining to, or like, a beast ; brutal. 

Bell'-weth'er, n. A wether or sheep which leads the 
flock, with a bell on his neck. 

Bel'ly, n. [A.-S. bsrlg, bsclig. See Bellows.] 1. 
That part of the body which contains the bowels, or 
intestines; the abdomen. 2. The part of any thing 
which resembles the belly in protuberance or cavity. 

Bel'ly, v. i. To swell and become protuberant. 

Bel'ly-band, n. A band that encompasses the belly of 
a horse ; a girth. 

Be-long' (21), v. i. [imp. & p. p. BELONGED; p. pr. 
& vb. n. BELONGING.] [Prefix be and 0. Eng. long, 
v. i., to belong.] 1. To be the property of; to be the 
concern or proper business of; to appertain. 2. To 
be a part of, or connected with. 3. To be native to, or 
to have a legal residence. 

Be-long'ing, n. That which pertains to one, as a qual- 
ity or endowment. 

Be-16ved' (be-lQvd' as a p., be-luv'ed as an a., %0),p.p. 
or a. Greatly loved; dear to the heart. 

Be-low', prep, [be and low.] 1. Under in place; be- 
neath ; not so high. 2. Inferior to in rank, excellence, 
or dignity. 3. Unworthy of ; unbefitting. 

Be -low', adv. 1. In a lower place, with respect to any 
object ; beneath. 2. On the earth, as opposed to the 
heavens. 3. In hell, or the regions of the dead. 4. In 
a court of inferior jurisdiction. 

Syn. — Beneath. — Below is opposed to on high; beneath 
is opposed to above. A person who is below us at table is not 
beneath us. Below has not, therefore, like beneath, the sense of 
unbecoming or unworthy of. We say, beneath (not below) the 
character of a gentleman, beneath contempt, &c. This dis- 
tinction 6hould not be overlooked. 

Belt, n. [A.-S. belt, Lat. balteus.] 1. That which en- 
girdles a person or thing ; a band or girdle. 2. That 
which restrains or confines like a girdle, or which resem- 
bles a girdle. 

Belt, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BELTED ; p. pr. & vb. n. BELT- 
ING.] To encircle as with a belt ; to encompass. 

Belt'ing, n. 1. The material of which belts are made. 
2. Belts taken collectively. 

Be-lu'ga, n. [Russ. bieluga, prop, signifying white fish, 
from bielyi, white.] {Ichth.) A fish of the cetaceous 
order and dolphin family, from 12 to 18 feet in length. 

Bei/ve-dere', n. [It., lit. a beautiful sight, from bello, 
bel, beautiful, and vedere, to see.] 1. (It. Arch.) A small 
structure on the top of an edifice, open to the air on one 
or more of its sides. 2. A summer-house on an eminence 
in a park or garden. 

Be-maze', v. t. To bewilder ; to confuse. 

Be-mire' v. t. To drag, encumber, or soil, in the mire. 

Be-moan', v. t. [imp. & p. p. bemoaned ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. bemoaning.] To express deep grief for by moan- 
ing ; to lament ; to bewail. 

Be-mock', v. t. To treat with mockery ; to ridicule. 

Ben, or Ben'-nut. [Per. & Ar. bahmen, behman, an 
herb with leaves like ears of corn ; a medicine of two-fold 
nature; Per. & Ar. baihan, the flower rosa canina.] 
(Sol.) The seed or fruit of a species of Moringa, from 
which a valuable oil is extracted. 

Bench (66), n. [A.-S. bene, Icel. beckr, W. bank.] 1. 
A long seat. 2. A long table at which mechanics and 
others work. 3. The seat where judges sit in court. 4. 
The persons who sit as judges ; the court. 

Bench'er, n. 1. One of the senior members of a society 
who have the government of one of the inns of court. 
2. An alderman of a corporation. 

Bench'-mark, n. (Leveling.) One of a number of 
marks along a line of survey indicating a series of levels 
at different elevations. 

Bench'- war'rant, n. (Laiv.) A process issued by a 
court against a person guilty of some contempt, or in- 
dicted for some crime. 

Bend, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bended or bent ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. BENDING.] [A.-S. bendan, a modification of 
bindan, to bind.] 1. To crook by straining; to curve. 

2. To turn out of the direct course to some certain point. 

3. Hence, to incline or exercise closely or with interest; 
to exert ; to apply. 4. To render submissive ; to sub- 
due. 5. (Naut.) To fasten, as one rope to another; or 
as a sail to its yard. 

To bend the brow, to knit the brow; to scowl; to frown. 

Bend, v. i. 1. To be moved or strained out of a straight 
line ; to bow. 2. To be inclined with interest, or closely ; 
to be directed. 3. To bow in prayer, or in submission. 

Bend, n. 1. A turn or deflection from a straight line or 
direction; a curve ; an incurvation. 2. (Naut.) A knot 
by which one rope is fastened to another or to an anchor. 
3. (Her.) One of the honorable ordinaries, made by* two 
lines drawn across from the dexter chief to the sinister 
base point. 4. ( Leather- Busin ess.) A butt. 

Bend'a-ble, a. Capable of being bent. 

Bend'er, n. One who, or that which, bends. 

Be-neath', or Be-neath', prep. [A.-S. beneodh, bene- 
odhan, from prefix be and neodhan, downward.] 1. Lower 
in place, with something directly over or on ; under. 2. 
(Fig.) Under, as from the effect of pressure. 3. Lower 
in rank, dignity, or excellence than ; hence, unworthy 
of; unbecoming. 

Be-neath', or Be-neath', adv. 1. In a lower place. 2. 
Below, as opposed to heaven, or to any superior region. 

Syn. — Below. — Beneath is opposed to above ; below to 
higher in place or state, as beneath (not below) notice. See 

5,e,&c.,ton£, a,«, &c, short; care, far, ask, all, what; ere, veil, term; pique, firm; son,dr,do, woli 




B&n'e-diet, | n. [From Benedick, one of the characters 

Ben'e-dick, J in Shakespeare's play of " Much Ado 

About Nothing."] A married man, or a man newly 

married. [of St. Benedict. 

Ben'e-di-et'ine, a. Pertaining to the order of monks 

BSn'e-dlet'Ine, n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of an order of 

monks, known from the color of their dress as Black 

Friars, established by St. Benedict in the 6th century. 

Ben/e-dle'tion, n. [Lat. benedictio, from benedicere, 

benedictus, to speak well of, to bless, from bene, well, and 

dicer e, to speak.] 1. Act of blessing. 2. Blessing, 

prayer, or kind wishes uttered in favor of any person or 

thing ; specifically, the short prayer which closes public 


Ben'e-fae'tion, n. [Lat. bene/actio, from benefacerc, 

to do good to one, from bene, well, and facer e, to do.] 

1. Act of conferring a benefit. 2. A benefit conferred, 
especially a charitable donation. 

Bgn'e-f ae'tor, n. One who confers a benefit. 

Ben'e-f ae'tress, n. A woman who confers a benefit. 

Ben'e-fice, n. [Lat. beneficium, from beneficus, benefi- 
cent, from bene, well, and facere, to do.] 1. Lit., a 
benefit, advantage, or kindness. 2. (Church of Eng.) 
An ecclesiastical living; — usually confined to parson* 
ages, vicarages, and donatives. [preferment. 

Ben'e-ficed (-fist), a. Possessed of a benefice or church 

Be-nef 'i-cence, n. The practice of doing good ; active 
goodness, kindness, or charity. 

Syn. — Benevolence. — Benevolence is literally well- willing, 
beneficence is literally well-doing. The former may exist with- 
out the latter, but beneficence always supposes benevolence. 

Be-nef i-cent, a. Doing good ; performing acts of kind- 
ness and charity ; characterized by beneficence. 
Syn. — Bountiful; liberal; generous; munificent. 

Be-nef i-cent-ly, adv. In a beneficent manner. 

Ben'e-fi'cial (-i'lsh'al), a. 1. Conferring benefits ; use- 
ful; profitable. t£. (Law.) Receiving, or entitled to re- 
ceive, advantage, use, or benefit. 

Ben'e-fi'cial-ly (-flsh'al-), adv. In a beneficial or ad- 
vantageous manner. 

Ben'e-fi'ci-a-ry (-fish.' i-), a. [L&t.beneficiariics.] Hold- 
ing some office or valuable possession, in subordination 
to another. 

Ben'e-f I'ci-a-ry ( -flshl-), n. 1 . A feudatory or vassal ; 
hence, one who holds a benefice, and uses its proceeds. 

2. One who receives any thing as a gift, or is maintained 
by charity. 

Ben'e-fit, n. [Lat. benefactum, from benefacere; See 
Benefaction.] 1. An act of kindness ; a favor 
conferred. 2. Whatever contributes to promote pros- 
perity and personal happiness, or adds value to property. 

3. A performance at a theater or elsewhere, the proceeds 
of which are given to a particular person or object. 4. 
(Law;.) Benefit of clergy. See Clergy. 

Syn. — Advantage ; profit; service; use; avail. 

Ben'e-fit, v. %. [imp. & p. p. benefited ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. benefiting.] To do good to ; to advantage ; to ad- 
vance in health or prosperity ; to be useful to. 

Ben'e-fit, v. i. To gain advantage. 

He'ne-plaq'i-to. [It., pleasure.] (Mus.) At pleasure. 

Be-nev'o-lence, n. [Lat. benevolentia.] 1. Disposition 
to do good; good will; charitableness. 2. An act of 
kindness. 3. A species of contribution or tax, illegally 
exacted by arbitrary kings of England. 

Syn. — Kindness ; benignity ; tenderness. — Kindness and 
tenderness lean to the side of natural feeling; benevolence is 
considerate kindness, and often overrules mere impulse; be- 
nignity is condescending kindness, as the benignity of God. 

Be-nev'o-lent, a. [Lat. benevolens, from bene, well, 
and volens, p. pr. of volo, I will, I wish.] Having a dis- 
position to do good ; possessing love to mankind, and a 
desire to promote their prosperity and happiness. 

Syn. — Beneficent ; munificent. — Originally, benevolent 
meant well-wishing, and beneficent -well-doing ; but now (with 
a slight tinge of the original sense) they differ in their outward 
exercise chiefly in degree; a beneficent act being one on a 
larger scale than a benevolent one, while a munificent act is 
greater and more imposing than either. 

Be-nev'o-lent-ly, adv. In a benevolent manner. 

Ben-gal'- Light (-lTt),n. A kind of firework, producing 
a steady and vivid blue-colored fire. [gal. 

Ben-gal'ee, n. The language or dialect spoken in Ben- 

Be-nlght' (-nit'), v. t. 1. To involve in night or dark- 
ness. 2. To involve in moral darkness, or ignorance. 

Be-nign' (be-nin'), a. [Lat. benignus, contr. from benig- 
enus, from bonus, good, and genus, kind.] 1. Of a kind 

or gentle disposition. 2. Exhibiting or manifesting 
kindness, gentleness, favor, &c. 3. Having salutary 

Syn. — Kind ; propitious ; favorable ; salutary ; gracious ; 
wholesome; liberal; generous. 

Be-nig'nant, a. Kind, gracious ; favorable. 

Be-nlg'nant-ly, adv. With benignity ; graciously. 

Be-nig'ni-ty, n. [Lat. benignitas7] 1. Quality of being 
benign ; condescending kindness ; graciousness. 2. Sa- 
lubrity ; wholesome quality. 

Be-nign'ly (-nin'-), adv. Favorably; graciously. 

Ben'i-gon (bena-zn), n. Blessing; benediction. 

Ben'shee, n. See Banshee. 

Bent, imp. & p.p. of bend. See Bend. 

Bent, n. 1. State of being inclined from a straight line ; 
flexure ; curvity. 2. Leaning or bias ; propensity ; in- 
clination ; disposition. 3. Particular direction or ten- 

Bent, )n. [A.-S. beonet, Ger. binse.] 1. (Bot.) 

Bent'-grass, j A grass of the genus Agrostis. 2. A 
stalk of coarse, withered grass. 

Be-niimb' (-num'), v. t. [imp. & p. p. benumbed ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. BENUMBING.] [Pref. be and numb, q. v. ; 
A.-S. benmman, p. benumen, to take away, to stupefy.] 
To deprive of sensation or sensibility. 

Ben'zine, n. Same as Benzole. 

Ben-zo'k, a. [See Benzoin.] Pertaining to, or ob- 
tained from, benzoin. 

Ben-zoin', n. [Cf. Per. banast, binasat, banasab, bana- 
sib, terebinth resin, from ban, wan, terebinth grain, and 
isab, an excrescence on the body.] A fragrant resinous 
substance, obtained from a tree of Sumatra, Java, &c. 

Ben'z51e,n. [Eng. benzoin and Lat. oleum, oil.] (Chem.) 
An oily substance obtained from bituminous coal, and 
possessing great solvent powers. 

Ben'zo-Hne, n. Same as Benzole. 

Ben'zoyl, J n. [N. Lat. and Ger. benzol, and Gr. vArj, 

Ben'zule, ) wood, matter.] (Chem.) A compound rad- 
ical, consisting of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen ; the 
base of benzoic acid. 

Be-plas'ter, v. t. To plaster over ; to bedaub. 

Be-pow'der, v. t. To sprinkle or cover with powder. 

Be-praige', v. t. To praise greatly or extravagantly. 

Be-queath', v. t. [imp. & p. p. BEQUEATHED ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. BEQUEATHING.] [A.-S. becvedhan, from pref. 
be and cvedhan, to say, to speak ; Goth, qvithan, Eng. 
quoth.] 1. To give or leave by will ; — said of personal 
property. 2. To hand down ; to transmit. 

Syn. — To devise. — Devise is properly used to denote a 
gift by will of real property. Bequeath is properly applied to 
a gift by will of a legacy; i. e., of personal property. In popular 
usage, bequeath is sometimes enlarged so as to embrace devise ; 
and it is sometimes so construed by courts. 

Be-queath'er, n. One who bequeaths. 

Be-quest', n. [From bequeath.] (Law.) Something left 
by will, appropriately personal property ; a legacy. 

Be-rate', v. t. To rate, or chide, vehemently ; to scold. 

Be-reave', v. t. [imp. & p. p. BEREAVED, bereft ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. BEREAVING.] [be and reave, q. v. ; A.-S. 
bereaftan.] 1. To make destitute ; to deprive. 2. To 
take away from. [tion. 

Be-reave'ment, «. State of being bereaved ; depriva- 

Be-reav'er, n. One who bereaves. 

Be-reft', p. p. of bereave. See Bereave. 

Berg, n. [See Burgh and Borough.] A large mass 
or mountain of ice. 

Ber'ga-mot, n. [From the town of Bergamo, in Italy.] 
1. (Bot.) A species of orange-tree, having a fruit of fine 
taste and odor, from the rind of which an essential oil of 
delicious odor is extracted. 2. The essence or perfume 
itself. 3. A delicious variety of pear. 4. A variety of 
snuff perfumed with bergamot. 5. A coarse tapestry. 

Ber'gan-der, n. [From berg, for burroiv, and gander, 
a male goose.] (Ornith.) A species of duck said to bur- 
row and breed in holes under cliffs ; shell-drake. 

Berg'mas-ter, n. [A.-S. beorg, hill, and Eng. master.] 
The chief officer among the Derbyshire miners. 

Berg'meal, n. [Ger. berg, mountain, and mehl, meal.] 
(Min.) An earthy substance resembling fine flour ; it is 
composed of the shells of infusoria. 

Be-rhyme' (-rim'), v. t. To mention in rhyme or verse ; 
— used in contempt. 

Ber'Kn, or Ber-lin'. A four-wheeled carriage, like a 
chariot, invented at Berlin, Prussia. 

Ber'nar-dme, a. Pertaining to St. Bernard, and the 
monks of the order. 

Ber'nar-dine, n. (Eccl.) One of an order of monks 
named after St. Bernard. 

food, foot ; urn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, -call, echo ; gem, get ; ag ; exist; linger, link ; this. 




Ber'ry, n. [A.-S. beria, berie, Goth, basi.] 1. (Bot.) A 
small pulpy fruit containing seeds scattered throughout 
it, as the strawberry, currant, &c. 2. One of the eggs 
of a fish. 

Ber'ry, v. i. To bear or produce berries. 

Ber'ry, v. t. To impregnate with eggs or spawn. 

Bertli (14), »■ [From the root of btar, like birth, nativ- 
ity. See Birth.] 1. [Naut.) The place where a ship 
lies when she is at anchor, or at a wharf. 2. A place 
in a ship to sleep in. 3. Official situation, position, or 

GeT" To give the land or any object a wide berth, is to keep at 
a distance from it. 

Bertli, v. t. 1. To give an anchorage to, or a place to 
he at. 2. To allot or furnish berths to. [plant. 

Ber'tram, n. [See Bartram.] Bastard pelhtory, a 

Ber'yl, n. [Gr. pripvWos, Ar. ballawr, or bilawr, beryl, 
crystal, Per. bullur, buliir, crystal.] (Ma.) A green or 
bluish-green mineral of great hardness. It is identical 
with the emerald, except in color. 

Ber'"y 1-line, a. Like a beryl. 

Be-s-erib'ble, v. t. To scribble over. 

Be-seech/, v. t. [imp. & p. p. besought ,• p. pr. &. 
vb. n. BESEECHING.] [Pref. be and seek, q. v.] 1. To 
ask or entreat with urgency. 2. To ask earnestly for. 

Syn. — To entreat; solicit; implore; supplicate. — Beg sup- 
poses simply a state of want; to beseech, entreat, and solicit, a 
state of urgent necessity; to implore and supplicate, a state of 
overwhelming distress. 

Be-seecli'er, n. One who beseeches. 

Be-seecli'ing-ly, adv. In a beseeching manner. 

Be-seem', v. t. To be fit for, or worthy of; to become ; 
to befit. 

Be-set', v. t. [imp. & p. p. BESET; p. pr. & vb. n. be- 
setting.] [be and set; A.-S. besettan.] 1. To put or 
place, on, in, or around. 2. To stop up, as a road ; to 
waylay ; to blockade. 3. To hem in or press on all sides, 
so that escape is difficult. 

Syn.— To surround; inclose; environ; besiege; encircle; 
encompass; embarrass; urge; press. 

Be-set'ment, n. The state of being beset, as in ice. 

Be-set'ting, p. a. Habitually attending, or pressing. 

Be-shrew' (-shru 7 ), v. t. To wish a curse to ; to exe- 

Be-side', prep, [be and side, by the side.] 1. At the 
side of. 2. Aside from ; out of the regular course or 
order ; out of. 3. Over and above ; distinct from. [In 
this use besides is now more common.] 

To be beside one's self, to be out of one's wits or senses. 

Be-side§', j adv. More than that; over and above! 

Be-side', j moreover ; in addition. 

tgjf It is now considered an error to use beside as an adverb 
for besides. 

Be-side§', prep. Over and above ; separate or distinct 
from ; in addition to. See Beside, prep. 

&3~ This word, though radically the same as beside, and a 
corruption of it, ought not to bo confounded with it; for it is 
rarely used in the senses explained under beside, except in the 
third sense. 

Be-siege', v. t. [imp. & p. p. besieged ; & vb. n. 
besieging.] To beset or surround with armed forces, 
for the purpose of compelling to surrender. 

Syn.— To beleaguer; beset; environ; hem in; invest; block 
tip; encompass. 

Be-sieg'er, n. One who, or the party that, besieges. 
Be-slab'ber (collog. be-slob'ber), v. t. To beslaver. 
Be-slav'er, v. t. To defile with slaver ; to beslabber. 
Be-slob'ber, } v. t. To soil or smear with snittle run- 
Be-slub'ber , j ning from the mouth. [ Vulgar.] 
Be-smear', v. t. [imp. & p.p. besmeared; p. pr. & 

vb. n. besmearing.] To smear with any viscous, glu- 
tinous matter. 
Be-smoke' (20), v. t. 1. To foul with smoke. 2. To 

harden or dry in smoke. [soot. 

Be-smut', v. t. To blacken with smut; to foul with 
Be'gom, n. [A.-S. besma,0. H. Ger. pesamo.] A brush 

of twigs for sweeping ; a broom. 
Be-s6rt', v. t. To sort out or arrange in different classes 

or kinds ; hence, to suit, fit, or become. 
Be'sot', v. t. To make sottish by drink ; hence, to make 

dull or stupid. 
Be-sdt'ted-ly, adv. In a besotted manner. [tion. 

Be-sot'ted-ness, n. State of being besotted; infatua- 
Be-s6ught' (be-sawt/), p.p. of beseech. See Beseech. 
Be-span'gle (-spang'gl), v. t. To adorn with spangles, or 

with brilliant particles. 

Be-spat'ter, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bespattered ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. BESPATTERING.] 1. To soil by spattering ; 
to sprinkle with water, or with dirt and water. 2. To 
asperse with calumnj' or reproach. 

Be-speak', v. t. [imp. bespoke ; p. p. bespoke, be- 
spoken; & vb. n. BESPEAKING.] 1. To speak 
for, order, or engage, beforehand. 2. To indicate or 
show beforehand. 3. To speak to ; to address. [Poet.] 
4. To betoken ; to show. 

Be-spew' (-spu'), v. I. To soil or daub with spew. 

Be-spit', v. t. [imp. bespit ; p. p. BESPIT, BESPIT- 
ten ; p. pr. & vb. n. bespitting.] To daub or soil 
with spittle. 

Be-spoke', imp. & p. p. of bespeak. See Bespeak. 

Be-spot', v. t. To mark with spots. 

Be-spread',1'. t. [imp. & p. p. bespread; & 
vb. n. BESPREADING.] To spread or cover over. 

Be-sprink'le, v. t. [imp. & p. p. besprinkled; p. 
pr. & vb. n. BESPRINKLING.] To sprinkle over; to 
scatter over. 

Best, a. superl. [A.-S. besta, best, contracted from betest, 
betst, Goth, batista. This word has no connection in 
origin with good. See BETTER.] 1. Having good qual- 
ities in the highest degree; most good. 2. Most ad- 
vanced ; most correct or complete. 

Best, n. Utmost ; highest endeavor. 

At best, in the utmost degree or extent applicable to the 
case. — To make the best of, to permit the least possible in- 

Best, adv. 1. In the highest degree ; beyond all other. 
2. To the most advantage ; with the most success, profit, 
ease, benefit, or propriety. 3. Most intimately or par- 
ticularly ; most correctly. 

Be-stain', v. t. To mark with stains ; to discolor. 

Be-stead', v. t. [imp. & p. p. bestead.] To be in 
the stead or place of; hence, to place, dispose, or cir- 
cumstance, as to condition, convenience, benefit, and the 
like ; to assist ; to serve. 

Bes'tial(btst / yal), a. [Lat. bestialis, from bestia, beast.] 
1. Belonging to a beast, or to the class of beasts. 2. 
Having the qualities of a beast ; below the dignity of 
reason or humanity. 

Syn. — Brutish; beastly; brutal; carnal; vile; low; depraved; 

Bes-tial'i-ty (best-yaP-), n. 1. The quality of a beast ; 
brutism. 2. Unnatural connection with a beast. 

Bes'tial-Ize, v. t. To make bestial, or like a beast. 

Bes'tial-ly, adv. In a bestial manner. 

Be-stick', v. t. [imp. & p. p. bestuck ; k, vb. 
n. besticking.J To stick over, as with sharp points. 

Be-stir', v. t. [imp. & p. p. bestirred ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BESTIRRING.] To put into brisk or vigorous action. 

Be-stow', v. t. [imp. & p.p. BESTOWED ; & vb. 
n. bestowing.] [be and stow, a place. See Stow.] 

1. To lay up in store ; to deposit for safe keeping. 2. 
To make use of ; to apply. 3. To give, confer, or impart. 

Be-stow'al, n. Act of bestowing; disposal. 

Be-stow'er, n. One who bestows. 

Be-stow'ment, «. 1. The act of bestowing; bestowal. 

2. That which is bestowed ; donation. 
Be-strad'dle, v. t. To bestride. 
Be-strauglit' (-strawf), a. [Prefix be and slravght, 

prop. p. p. of stretch; but stravght is used here for dis- 
traught, distracted, so that bestravght is equiv. to bedis- 
traught, bedistracted.] Out of one's senses; distracted; 
mad ; crazy ; demented. 

Be-strew' (-stru 7 or -stro'), v. t. [imp. BESTREWED ; 
p. p. BESTREWED, BESTROWN ; p. pr. & vb. n. BE- 
STREWING.] To scatter over ; to besprinkle ; to strow. 

Be-strlde', v. t. [imp. bestrid or bestrode ; p.p. 

ING.] To stride over; to stand or sit with anything 
between the legs, or with the legs extended across. 

Be-strode', imp. of bestride. See Bestride. 

Be-strown', p. pr. of bestrew. See Bestrew. 

Be-stuck', imp. & p. p. of bestick. See BESTICK. 

Be-stild', v. t. To set or adorn with studs. 

Bet, n. [A.-S. bad, pledge, stake, badian, to pledge, 
pawn, wed, pledge, weddian, to promise ; Goth, vidan, 
to bind.] That which is staked, or pledged, in a contest, 
to be won either by the victorious party himself or by 
another person in consequence of his victory ; a wager. 

Bet, v. t. [imp. & p. p. betted ; p pr. & vb. n. BET- 
TING.] To stake or pledge upon the event of a contest; 
to wager. 

Be-take', v. t. [imp. betook ; p. p. betaken (be- 
tak'n); p. pr. & vb. n. betaking.] To have recouree 
to ; to apply ; to resort. 

a.ej&c.jfongv a, 6, &c. lS hort; c 4re, f iir, ask. all, what ; ere, veil, term; pique, firm, son, or, do wolf, 




Be-teem', t». i. To allow ; to permit ; to suffer. [Obs.] 

Be'tel (bS'tl), n. [Malabar, beetla-codi, Skr. & Malay, 
patra, Malabar leaf, from its growing in Malabar.] 
(Bot.) A species of pepper, the leaves of which are 
chewed by the inhabitants of the East Indies. 

Be'tel-mit (bS'tl-), n. The nut of the areca palm, 
chewed in the East with betel leaves (whence its name) 
and lime. 

BStli'el, n. [Ileb. beth-el, house of God.] 1. A chapel 
for dissenters. [Eng.] 'Z. A house of worship for sea- 
men. [Amer.] 

Be-think', v. t. [imp. & p. p. bethought ; p. pr. & 
vb. ft. bethinking.] To call to mind ; to recall. 
Syn. — To recollect; remember; reflect. 

Be-thought' (-thawt'), imp. & p.p. of bethink, q. v. 

Be-tlcle', v. t. [imp. betid or betided ; p. p. BETID ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. BETIDING.] [be and tide; A.-S. tidan, 
to happen.] To happen to ; to befall ; to come to. 

Be-tide', v. i. To come to pass ; to happen. 

Be-tlme', \adv. [be and time; that is, by the proper 

Be-time§', j time.] 1. In good season or time ; sea- 
sonably. 2. In a short time ; soon. 

Be-to'ken (-to'kn), v. t. [imp. &>p.p. betokened; 
p. pr. & vb. n. BETOKENING.] 1. To signify by some 
visible object. 2. To foreshow by present signs. 
Syn. — To presage ; portend; indicate; mark; note. 

Bet'o-ny, ft. [Lat. betonica, vettonica.] A plant used to 
dye wool of a fine dark-yellow color. 

Be-tobiv', imp. of betake. See Betake. 

Be-tray', v. t. [imp. & p. p. betrayed ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. BETRAYING.] [From be and 0. Fr. tra'ir, trahir, 
from Lat. tradere, to give up, from trans, over, and dare, 
to give.] 1. To give up treacherously or faithlessly. 2. 
To violate the confidence of; to deceive by treachery. 
3. To disclose or discover, as something intended to be 
kept secret, or which prudence would conceal. 4. To 
mislead, or expose to inconvenience not foreseen. 5. 
To show or to indicate. 6. To fail in respect to reliance 
placed in or upon. 

Be-tray'al (be-trn'al), n. Act of betraying. 

Be-tray'er, n. One who betrays ; a traitor. 

Be-troth', v. t. [be and troth, i. e., truth, q. v.] 1. To 
contract to any one, in order to a future marriage ; to af- 
fiance. 2. To contract with for a future spouse ; to es- 
pouse. 3. To nominate to a bishopric, in order to conse- 

Be-troih'al, ft. Act of betrothing; betrothment. 

Be-trotli'meiit, ft. A mutual engagement between two 
parties for a future marriage between the persons be- 
trothed ; espousals ; betrothal. 

Bet'ter, a.; compar. of good. [A.-S., bett, bet, betera, 
betre ; Goth, baiiza, from bats, good, akin to Skr. bhadra, 
glad.] 1. Having good qualities in a greater degree than 
another. 2. Preferable in regard to rank, value, use, 
fitness, acceptableness, safety, or in any other respect. 
3. Improved in health. 

To be better off, to be in a better condition. 

Bet'ter, ft. 1. Advantage, superiority, or victory. 2. 

Improvement ; greater excellence. 3. One who has a 

claim to precedence ; a superior ; — usually in the pi. 
Bet'ter, adv. ; compar. of -well. 1. In a superior or more 

excellent manner. 2. More correctly. 3. In a higher 

or greater degree ; more. 
Bet'ter, v. t. [imp. & p.p. BETTERED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 

bettering.] To increase the good qualities of. 

Syn.— To improve; meliorate; mend; amend; correct; 

emend; reform; rectify; advance; promote. 

Bet'ter, n. One who bets ; a bettor. 

Bet'ter-ment, n. 1. A making better; improvement. 
2. (Law.) An improvement of an estate which renders 
it better than mere repairing ; — generally in the pi. 

Bet'tor, ft. One who bets. 

B5t'ty, n. [Probably a cant word, from Betty, for Eliza- 
beth.] A short bar used by thieves to wrench doors open. 

Be-tween', prep. [From pref. be, equiv. to Eng. by, and 
twain, two.] 1. In the intermediate space of, without 
regard to distance ; betwixt. 2. From one to another 
of. 3. Belonging in common, or in partnership to two 
of; shared by two or both of. 4. With relation to two, 
as involved in an act or attribute of which another is the 
agent or subject. 5. In intermediate relation to, in re- 
spect to time, quantity, or degree. 

Syn. — Among. — Between applies properly to only two 
parties; as, a quarrel between two men, two nations. Among 
always supposes more than two. It is, therefore, a gross blunder 
to bpeak of dividing a thing among two persons. 

Be-tween'-deeks, ft. (Naut.) The open space between 

two decks of a ship. 
~Be-twix.t f ,prep. [From pref. be and twyg, twy, tweo, 

twe, two.] 1. In the intermediate space of; 

2. From one to another of. 
Bev'el, ft. [Fr. beveau, Sp. baivel.] 1. 

A slant of a surface at an angle greater 

or less than a right angle. 2. An instru- 
ment for adjusting the surfaces of work 

to the same inclination. 
Bev'el, a. Having the form of a bevel -,^= 

slanting. Bevel. 

A bevel angle, any angle other than one of 45° or 00°. 

Bev'el, v. t. [imp. & p. p. beveled ; p. pr. & vb. n. 

BEVELING.] To cut to a bevel angle. 
Bev'el, v. i. To slant or incline off to a bevel angle, or 

from a direct line. 
Bev'er-age, n. [From Lat. bibere, to drink, Low Lat. 

beveragium. See Beaver.] Liquor for drinking. 
Bev'y, ft. [Prob. from Arm. beva, life, to five, to be alive, 

bev, living, W. bywyd, life, byw, to live, alive, so that 

the orig. meaning is life, a life, living, lively beings.] 

1. A nock of birds, especially quails. 2. A company; 

an assembly or collection of persons, especially ladies. 
Be-wail', v. t. [imp. & p. p. bewailed; p. pr. & 

vb. ft. BEWAILING.] To express deep sorrow for, as by 

wailing ; to grieve for ; to mourn ; to iament. 
Be-wail', v.i. To express grief or sorrow. 
Be-ware', v. i. [be and ware. See Ware, Wary.] 

To restrain or guard one's self; hence, to be cautious; 

to take care ; to take heed. 

H@~ This wc, d is now never used except in the imperative 

Be-wil'der, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bewildered ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. BEWILDERING.] [be and wild.] To lead into 
perplexity or confusion ; to confound for want of a plain 

Syn. — To perplex; puzzle; entangle; confuse; lead astray. 

Be-wil'der-ment, ft. State of being bewildered. 

Be-witch' , v. t. [imp. & p. p. bewitched (108); p. 
pr. & vb. n. BEWITCHING.] 1. To gain an ascendency 
over by charms or incantation ; to affect by witchcraft or 
sorcery. 2. To charm or fascinate ; to please to such a 
degree as to take away the power of resistance. 

Be-wltcli'er-y, n. The resistless power of any thing that 
pleases ; charm ; fascination. 

Be-witch/ing-ly, adv. In a manner to bewitch. 

Be-witch'ing-ness, n. Quality of being bewitching. 

Be-witch'ment, n. Power of charming ; fascination. 

Be-wray' (-ra/), v. t. [imp. & p. p. bewrayed ; 
& vb. ft. BEWRAYING.] [Pref. be and A.-S. ivregean, wre- 
gan, to accuse, to betray.] To disclose perfidiously; to 

Bey (ba), n. A governor of a town or particular district 
of country in the Turkish dominions ; also, in some 
places, a prince ; — the same as beg. See Beg. 

Be-yond', prep. [A.-S. begeond, from pref. be and ge- 
ond, yond, yonder, Goth, jaind.] 1. On the further 
side of. 2. Before, in place, or time. 3. Out of reach 
of ; further than ; past. 4. In a degree exceeding or 
surpassing; above, as in dignity, excellence, or quality 
of any kind. 

Be-yond', adv. At a distance ; yonder. 

Be-zant'ler, ft. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. antler.] 
The second antler of a stag. 

Bez'el, ft. [Cf. Chald. bezal, limits, confines.] The part 
of a ring which encompasses and fastens the stone. 

Be'zoar, ft. [Per. bad-zahr, from bad, wind, and zahr 
poison; i.e., that which, like the wind, drives away 
poison.] A calculous concretion found in the stomach 
of certain ruminant animals. 
Bezoar mineral, an oxide of antimony. 

Bi'as, ft. [Fr. biais, N. Catalan, biax, slope. Cf. Arm. 
bihais, bihays, beskel, oblique fine, bias.] 1. A weight 
on the side of a bowl which turns it from a straight 
line. 2. A leaning of the mind ; propensity toward an 
object. 3. A wedge-shaped piece of cloth taken out of 
a garment to diminish its circumference. 

Syn. — Bent; prejudice: prepossession; inclination. 

Bi'as, adv. In a slanting manner ; crosswise ; athwart : 

Bi'as, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BIASED (bl'ast) ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. biasing.] To incline to one side ; to give a particu- 
lar direction to ; to prejudice ; to prepossess. 

food, foot 

urn, rude, pull 


cell, chaise, call, eeho ; gem, get ; ag ; ejist ; linger, link •, tids. 




Bi-ax'al, \ a. [From Lat. bis, twice, and axis.] ( Opt.) 

Bi-ax'i-al, j Having two axes. 

Bib, n. [Frorn Lat. fci&ere, to drink, because it receives 
the drink that tne child slavers from the mouth.] A 
small piece of cloth worn by children over the breast. 

Bi-ba/cious, a. [Lat. bibax, from bibere, to drink.] 
Addicted to drinking. 

Bi-ba'fei-e, a- (Chem.) Capable of combining with two 
parts or equivalents of a base; or containing two equiv- 
alents of a base to one equivalent of acid. 

Bib'ber, n. A. man given to drinking ; a tippler. 

Bi'ble, n. [Lat. biblia, Gr. j8t/?Aia, pi. of /?i/?Ai'ov, 
dimin. of Pifikos, book.] The Book, by way of emi- 
nence ; the volume that contains the Scriptures of the 
Old and New Testaments, [writings. 

Bib'li-eal, a. Pertaining to the Bible, or to the sacred 

Bib liog'ra-pher, n. [Gr. fitfkLoypafas, fr. /?i/?Aiov, 
book, and ypa ety, to write.] One who is versed in bib- 
liography, or literary history. 

Bib'li-o-gr&ph'ie, { a. Pertaining to bibliography, 

Blb'li-o-graph'i-e-al, ) or the history of books. 

Bib li-o-graph'ie-al-ly, adv. In a bibliographical 

BiVli-og'ra-phy, n. [Gr. 0tpki.oypa<f>La.'] A history 
or description of books and manuscripts. 

Bib li-61'a-try, n. [Gr. (itpkiov and karpeia, service, 
worship.] Homage paid to books, especially to the 
Bible ; or a belief in the verbal inspiration of the Bible. 

Bib'Ii-o-mancy, n. [Gr. (ii0kiov and navreia, divin- 
ation.] Divination performed by selecting passages of 
Scripture at hazard. 

Blb'li-o-ma/ni-a, n. [Gr. Qi&klov and p-avia., mad- 
ness.] A rage for possessing rare and curious books. 

Bib'li-o-ma'ni-a-e, n. One who has a rage for books. 

Bib'li-o-ma-nl'a-e-al, a. Pertaining to a passion for 
books, especially such as are curious and rare. 

Bib'li-o-pliile, n. [From Gr. ^i^kiov and (fikelv, to 
love.] One who loves books. 

Bib'li-o-plio'bi-a, n. [From Gr. pt-Pkiou and <£>o/?ei- 
o-Qai, to fear.] A dread of books. 

Bib'li-op'o-list, ) n. [Gr. /ji^AiottqSA?}?, from fiifikiov 

Blb'li-o-pole', J and n-coAeiV, to sell.] A bookseller. 

Bib'li-o-the'-eal, a. [Lat. bibliother.alis,fc.Gx.pi^kio- 
Orjicyi, library, from ftt.(3kiov, book, and 0*?k?j, case, box.] 
Belonging to a library. 

BIb'list, n. [See Bible.] 1. One who makes the 
Scriptures the sole rule of faith. 2. A biblical scholar. 

Bib'li-loiis, a. [Lat. bibulus, from bibere, to drink.] 
Having the quality of imbibing fluids or moisture ; 
spongy ; porous. 

Bl-eap'sn-lar, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. capsular, 
q. v.] (Bot.) Having two capsules, containing seeds, to 
each flower. 

Bi-earTbo-nate, n. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. carbo- 
nate, q. v.] ( Chem.) A carbonate containing two equiva- 
lents of carbonic acid to one of base. 

Bice, ) n. [Fr. & Pr. 6/5, It. bigio, light-gray, tawny.] 

Blse, j (Paint.) A pale blue color, prepared from the 
native blue carbonate of copper, or from smalt. 

BI-ceph'a-loiis, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Gr. /cecf>aAr? 
head.] Having two heads. 

Bi-eliro'mate, a. [See Chromate.] (Chem.) Hav- 
ing two parts of chromic acid to one of the other in- 

Bi-cip'i-tal, )a. [Lat. bicers bicipitis ; bis, twice, and 

Bi-fip'i-tous, j caput, heau.J 1. Having two heads ; 
double-headed. 2. (Anat.) Having two heads or ori- 
gins, as a muscle. 3. (Bot.) Dividing into two parts. 

Biek'er, v. i. [imp. & p. p. BICKERED ; p. pr. & cib. 
n. BICKERING.] [W. bicra; bicre, conflict, skirmish.] 
2. To skirmish. [Obs.] 2. Especially, to contend in 
words or petulant altercation. 3. To move quickly ; to 
be tremulous, like flame or water. 

Syn. — To quarrel; scold; wrangle; contend; quiver. 

Bick'er-er, n. One who bickers. 

BI~eol'or, ) a. [Lat. bi color ; bis, twice, and color, 
Bi-eol'ored, i color.] Of two colors. 
Bi'-eorn, ~\ a. [Lat. bicornis, from bis, twice, and 

Bi'-cdrnrd, > cornu, horn.] Having two horns or 
Bi-e6r'nous, ) antlers ; crescent-like. 
Bl-cdr'po-ral, a. Having two bodies. 
Bi-eor'po-rate, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and corpus, body.] 
(Her.) Double-bodied. 

Bl-crii/ral, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. crural, q. v 
Having two legs. 

Bi-eus'pid, ) a. [Lat. bis, twice, and cuspis, point, 

Bl-eiis'pid-ate, ) cuspidatus, pointed.] Having two 

Bid, v. t. [imp. bib or bade; p. p. bid, bidden; 
p. pr. & vb. n. BIDDING.] [A.-S. biddan, Ger. bitten, 
to pray, ask, request; A.-S. beodan, to offer, to com- 
mand, Goth, biuaan, Ger. bieten, to command, bid.] 1. 
To offer ; specifically, to offer to pay, as for a thing put 
up at auction. 2. To declare, as a wish, a greeting, 
a threat, or defiance, and the like. 3. To order; to di- 
rect ; to command. 4. To invite ; to request to come. 
To bid fair, to offer a good prospect; to make fair promise. 

Bid, n. An offer of a price, especially at auctions. 

Bid'der, n. One who bids or offers a price. 

Bid'der-y=ware, n. A kind of metallic ware made at 
Biddery in Hindostan, composed of copper, lead, tin, and 

Bid'dy, n. 1. A domestic fowl; a chicken. [Colloq.] 
Si. [A diminutive form of Bridget.] A domestic, or ser- 
vant-girl. [ Colloq.] 

Bide, v. i. [A.-S. bidan, Goth, beidan.] To dwell per- 
manently ; to inhabit. 

Bide, v. t. 1. To endure ; to suffer. Si. To wait for. 

Bi-den'tal, a. Having two teeth. 

Bi-den'tate, a. Having two teeth or tooth -like processes. 

Bi-det' (bl-det/ or bl-da/), n. [Cf. Gael, bideach, very 
little, diminutive, bidein^a, diminutive animal, W. bidan, 
a weakly or sorry wretch.] 1. A small horse. Si. An 
article of bedroom furniture, used in washing the body. 

Bl-en/ni-al, a. [Lat. biennalis and biennis; biennium, 
a space of two years ; bis, twice, and annus, year.] 1. 
Happening, or taking place, once in two years. Si. (Bot.) 
Continuing for two jears, and then perishing, as certain 

Bi-en'ni-al, n. (Bot.) A plant that lasts for two years, 
and then perishes. 

Bi-en'ni-al-ly, adv. Once in two years ; at the return 
of two years. 

Bier, n. [From the same root as to bear.] A frame of 
wood for conveying the dead to the grave. 

Biest'ingg, n. pi. [A.-S. beost, byst, or bysting.] The 
first milk given by a cow after calving. [Written also 

Bi-fa'cial, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and fades, face.] Hav- 
ing the opposite surfaces alike. 

Bi-f a'ri-oiis, a. [Lat. bifarius, from bis, twice, and/an, 
to speak or say.] 1. Twofold; in two rows. 2. (Bot.) 
Pointing two ways. 

Bi-f a/ri-oiis-ly, adv. In a bifarious manner. 

Blf'er-oiis, a. [Lat. bifer, from bis, twice, and/erre to 
bear.] Bearing fruit twice a year. 

Biffin, n. 1. A sort of apple peculiar to Norfolk, Eng. 
[Sometimes called beaufin ; but properly beefin (it is 
said), from its resemblance to raw beef.] 2. A baked 
apple crushed down into a flat, round cake. 

Bi'fid, \ a. [Lat. bifidus, fr. bis, twice, and findere, 

Bif 'id-ate, j perf. tense fidi, to cleave or split.] (Bot.) 
Two-cleft ; opening with a cleft. 

Bif'i-lar, a. [Lat. bis, twice, snadfilum, thread.] Two- 
threaded ; involving the use of two threads. 

Bi-flo'rate, la. [Lat. bis, twice, and ftos, flower, fio- 

Bi-flo'roiis, ) rere, to bloom.] (Bot.) Bearing two 

Bi-fo'li-ate, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. foliate.] 
(Bot.) Having two leaves. 

Bl-fo'li-o-late, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and folium, leaf.] 
(Bot.) Having two leaflets, as some compound leaves. 

Bi-fo'rate, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and foratus, p. p. of fo- 
rare, to bore or pierce.] (Bot.) Having two perforations. 

Bi'f 6rm, ) a. [Lat. biformis, from bis, twice, and 

Bl'fdrmed, ! forma, shape.] Having two forms, bod- 
ies, or shapes. 

Bi-f 6rm/i-ty, n. A double form. 

Bi-front'ed (-fr unfed), a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. 
fronted.] Having two fronts. 

Bi-ffir'eate, la. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. furcate, 

Bi-fi\r'-ea-ted, j furcated.] Forked ; divided into two 
branches. [branches. 

Bi-fur-ea'tion, n. A forking, or division into two 

Bi'fur'-etmr, a. [Lat. bifurcus, from bis, twice, and 
furca, fork.] (Bot.) Two-forked. 

Big, a. [Oontr. from W. beichiog, beichiaivg, burdened, 
with child, from baich, burden.] 1. Having largeness of 
size, bulk, or magnitude. 2. Great with young; preg- 
nant; hence, figuratively, pregnant as with something 

a,,e,&,c.,long; a,6,&c, short; care, far, ask, all, what; ere, veil, term; pique, firm; sdn,6r,do,W9lf, 




portentous; ready to produce. 3. Having greatness, 
fullness, importance, inflation, distension, &c, whether 
in a good or bad sense. 

Syn. — Bulky; large; great; proud; arrogant. 

Big'a-mist, n. One who has committed bigamy, or has 
two wives or husbands at once. 

BIg'a-my, n. (Law.) The crime of having two wives 
or husbands at once. 

Bi-gem'i-nate, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and geminatus, p. 
p. of geminare, to double.] (Bot.) Having a forked 
petiole, with several leaflets at the end of each division ; 
— said of a decompound leaf. 

Big'gin, n. 1. [Fr. bcguin, probably from the cap 
worn by the nuns called Beguines.] A child's cap or 
hood, or something worn about the head. 2. [0. Eng. 
bigging, from big, to build.] A building. [Obs.] 3. 
[See Pig-gin.] A small wooden vessel. 4. A contriv- 
ance for holding coffee-grounds (being a small bag or 
a metallic vessel minutely perforated at the bottom) 
through which boiling water is poured. 

Bight (bit), n. [From Goth, biugan, to bend, A.-S. bugan, 
Cf. A-S. byge, bige, a bending, corner, bay.] 1. ( Geog.) 
A bend in the sea-coast forming an open bay. 2. 
(Naut.) The double part of a rope when folded ; a round, 
bend, or coil any where except at the ends. 

Big'ness, n. Quality of being big, esp. in the literal sense. 

Big'ot, n. [Fr. bigot, a bigot or hypocrite, a name origi- 
nally given to the Normans in France. From the ex- 
clamation, " Ne se, Bigot : ' (Not so, by God) made 
use of by the Norman Duke Rollo, on a certain oc- 
casion. Cf. Sp. bigote, a whisker ; hombre de bigote, a 
man of spirit and vigor ; It. s-bigottire, to terrify, appall. 
Wedgwood suggests that bigot is from Beghard, or Be- 
guard, one of a class of monks, noted for the strictness 
of their principles.] One obstinately and unreasonably 
wedded to a particular religious creed, opinion, practice, 
or ritual. 

Big'ot-ed, a. Obstinately and unreasonably devoted to 
a system or party, and illiberal toward the opinions of 
others. [ciously. 

BIg'ot-ed-ly, adv. In the manner of a bigot ; pertina- 

Big'ot-ry, n. 1. Perverse or blind attachment to a 
particular creed, or to certain tenets ; excessive preju- 
dice. 2. The practice or tenet of a bigot. 

Big'- wig, n. A person of consequence. [Cant.] 

Hijou (be'zhJb'), n. ; pi. BIJOUX (be'zhob'.) [Fr., prob- 
ably from Arm. bizou, ring, from biz, finger.] A trinket, 
or a little box ; a jewel. 

Bi-jou'try (be-zhob'try), n. [Fr. bijouterie.] Small 
articles of vertu, such as jewelry, trinkets, &c. 

Bl-ju'gate, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and jugatus, p. p. of ju- 
gare, to join.] (Bot.) Having two pairs, as of leaflets. 

BIj'u-gous, or Bi-ju'gous, a. (Bot.) Bijugate. 

Bi-la'M-ate, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. labiate, q. v.] 
(Bot.) Having two lips, as the corols of flowers. 

Bi-lam'el-late, ) a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. 

Bi-l&m'el-la'ted, J lamellate, q. v.] (Bot.) Formed 
of two plates. 

Bi-lat'er-al, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. lateral.] 
Having two sides ; pertaining to the two sides of a central 
organ or axis. 

Bi-lat'er-al'i-ty, n. State or quality of being bilateral. 

Bil1>er-ry, n. [Corrupted from blueberry.] (Bot.) (a.) 
A shrub of the whortleberry family, (b.) The fruit or 
berry, which has a bluecolor. 

Bil1>o, n. ; pi. bil/boe§. [From Bilboa, in Spain, 
where they were fabricated.] 1. A long bar or bolt of iron 
with a shackle sliding on it, and a lock at the end ; used 
to confine the feet of prisoners, 2. A rapier. 

Bile, n. [Lat. bills.] A j'ellow, greenish, bitter, viscid, 
nauseous fluid secreted by the liver. 

Bilge, n. [A different orthography of bulge, q. v.] 1. 
The protuberant part of a cask. 2. (Naut.) The 
broadest and flattest part of a ship's bottom. 

Bilge, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BILGED; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BILGING.] (Naut.) To suffer a fracture in the bilge ; 
to spring a leak by a fracture in the bilge. 

B51ge'- wa/ter, n. (Naut.) Water which enters a ship, 
and lies upon her bilge or bottom. 

Bilg'y, a. Having the smell, &c, of bilge-water. 

Bil'ia-ry (bihya-ry), a. (Med.) Pertaining to the bile : 
conveying the bile. 

Bi-lixi'gual, ) a. [Lat. bilinguis, from 5/5, twice, and 

Bi-lin'guar, ) lingua, tongue, language.] Containing 
two languages. [languages. 

Bi-lira/guoiis, a. Having two tongues, or speaking two 

Bil'ioiis (bihyus), a. [Lat. biliosus, from bilis, the bile.] 

Pertaining to the bile ; disordered in respect to the bile] 
dependent on an excess of bile. 

Bi-Kt'er-al, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and litera, letter.J 
Consisting of two letters. 

Bilk, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bilked ; p. pr. & vb. n. bilk- 
ing.] [Cf. Goth, bilaikan, to mock or deride ; pref. bi, 
equiv. to be, q. v., and laikan, to leap or exult. Bilk in 
0. Eng. signifies nothing.] To disappoint, deceive, or 
defraud, by non-fulfillment of engagement. 

Bill, n. [A.-S. bile, beak, proboscis, Ir. & Gael, bil, bile, 
mouth, lip, bird's bill.] 1. The beak of a fowl. 2. The 
note of a bird. 

Bill, n. [A.-S. bill, bil; Skr. bhil, to split, 0. H. Ger. 
billon.] 1. A hook-shaped cutting instrument, fitted 
with a handle, like a hatchet. 2. An ancient kind 
of battle-ax, consisting of a broad, hook-shaped blade, 
having a short pike at the beak and another at the 
summit, and attached to the end of a long staff. 3. A 
pickax, or mattock. 4. (Naut.) The point of the fluke 
of an anchor. 

Bill, n. [Lat. bulla, any thing rounded, L. Lat., seal, 
stamp, letter, edict, roll.] 1. (Law) (a.) A written 
declaration of some wrong suffered, or of some fault 
committed by another against a law. (b.) In England 
an obligation given for money under the hand, and 
sometimes the seal, of the debtor, without a condition or 
forfeiture for non-payment. 

EgT" In the United Stales, it is usually called a note, a note 
of hand, or a. promissory note. 

(c.) A proposed or projected law. 2. An advertisement 
posted in some public place. 3. An account of goods 
sold or delivered, or services rendered, with the price an- 
nexed to each article. 4. Any paper, containing a 
statement of particulars. 

Bill of credit, (a.) within the constitution of the United 
States, a paper issued by a state, on the mere faith and credit 
of the state, and designed to circulate as money. (6.) Among 
merchants, a letter sent by an agent or other person to a mer- 
chant, desiring him to give credit to the bearer for soods or 
money. — Bill of entry, a written account of goods entered at 
the custom-house. -B ill of exchange {Com.), a written order or 
request from one person to another, desiring the latter to pay 
to some person designated a specified sum of money. It is 
frequently called a draft. — Bill of health, a certificate from 
the proper authorities as to the state of health of a ship's 
company, at the time ot her leaving port. — Bill of lading. 
a written account of goods shipped, signed by the master 
of the vessel. — Bills oj pains awl penulties, a legislative act 
inflicting a punishment less than death on persons supposed 
to be guilty of treason or felony, without any conviction 
in the ordinary course of judicial proceedings. — Bill of 
sale, a formal instrument for the conveyance or transfer of 
goods and chattels. — Bill of sight, a form of entry at the cus- 
tom-house, by which good's may be provisionally landed for 

Bill, v. i. [From bill, a beak.] To join bills, as doves ; to 
caress in fondness. 

Bill'-lbobk, n. A book in which a person keeps an 
account of his notes, bills, bills of exchange, and the 
like. [bills. 

BHl'-1bro / ker, n. One who negotiates the discount of 

Bil'let, n. [Fr. billet, dim. of Fr. & Norm. Fr. bille. 
See BILL, a writing.] 1. A small paper or note in 
writing, or a short letter. 2. A ticket from a public 
officer directing soldiers at what house to lodge. 

Bil'let, n. [Fr. billot, block, from bille, log, a ball 
made of bone. Cf. Bill, a writing.] 1. A small stick 
of wood. 2. (Arch.) An ornament in Norman work, re- 
sembling a billet of wood. 

Bil'let, v. t. limp. &,p. p. billeted ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BILLETING.] [From b illet, a ticket.] (Mil.) To direct, 
by a ticket or note, where to lodge. Hence, to quarter, 
as soldiers in private houses. 

Billet-doux (MMe-dob'), n. [Fr. billet, note, anddoux, 
sweet.] A love-note or letter. 

Bill'-hobk:, n. A small hatchet with curved edge. 

Bill'iard (-yard), a. Pertaining to the game of billiards. 

Bill'iard§, n. pi. [Fr. billard, from bille, ball.] A game 
played withjvory balls, on a rectangular table. 

Bil'iingg-gate, n. [From a fish-market of this name in 
London, celebrated for foul language.] Foul or profane 
language ; ribaldry. 

Bill'ion (bihyun), n. [From Lat. bis, twice, and L. Lat. 
millis,'FY. million, a million.] According to the French 
method of numeration, a thousand millions, or 1,000,- 
000,000 ; according to the English method, a million of 
millions, or 1,000,000,000,000. See Numeration. 

Bill'man, n. ; pi. BILL'MEN. One who uses a bill or 
hooked ax. 

Bil'low, n. [Ger. bulge, from the root belgen, to swell.] 

food, foot ; urn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, -call, echo ; gem, get ; a§ ; e^ist ; linger, link; this. 




A great wave or surge of the sea, occasioned usually by 

violent wind. 
Bil'low-y, a. Swelling, or swelled into large waves. 
Bill'- stick' er, n. One who posts up bills, or placards, 

in public places. 
Bil'ly, n. A watchman's club. [ Cant.] 
Bi'lobed, ) a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. lobed, lobate, 
Bl-lo'bate,} q. v.] (Bot.) Divided into two lobes. 
Bl-lde'n-lar, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and locvlus, a little 

place, dim. of locus, place.] (Bot.) Divided into, or 

containing, two cells. 
Bi-ma/noiis, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and manus, hand.] 

( Zobl. ) Having two hands. 
Bi-me'di-al, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. medial, q. 

v.] (Geom.) When two lines commensurable only in 

power (as the side and diagonal of a square) are added 

together, and the sum is incommensurable in respect to 

either, the sum is called by Euclid a bimedial line. 
Bi-men'sal, J a [Lat M ^ twice> and Eng- menm l, 
J5i-mes t"" al - \ q. v.] Occurring once in two months. 

Bin, n. [A.-S. binn, manger, crib, W. benn, men, wain, 
cart.] A box or inclosed place, used as a repository of 
any commodity. 
Bi'na-ry, a. [Lat. binarius, from bini, two by two, two 
and two.] Compounded of two ; double. 

Binary arithmetic, that in which two figures only, and 1, 
are used, in lieu of ten. — Binary compound (Chem.), a com- 
pound of two elements. 
Bi'nate, a. [N. Lat. binatus, from Lat. bini, two and 
two.] (Bot.) Being double or in couples; growing in 
Bind, v. t. [imp. BOUND ; p. p. BOUND, formerly 
BOUNDEN; p. pr. & vb. n. BINDING.] [A.-S. bindan, 
Goth, bindan, Skr. bandh.] 1. To tie together, or con- 
fine with a cord, band, ligature, chain, &c. 2. In a 
more general sense, to confine, restrain, or hold by 
physical force or influence of any kind. 3. To prevent 
or restrain from customary or natural action. 4. To 
protect or strengthen by a band or border. 5. To sew 
or fasten together, and inclose in a cover. 6. To place 
under legal obligation to serve. 

To bind over, to oblige by bond to appear at a court. — To 

bind up in, to cause to be wholly engrossed with. 

Bind, v. i. 1. To contract ; to grow hard or stiff. 2. 

To be restrained from motion, or from customary or 

natural action. 3. To be obligatory. 

Bind, n. A stalk of hops, so called from its winding 

round a pole or tree, or being bound to it. 
Bind'er, n. 1. A person who binds; one whose trade 
is to bind, as books. 2. Any thing that binds ; abandage. 
Bind'er-y, n. A place where books or other articles are 

bound. [An Americanism] 
Bind'ing, a. Having power to bind or 

oblige ; obligatory. 
Bind'ing, n. 1. Act of fastening with 
a band. 2. Any thing that binds, as a 
bandage, the cover of a book, or something 
used to secure the edge of cloth from rav- 
BInd'-weed, n. (Bot.) A plant of differ- 
ent species, of the genus Convolvulus. 
Bin'na-ele, n. [For bittacle, corrupt, from 
Fr. habitacle, habitation ; Lat. habitacu- 
lum, from habitare, to dwell.] (Naut.) A 
box containing the compass of a ship, and 
a light to show it at night. 
Bin'o-ele (bln'o-kl), n. [Lat. bini, two and two, and 
oculus, eye.] (Opt.) A telescope, fitted with two tubes 
Bi-noe'u-lar, a. 1. naving two eyes. 2. With, or per- 
taining to, both eyes. 3. Adapted to the use of both eyes. 
Bi-no-e'u-late, a. Having two eyes. 
Bi-no'mi-al, n. [Lat. bis, twice, and nomen, name.] 
(Alg.) An expression consisting of two terms connected 
by the sign plus or minus ; as, a -\- b, or 7 — 3. 
Bi-no'mi-al, a. Consisting of two terms ; — pertaining 

to binomials. 
Bi-og'ra-pher, n. [See Biography.] One who writes 

the life of a particular person. 
Bi''ie, ) a. Pertaining to, or containing 
Bi'o-graph'ie al, i biography. [laphy. 

Bi'o-graph'ie-al-ly, adv. In the manner of a biog- 
BI 6g'ra phy, n. [Gr. / <.'os, life, and ypd^eiv, to write.] 
J . The history of the life and character of a particular 
person. 2. Biographical writings in general. 
Bi'o-log'ie-al, a. Pertaining to biology. 


BI-51'o-gy, n. [Gr. /?i'o?, life, and Adyos, discourse.] The 
science of life ; — often applied to a theory based on the 
assumption that there is a life-force, which obeys laws 
analogous to those of magnetism , and through which one 
individual may, under certain conditions, control the 
mental states and actions of another. 

Bi-pa'rous, or Bip'a-roiis, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and 
par ere, to bring forth.] Bringing forth two at a birth. 

Bi-par'ti-ble, I a. [Lat. bis, twice, and parti bi 'lis, par- 

BI -par 'tile, j tilts, divisible.] Capable of being di- 
vided into two parts. 

Bi-par'tite, or Bip'ar-tlte, a. [Lat. bipartitvs, p. p. 
of bipartite, from bis, twice, and partire, to divide.] 1. 
Having two correspondent parts, as a legai contract, one 
for each party. 2. Divided into two parts, as a leaf. 

Bi'par-ti'tion (-tlsh'un), n. Act of dividing into two 

Bi'ped, n. [Lat. bipes, from bis, twice, and pes, pedis, 
foot.] An animal having two feet, as man. 

Bi-pe'dal, \ a. Having two feet, or the length of two 

Bi'ped, j feet. 

Bi-pen'nate, ) a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. pen- 

Bi-pen'na-ted, j nate, q. v.] Having two wings. 

Bi-pet'al-oiis, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. petalous, 
q. v.] (Bot.) Having two fiower-leaves or petals. 

Bi-pin'nate, ) a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. pinnate, 

Bi-pin'na-ted, j pinnated.] (Bot.) Twice pinnate. 

Bi'pin-nat'i-f id, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. pinnat- 
ifid.] (Bot.) Doubly pinnatifid. 

Bi-pli'eate, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and plicare, to fold.] 
Twice folded together. 

Bi'pont, I a. Relating to books printed at Deux- 

Bi-pont'ine, j ponts, or Bipontium, in Holland. 

Bl-quad'rate, ) n. [Lat- bis, twice, and Eng. quadrate, 

Bi'quad-rat'ie, j q. v.] (Math.) The fourth power, 
arising from the multiplication of a square number or 
quantity by itself. 

Bl'quad-rat'ie, a. Pertaining to the biquadratic, or 
fourtn power. 

Bl-ra'di-ate, ) a. [Lat. bis, twice, and EDg. radiate, 

Bi-ra'di-a'ted, J radiated, q. v.] Having two rays. 

Birch (18), n. [A.-S. birce, Icel. bivrk ; 0. H. Ger. piri- 
cha ; Russ. bereza.] A tree of several species. The smaller 
branches of the common European birch, being tough 
and slender, were formerly much used for rods, especially 
in schools. 

Birch, 1 a. Made of birch ; consisting of birch ; per- 

Birch'^n, ) taining to birch. 

Bird (18), n. [A.-S. bird, or brid, j"onng of any animal, 
brood. Cf. Eng. breed and brood.] Properly, a chicken ; 
the young of a fowl ;. and hence, in modern use, a two- 
legged, feathered, flying animal, oviparous and verte- 
bra ted. 

Bird, v. i. To catch or shoot birds. 

BIrd'-eage, n. A cage for keeping birds confined. 

BIrd'-eall, n. 1. A little stick cleft at one end, in 
which is put a leaf of some plant, for imitating the cry 
of birds. 2. A very short metal cy Under, having a cir- 
cular plate with a small aperture in the center fastened 
to each end ; — used to decoy birds. 

Bird'-fan'ci-er, n. One who rears or collects rare or 
curious birds, or keeps them for sale. 

Bird'-lime, n. A viscous substance used to catch birds. 

Bird-of-par'a-dise, n. A 
perching bird of several spe- 
cie? , found in New Guinea. 

Bird'g'-eye, a. Seen from 
above, as if by a flying bird ; 
hence, general ; not entering 
into details. 

Bird'§'-eye Ma/ple. Wood 
of the sugar -maple, full of 
little knotty spots somewhat 
resembling birds' eyes. 

Bird'g'nest, n. The nest in 
which a bird lays eggs. 

Bl'reme, n. [Lat. biremis; 
bis, twice, and remus, oar.] A 
r vessel with two tiers of oars. 

Birth (18), n. [A.-S. beordh, 

byrd, from beran, be or an, to Bird-of-paradise. 

bear, bring forth; Goth, gabaurths.] 1. Act of com- 
ing into life, or of being born. 2. Lineage ; extrac- 
tion ; sometimes noble extraction. 3. Natural state or 
position. 4. Act of bringing forth. 5. That which is 
born, or produced, whether animal or vegetable. 6. 
Origin ; beginning. 

a,e,&c.,Zong7 a,e,&c, short; care, far, ask, all, what; ^re, veil, term; pique, firm; son,6r,do,w9lf, 




New birth (Theol.), regeneration, or the commencement of a 
religious life. 

Birth'day, n. 1. The day in which any person is born. 
2. The anniversary of one's birth. 

Birtli'-mark, n. Some peculiar mark or blemish on 
the body at birth. [of origin. 

Birth'place, n. The place where a person is born ; place 

BIrth'right (-rlt), n. Any right or privilege to which a 
person is entitled by birth. 

Bis'euit (bls'kit), n. [Lat. bis, twice, and coctus, p. p. of 
coquere, to cook, bake.] 1. A kind of unferniented bread 
baked hard. 2. A kind of small, baked cake, usually 
fermented, made of flour, milk, &c. 3. Earthen ware 
or porcelain which has undergone the first baking, be- 
fore it is subjected to the process of glazing. 

Meat biscuit, matters extracted from meat by boiling, com- 
bined with flour. 

Bi-se-et', v. t. [imp. & p. p. bisected ; & vb. 
n. BISECTING.] [Lat. bis, twice, and secure, sectum, 
to cut.] 1. To cut or divide into two parts. 2. ( Geom.) 
To divide into two equal parts. 

Bi-sec'tion, n. Act of bisecting. 

BI-seg'ment, n. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. segment, 
q. v.] One of the parts of a line, or other magnitude, 
divided into two equal parts. 

Bi-sex'u-al (-sek'shu-al), a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. 
sexual" q. v.] (Bat.) Being of both sexes. 

BIsli'op, n. [A.-S. bisceop, biscop, Goth. aipiskaupus,fr. 
Gr. €7T(.'<r/co7ros, Irri, over, and aKonog, inspector, from 
(nconelv, <7Ke'7TT6cr0ai, to view.] 1. An overseer ; a spir- 
itual superintendent, or director. 2. In Episcopal usage, 
the highest of the three orders of the Christian ministry. 

BIsli'op, n. 1. A mixture of wine, oranges, and sugar. 
2. An article of a lady's dress ; a bustle ; a tournure. 

BIsli'op, v. t. To confirm ; to admit solemnly into the 
church ; hence, to receive formally to favor. 

Blsh'op-rie, ii. [bishop and ric; A.-S. b : sceoprice.] 1. 
A diocese ; the district over which the jurisdiction of a 
bishop extends. 2. Office of bishop. 

Big'muth, n. [Ger. bismuth, wismuth,0. Ger. ivesemot.] 
A metal of a reddish-white color, crystallizing in rhom- 
bohedrons, which look nearly like cubes. It is somewhat 
harder than lead, and rather brittle. Specific gravity, 8. 

Bis/muth-al, a. Consisting of bismuth, or containing it. 

Big-muth/i-e, a. Pertaining to bismuth. 

Bi'son (orbl'sn), n. [Gr. 
Pia-ojv, 0. H.Ger. ivisunt, 
A.-S. ivesend, Ic.el. vis- 
undr.] (Zo'dl.) A quadru- 
ped inhabiting the inte- 
rior of North America, es- 
pecially about the Rocky 

Egf- It is popularly called 
the buffalo; but the true 
buffalo belongs to the east- 
ern continent, and to a dif- 
ferent subdivision of the American Bison. 
6ame genus. 

Bis-sex'tile (-seks'til), n. [Lat. bissextilis, fr. bissextus 
(bis and sextus), the sixth of the calends of March, or 
twenty -fourth day of February, which was reckoned 
twice every fourth year, by the intercalation of a day.] 
Leap year ; every fourth year, in which a day is added to 
the month of February. 

Bis-s£x'tile, a. Pertaining to leap year. 

BIs'ter, I n. [Fr. bistre, perhaps fr. bis, brown, swarthy. 

BIs'tre, J Cf., however, L. Ger. biester, frowning, dark, 
ugly. See also Boisterous.] ( Paint.) A dark -brown 
pigment extracted from the soot of wood. 

Bis'tort, n. [Fr. bistorte, It. & N. Lat. bistorta; Lat. 
bis, twice, and tortus, p. p. of torquere, to twist.] (Bot.) 
A plant, in popular language called snake-weed. 

Bis'to.u-ry (bls'tij-ry), n. [From Pistoria, now Pistoja, 
in Tuscany, where it was first manufactured.] A surgi- 
cal instrument for making incisions. 

Bi-sul'eate, a. [From Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. sulcate, 
q. v.] l.^Two-furrowed. 2. (Zodl.) Cloven-footed. 

Bi-sul'eoiis, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and sulcus, 
furrow.] Cloven-footed, as swine or oxen ; bisulcate. 

Bl-sill'pliate (45), n. [Lat. bis and Eng. sulphate.] 
( Chem.) A sulphate having two equivalents of sulphuric 
acid to one of the base. 

Bl-sul'phu-ret, n. [From Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. 
sulphuret, q. v.] (Chem.) A sulphuret with two atoms 
of sulphur, as the electro-negative ingredient. 

Bit, n. [A.-S. bsete, from bitan, to bite.] The iron mouth- 
piece of a bridle, to which the reins are fastened. 

Bit, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bitted ; p. pr. & vb. n. BIT- 
TING.] To put a bit in the mouth of. 

Bit, imp. & p. p. of bite. See Bite. 

Bit, n. [A.-S. bit, bite, from bitan, to bite.] 1. A mouth- 
ful ; a morsel ; a bite ; hence, a small piece of any thing ; 
a little ; a mite. 2. A small coin of the West Indies, 
worth about ten cents ; also applied in the Southern 
States to a silver coin, the eighth of a dollar. 3. A small 
instrument, of various forms and sizes, for boring. 

Bitch, n. [A.-S. bicce.] 1. The female of the canine 
kind, as of the dog, wolf, and fox. 2. A name of re- 
proach for a woman. 

Bite,-u. t. [imp. 8c p.p. BIT, BITTEN \ Ikvb.n BIT- 
ING.] [A.-S. bitan, Goth, beitan.] 1. To cut, crush, 
or seize with the teeth. 2. To cause sharp pain, or 
smarting to, in a literal or a figurative sense. 3. To 
cheat ; to trick. 4. To take hold of; to adhere to 

To bite in (Etchinn), to eat into metallic plates t>v means of 
an acid. — To bite the dust, or the ground, to fall in the agonies 
of death. 

Bite, v. i. 1. To seize or wound with the teeth or mouth. 
2. To cause hurt, pain, or injury of any sort. 

Bite, n. 1. Act of seizing with the teeth or mouth. 2. 
The wound made by the teeth, or by something analo- 
gous. 3. A morsel ; a mouthful. 4. The hold or pur- 
chase of a tool. 5. A cheat, a trick. 6. A sharper; 
one who cheats. 

Bit'er, n. One who, or that which, bites. 

Bit'ing, a. Sharp ; severe ; sarcastic ; caustic. 

Bit'ing-in, n. (Etching.) The process of corroding me- 
tallic plates, by means of an acid. 

BItt, v. t. (Naui.) To put round the bitts. 

Blt'ta-ele (blt'ta-kl), n. [See Binnacle.] The box 
for the compass on board a ship. 

Bit'ter, a. [A.-S. biter, Goth, baitrs ; from bite, v. t.] 1. 
Having a peculiar, acrid, biting taste, like wormwood. 
2. Causing pain or smart to the sense of feeling. 3. 
Causing, or fitted to cause, pain or distress to the mind. 
4. Characterized by sharpness, severity, or cruelty. 5. 
Mournful ; distressing ; pitiable. 

Syn. — Sharp; severe; cruel; calamitous; poignant; re- 

Bit'ter, n. [See Bitts.] (Naut.) A turn of the cable 

which is round the bitts. 
Bit'ter-ish, a. Somewhat bitter. 

Bit'ter-ish-ness, n. Quality of being moderately bitter. 
Blt'ter-ly, adv. In a bitter manner. 
Blt'tern, n. [Eng. bittor, bittour, 

L..Lat. butio, butor, butorius, for 

N. Lat. botaurus,bostaurus, Lat. 

taurus.} (Ornith.) A wading- 

bird of Europe, related to the 

herons. It makes a singular 

noise, which has been thought 

to resemble the lowing of a bull. 
Blt'tern, n. [From bitter.] 1. 

The brine which remains in salt 

works after the salt is concreted. 

2. A very bitter compound of 

quassia, cocculus indicus, &c. 
Bit'ter-ness, n. 1. State or qual- 
ity of being bitter, either in a fit- Bittern. 

eral or figurative sense. 2. A state of extreme impiety. 
Bit'terg, n. pi. A liquor, generally spirituous, in which 

bitter herbs or roots are steeped. 
Bit'ter-spar, n. A sparry mineral, consisting of car- 
bonate of lime and carbonate of magnesia. 

W3?~ It is itself tasteless ; and is called bitter-spar because ft. 
contains magnesia, the soluble salts of which are bitter. 

Bit'ter- sweet, n. (Bot.) A slender, climbing plant, 
whose root, when chewed, produces first a bitter, then a 
sweet taste. 

Bitts, n. pi. [From the same root as bite. Cf. BIT, n.] 
(Naut.) A frame of two strong pieces of timber on which 
to fasten the cables. 

Bi-tu/men, n. [Lat. bitumen.] Mineral pitch, a sub- 
stance having a pitch-like odor, and burning readily 
with a bright flame, without any residue. 

Bi-tu'mi-nate, v. t. [imp. k,p. p. bituminated _; p. 
pr. & vb. n. BITUMINATING.] To impregnate with bitu- 

Bi-tu.'mi-nize, v. t. [imp. &>p. p. bituminized ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. BITUMINIZING.] To form into or impreg- 
nate with bitumen. 

food, foot; firn, rude > pull; cell, chaise, -eall, e-elio ; gem, get; a§ ; exist; linger, link ; this. 




BI-tu'mi-nous, a. Haying the qualities of bitumen ; 
compounded with bitumen ; containing bitumen. 

BI'valve, n. [Lat. bis, twice, and valva, valve.] 1. 
(Zo'dl.) A molluscous animal, having a shell consisting 
of two parts or valves ; or a shell consisting of two parts, 
which open and shut. 2. (Bot.) A pericarp in which 
the seed-case opens or splits into two parts or valves. 

BI' valve, ) a. Having two valves which open and 

Bi'valved, I shut, as the oyster, or which open at 

Bl-valv'oiis, f maturity, as the seed-vessels of cer- 

Bi-valv'u-lar, J tain plants. 

Bi'ven'tral, a. [Lat. bis, twice, and Eng. ventral, q. v.] 
Having two bellies. 

Biv'i-oiis, or Bi'vi-ous, a. [Lat. bivius ; bis, twice, 
and via, way.] Having, or leading, two ways. 

Hlv'oua-e (biv'wak), n. [Fr., from H. Ger. beiwache ; 
bei, by, near, and wache, watch, guard.] [Mil.) (a.) 
The guard or watch of a whole army, (b.) An encamp- 
ment without tents or covering. 

Hlv'oua^ (-wak), v. t. [imp. & p. p. BIVOUACKED ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. BIVOUACKING-.] To watch or be on guard, 
as a whole army ; to encamp without tents or covering. 

Bl'-week'ly, a. Occurring once in every two weeks. 

JBizarre (be-z'ar'), a. [Fr., of Basque-Iberian origin.] 
Odd in manner or appearance ; fantastical ; whimsical. 

Blab, v. t. [imp. & p. p. blabbed; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BLABBING.] [Ger. blappen , blappern , plappern , 0. Eng. 
blabber, to talk idly.] To utter or tell unnecessarily, or 
indiscreetly. [to tattle. 

Blab, v. i. To talk thoughtlessly or without discretion ; 

Blab, n. One who blabs ; a babbler ; a telltale. 

Blab'ber, n. A tattler ; a telltale. 

Black, a. [A.-S. blxc, blac, black. This word ought not 
to be confounded with A.-S. blac, Eng. bleak. See Bleak.] 
1. Destitute of light, or incapable of reflecting it ; of the 
color of soot or coal. 2. In a less literal sense, very- 
dark or gloomy. 3. (Fig.) Dismal, gloomy, or forbid- 
ding, like darkness ; destitute of moral light or goodness. 

Black, n. 1. The darkest color, or rather a destitution 
of all color. 2. A negro ; a person whose skin is black. 
3. A black dress, or mourning. 
In black and white, in writing or print. 

Black, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BLACKED (blakt) ; p. pr. & 
vb n. BLACKING.] To make black; to blacken. 

Black'-art, n. Conjuration ; magic. 

ragf This name was given in the middle ages to necromancy, 
under the idea that the latter term was derived from niger, 
black, instead of ve/cpos, a dead person, and /xajreta, divina- 

Black'a-mo~or,w. [blark and moor.] A negro : a black. 
Black'ball, n. 1. A composition for blacking shoes, 

boots, &c. 2. A ball of black color, used as a negative 

in voting. 
Black'ball, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BLACKBALLED ; p. pr. 

& vb. n/BLACKBALLlNG] To reject by putting black- 
balls into a ballot-box. 
BlackOjer-ry, n. The berry of the bramble ; a popular 

name applied to different species of the genus Rubus. and 

their fruit. 
Black'bird, n. (Ornith.) In 

England, a species of thrush, a 

singing-bird with a fine note, but 

very loud. In America, this 

name is given to different birds, 

as to the Quisculus versicolor, or 

crow blackbird, and to the Argc- 

laius phctniceus, or red 

Blackboard, n. A board 

to write or draw on with chalk. Blackbird. 

Black'-bobk (27), n. 1. One of several books of a po- 
litical character, published at different times and for 

different purposes ; — so called either from the color of 

the binding, or from the character of the contents. 2. 

A book kept at a university for the purpose of registering 

crimes and misdemeanors. 3. Any book which treats 

of necromancy. 
Black'-eat'tle, n. Cattle of the bovine genus reared 

for slaughter, whatever their color may be. [Eng.] 
Black'eock, n. ( Ornith.) A large bird, called also black- 

grouse and black-game. 
Black'-eur'rant, n. (Bot.) A garden fruit, used for 

jellies, jams, &c, of a black color. 
Black'en, v. t. [imp. & p. p. blackened; p pr. & 

vb. n. blackening.] [See Black, v. t.] 1. To make 

or render black. 2. To make dark ; to darken. 3. To 

sully, as reputation ; to make infamous. 

Black'en, v. i. To grow black or dark. 

Black'flsh, n. 1. A fish caught on the rocky shores of 

New England ; the tautog. 2. A small kind of whale. 

Black'-f liix, n. A mixture of carbonate of potash and 

charcoal. [der. 

Black'-frFar, n. (Eccl.) A friar of the Dominican or- 

Black'- grass, n. A kind of coarse grass. 

Black'guard (blag'g'ard), n. [Orig. the guard of the 
devil ; thence, a fit attendant on the devil, and then a 
dirty fellow of the meanest kind.] 1. The scullions and 
lower menials of a court. [Obs.] 2. Hence, a person 
of low character, accustomed to use scurrilous language. 

Black'guard (blag'gard), v. t. [imp. Sep. p. black- 
guarded ; p. pr. & vb. n. BLACKGUARDING.] To re- 
vile in scurrilous language. [guard. 

Black'guard-i§m, n. Conduct or language of a black- 

Black'tng, n. A preparation used for blacking shces, 
boots, &c, variously 7 made. [dark. 

Black'ish, a. Somewhat black; moderately black or 

Black'-jack, n. 1. A mineral ore, called also false 
galena. It is the sulphuret of zinc, or zinc-blende. 2. 
A species of oak, called also barren oak. 

Black-lead', n. [From its color, and from making 
a mark on paper like lead.] A mineral composed of car- 
bon ; plumbago ; graphite. 

Black'leg, n. A notorious gambler and cheat. 

Black'-let'ter, n. The old English or modern Gothic 
letter, in which early manuscripts were written, and the 
first books were printed. 

Black'-let/ter, a. 1. Written or printed in black-let- 
ter. 2. Studious of books in black-letter ; that is, of 
old bocks. 

Blaek'ly, adv. Darkly ; gloomily ; atrociously. 

Black'- mail, n. 1. A certain rate of money", cattle, or 
other thing, anciently paid to certain lawless men, for 
protection from pillage. 2. Extortion of money from a 
person by threats. [Amer.] 

Black'-mar'tin, n. A bird belonging to a sub-family 
of the swallows. 

Black'ness, n. The quality of being black, in a literal 
or a figurative sense. [suet, &c. 

Black'-pud'ding, n. A kind of sausage made of blood, 

Black'-rod, n. The usher belonging to the order of the 
Garter ; so called from the black rod he carries. [Eng.] 

Black'riist, n. A disease of wheat. 

Black'smith, n. A smith who works in iron, and makes 
iron utensils ; an iron-smith. 

Black'-snake, n. A serpent of a black color; two 
species are found in America. [molasses. 

Black'- strap, n. A mixture of spirituous liquor and 

Black'tail, n. A kind of perch. 

Black'thorn, n. (Bot.) A spiny plant bearing a small 
black fruit. It is much used for hedges. 

Black'- vom'it, n. A vomiting of dark-colored matter ; 
or the substance so discharged ; one of the most fatal 
symptoms in yellow fever. 

Black TVal'nut- A well-known American tree, the 
wood of wtiich is of a dark color. 

Blad'der, n. [A.-S. blsedre, bladdre. The root is A.-S. 
blawan, to blow, flare.] (Anat.) A bag or sac in animals, 
which serves as the receptacle of some secreted fluid. 

Blade, n. [A.-S. Used, that which springs forth, as a 
shoot, branch, leaf, fruit.] 1. Properly , the leaf, or flat 
part of the leaf, of any plant, especially of gramineous 
plants. 2. The cutting part cf an instrument. 3. The 
broad part of an oar. 4. (Avat.) The scapula, or scap- 
ular bone. 5. A bright, sharp-witted, dashing fellow; 
a_rake. [shoulder. 

Blade'-bone, n. The scapula, or upper bone in the 

Blad'ed, p. p. 1. Having a blade or blades. 2. (Min.) 
Composed of long, narrow plates. 

Blain, n. [A.-S. blegen , from blawan, to blow, flare.] An 
inflammatory swelling or sore ; a pustule ; a blister. 

Blam'a-ble, a. Deserving of censure ; faulty ; culpable ; 
reprehensible ; blameworthy. 

Blam'a-ble-ness, n. State of being blamable. 

Blam'a-bly, adv. In a manner deserving of censure. 

Blame, v. t. [imp. & p. p. blamed ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BLAMING.] [Fr. blamer, from Gr. pkao-^^elv, to speak 
ill. See Blaspheme.] To censure; to express disap- 
probation of; to find fault with. 

Blame, n. 1. Expression of disapprobation. 2. That 
which is deserving of censure or disapprobation. 

Syn.— Censure; reprehension ; condemnation; reproach; 
fault; sin; crime; wrong-doing. 

Blame'ful, a. Meriting blame ; reprehensible. 
Blame'less, a. Without fault ; not meriting censure. 

a,e,&c.,Zon^, aje^c.s/torf/ care, far, ask, all, what; ere .veil, term; pique,firm; son, or, do, wolf, 




Syn.— Spotless; faultless ; stainless ; irreproachable; inno- 
cent; guiltless. 

Blame'less-ly, adv. Innocently; without fault. 

Blame'less-ness, n. Freedom from fault or blame. 

Blam'er, n. One who blames, or censures. [censure. 

Blame'wor'thi-ness, (-wur-), n. Quality of deserving 

Blame'wor-thy (-wiir-), a. Deserving blame ; censur- 
able ; culpable ; reprehensible. 

Blanch, v. t. [imp. & p. p. blanched (blancht); p. 
pr. & vb. n. BLANCHING.] [Fr. blanckir, from blanc, 
white. Cf. Blank.] 1. To take out the color, and 
make white ; to whiten. 2. To make white by stripping 
off the peel. 3. (Fig.) To give a favorable appearance. 

Blanch, v. i. To grow or become white. 

Blanch/er, n. 1. One who blanches or whitens. 2. 
One who anneals and cleanses money. 

JBlanc-niange ) (blo-monj'), n. [Fr., lit. white food, 

J&lanc-rnanger ) from blanc, white, and manger, to 
eat.] A preparation of dissolved isinglass, or sea-moss, 
milk, sugar, cinnamon, &c, boiled till thick. 

Bland, a. [Lat. blandus.] Producing a pleasing impres- 
sion by soft or soothing qualities. 
Syn. — Mild; soft; gentle; courteous. 

Blan-dil'o-quence, n. [Lat. blandiloquentia ; blandus, 
mild, and loqui, to' speak.] Fan, mild, flattering speech. 

Bland'ish, v. t. [imp. & p.p. blandished ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. BLANDISHING.] [0. Eng. blandise, Lat. blandiri, 
from blandus, mild, flattering.] To flatter by kind words 
or affectionate actions ; to soften ; to caress. [ressingly. 

Bland'ish, v. i. To act or speak affectionately, or ca- 

Blaiid'ish-er, n. One who flatters with soft words. 

Blaiid'ish-ment, n. Words or actions expressive of 
affection or kindness ; artful caresses. 

Bland'ness, n. State or quality of being bland. 

Blank, a. [Ger. blank, shining, bright, white, Icel. 
blankr, allied to Ger. blinken, to shine, glitter.] 1. Of a 
white or pale color. 2. Hence, pale from fear or terror ; 
dispirited ; dejected. 3. Lacking something ; void ; 
empty. 4. Without mixture with any thing else ; pure. 
Blank cartridge, a cartridge filled with powder, but without 
ball. — Blank indorsement (Law), one which omits the name 
of the person in -whose favor it is made. — Blank verse, verse or 
poetry without rhyme; particularly the heroic verse of five feet 
without rhyme. 

Blank, n. 1. Any void space; a void space in any 
written or printed instrument. 2. A ticket in a lottery 
on which no prize is indicated. 3. A paper unwritten; 
a blank ballot. 4. A paper containing the substance of 
a legal instrument, with vacant spaces left to be filled 
with names, date, &c. 5. The point of a target at which 
aim is taken, marked with a white spot. 6. (Meek.) A 
piece of metal prepared to be made into something by a 
farther operation, as a coin, a woodscrew, nuts, &c. 

Blaiik'et, n. [Fr. blanchet, from blanc, white. See 
Blank.] 1. A coarse, loosely woven cover, to protect 
from cold. 2. (Print.) Woolen cloth, or white baize, to 
lay between the tympans. 3. A kind of pear. 

Blaiik'et, v. t. [imp. & p. p. blanketed ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. BLANKETING.] 1. To cover with a blanket. 2. 
To toss in a blanket by way of punishment. 

Blank'et-ing, n. 1. Cloth for blankets. 2. The pun- 
ishment of tossing in a blanket. 

Blank'ly, adv. In a blank manner ; with paleness. 

Blank'ness, n. State of being blank ; confusion. 

Blare, v. i. [Ger. blarren, bldrren, D. blaren, to bleat, to 
cry, weep.] To sound loudly ; to roar. 

Blare, n. Noise; loud sound. 

Blar'ney, n. [Cf. Ir. bladar, bladaireacht , flattery.] 
Smooth, deceitful talk ; flattery. [Irish.] 

Blar'ney, v t. To deceive or flatter by smooth talk. 

Blaspheme' v. t. [imp. &>p.p. blasphemed ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. BLASPHEMING.] [Gr. /5Aao-;irj/j.eiV. The first 
syllable, /?Aacr, stands for Bkd-pt., from Bkd\bi<;, damage, 
injury, from PkaTrreiv, to damage ; the last syllable is 
the Gr. <pr\i*.L, I say, I speak.] 1. To speak reproachfully 
or impiously of, as of God, Christ, or the Holy Spirit. 
2o To utter abuse or calumny against. 

Blas-pheme', v. i. To utter blasphemy. 

Blas-phem'er, n. One who blasphemes. 

Blfts'phe-moiis, a. Containing blasphemy ; impiously 
irreverent or reproachful toward God. 

Blas'phe-moiis-ly, adv. In a blasphemous manner. 

Blas'phe-my, n. [Gr. Bka^'vila.] An indignity of- 
fered to God by reproachful, contemptuous, or irreverent 
words or writing. 

Blast, n. [A.-S. blsest, a puff, from blsesan, to blow.] 1. 

A destructive or pernicious wind. 2. A forcible stream 
of air from an orifice ; hence, the blowing necessary to 
melt the supply of ore in a furnace. 3. Exhaust steam 
from an engine, used to create an intense draught through 
the fire; also, any draught produced by the blast. 4. 
The sound made by blowing a wind instrument. 5. The 
rending of rocks, &c, by the explosion of gunpowder, or 
the charge used for this purpose. 6. A sudden, perni- 
cious effect, as if by a noxious wind, especially on animals 
and plants ; a blight. 7. A flatulent disease of sheep. 

Blast, v. t. [imp. & p. p. blasted ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BLASTING.] 1. To injure, as bv a noxious wind ; to 
wither ; to blight. 2. Hence, to affect with some sudden 
violence, or destructive influence. 3. To confound, or 
strike with force, by a loud blast or din. 4. To split, as 
by an explosion of gunpowder. 

Blast'ed, a. Confounded ; accursed ; detestable ; — a vul- 
gar term of imprecation. 

Blast'er, n. One who blasts or destroys. 

Blast '-fur'nace, n. (Mech.) A furnace for smelting, in 
which the supply of air is fv_nhshed by a powerful bel- 
lows, or other pneumatic apparatus. 

Blast'-pipe, n. The exhaust pipe of a steam-engine. 

Bla'tant, a. [Prov. Eng. Mate, to bellow.] Bellowing, 
as a calf ; noisy ; bawling ; brawling. 

Blat'ter, v. i. [Ger. blattern, Lat. blaterare, to babble.] 
To patter ; hence, to make a senseless noise, to rail. 

Blaze, n. [A.-S. blsese, from M&san, to blow, flare.] 1. 
The stream of light and heat from any body when burn- 
ing; flame. 2. Light, as from flame. 3. A white spot 
on the forehead or face of a horse. 4. A spot made on 
trees by chipping off a piece of the bark. [Amer.] 5. 
Wide and sudden diffusion and display. 

Syn. — Flame. — A blaze and a flame are both produced by 
burning gas, but the former gives light and the latter heat, — the 
one shines and the other burns. 

Blaze, v. i. [imp. & p. p. BLAZED: p. pr. & vb. n. 
BLAZING.] 1. To shine with flame. 2. To send forth 
ajbright and expanded light. 3. To be conspicuous. 

Blaze, v. t. 1. To make public far and wide. 2. To 
mark, as a tree, by chipping off a piece of the bark. 3. 
To designate by blazing. 

Blaz'er, n. One who publishes and spreads reports. 

Blaz'ing-star, n. A comet. 

Bla/zon (bLVzn), v. t. [imp. & p. p. blazoned; p. pr. 
& vb. ?i. BLAZONING. [See infra. 1. To display; to 
exhibit conspicuously. 2. To deck ; to embellish ; to 
adorn. 3. To explain in proper terms, as the figures on 
armorial ensigns. 

Bla'zon, n. [Fr. & Sp. Mason, from A.-S. blzse, Eng. 
blaze, torch, i. e., splendor. See Elaze.] 1. Art of 
drawing, describing, or explaining coats of arms. 2. The 
representation on coats of arms. 3. Ostentatious dis- 
play ; publication ; show. 

Bla'zon-er, n. One who blazons. 

Bla'zon-ry, n. 1. Art of describing or explaining coats 
of arms in proper terms. 2. Exhibition of coats of arms. 

Blea'toer-ry, n. [Corrupted from blueberry, like bilberry, 
q. v.] (Bot.) A plant and its fruit, having small leaves 
like those of box, and little purple berries. 

Bleach, v.t. [imp. & p. p. bleached (108); 
n. bleaching.] [A.-S. blscan, Ms:cean, from blican, 
to shine, glitter. See Bleak.] To make white, orwhiter, 
by removing the original color ; to blanch ; to whiten. 

Bleach, v. i. To grow white in any manner. 

Bleach'er, n. One who bleaches. 

Bleach'er-y, n. A place or establishment for bleaching. 

Bleach'ing, n. Act or art of whitening, especially of 
whitening fabrics by chemical agents, &c. 

Bleak, a. [A.-S. blac, blaec, pale, wan, from blican, to 
shine. See Bleach.] 1. Without color; pale. [Obs.] 
2. Desolate and exposed. 3. Cold; cheerless. 

Bleak, n. [See Blay.] (Ichth.) A small river fish, so 
named from its whiteness. 

Bleak'ly, adv. Openly as to cold and wind ; desolate!/. 

Bleak'ness, n. Quality of being bleak. 

Blear, a. [See infra.] 1. Dim or sore with rheum; — 
applied to the eyes. 2. Causing dimness of sight. 

Blear, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bleared ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BLEARING.] [Cf. Sw. blira, plira, to twinkle. It may, 
however, be the same as blare, so that the orig. sense 
would be, having the eyes dimmed with blaring, or cry- 
ing.] 1. To affect with soreness of eyes, or a watery hu- 
mor. Hence, 2. To make dim, as the sight. 

Blear'-eye, \n. (M<>d.) A chronic inflammation 

Blear'-eyed-ness, ) of the margins of the eyelids, with 
a gummy secretion of the sebaceous humor. 

food, foot ; urn, rtjde, piull ; cell, chaise, -eaBi, e«ho ; gem, get ; a§ ; e^ist ; linger, link ; this. 




Blear-eyed (-Id), a. Having sore eyes ; dim sighted. 

Bleat, v. i. [A.-S. Ma-tan.] To cry as a sheep. 

Bleat , n. The cry or noise of a sheep. 

Bled, imp. & p. p. of bleed. See BLEED. 

Bleed, v. i. [imp. & p. p. bled ; p. pr. & vb. n. bleed- 
ing.] [A.-S. bledan. See Blood.] 1. To lose blood, 
by whatever means. 2. To die a violent death, or by 
slaughter. 3. To drop, as blood, from an incision; to lose 
sap, gum, or juice. 4. To pay or lose money. [Colloq.] 
The heart bleeds, a phrase denoting great sympathy or pity. 

Bleed, v. t. 1. To take blood from by opening a vein. 

2. To lose, as blood ; to let drop, as juice, sap, or gum. 

3. To draw money from one. [Colloq.] [rhage. 
Bleed'ing, n. A running or issuing of blood ; a hemor- 
Blem'ish,r. t. [imp. & p. p. blemished (108) ; 

& vb. n. BLEMISHING.] [0. Fr. blemir, blesmir ; bleme, 
blesme, pale, wan, from Icel. blami, a bluish color, from 
bla, blue, so that 0. Fr. blemir properly signifies to beat 
one (black and) blue, and to render blue or dirty.] 1. 

' To mark with deformity ; to mar, or make defective, either 
the body or mind. 2. To tarnish, as reputation or char- 
acter ; to defame. [or moral. 

Blem'ish, n. Any mark of deformity, whether physical 
Syn. — Spot; speck; flaw; deformity; stain; defect; fault; 
taint; reproach; dishonor; imputation; turpitude; disgrace. 

Blench, v. i. [imp. & p. p. blenched (108) ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. blenching.] [SeeBLANCH.] To shrink; to start 
back, from lack of courage or resolution ; to flinch. 
Blench, v. t. To baffle ; to disconcert ; to break. 
Blend, v . t. [imp. Ik, p. p. blended ; p. ^r. & vb. n. 
BLENDING.] [A.-S. Man dan and blendan, to blend, blin- 
dan, bhndjan, to blind, Goth, Mandan, to mix, Ger. blen- 
den, to blind.] To mix together ; hence, to confound, so 
that the separate things mixed can not be distinguished. 
Blend, v. i. To be mixed; to be united. 
Blende, n. [Ger. , because it dazzles, from Menden, to 
blind, dazzle. See supra.] (Min.) An ore of zinc, consist- 
ing of zinc and sulphur. 
Blend'er, n. One who blends. 

Blen'ny, n. [Gr. PXevvos, PeXewos, from fi^ivva, slime.] 
(Icht'i.) A fish of different species, usually of small size, 
— so called from the shining mucus covering their skin. 
Blent, p. p. of blend. See Blend. 

Bless? v - ?• [imp. & p. p. BLESSED or BLEST ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. blessing.] [A.-S. bletsjan,blessjan ; Midhs, bliss, 
joy, from Midhe, blithe.] 1. To make happy, blithesome, 
or joyous. 2. To invoke a blessing upon. 3. [Bib.) 
To prai?e, or glorify, for benefits. 
Bless'ed(30),a. 1. Enjoying happiness or bliss ; favored 
with blessings ; happy. 2. Imparting happiness or bliss. 
3. Enjo;. ing, or pertaining to, spiritual happiness. 4. 
Halloaed by associations ; heavenly. 
Bless'ed-ness, n. State of being blessed ; heavenly joys. 
Single blessedness, the unmarried state. 
Syn. — Happiness ; beatitude; felicity; bliss; joy. 
Bless'er, n. One who blesses. 

Bless'ing, n. 1. A means of happiness; that which 
promotes prosperity and welfare. 2. A wish of happiness 
pronounced ; a benediction. 
Blest, a. 1. Made happy. 2. Making happy ; cheering. 
Blet, n. [Fr. blette.] A decayed spot on fruit. 
Ble'ton-ism, n. The supposed faculty of perceiving and 
indicating subterraneous springs and currents by sensa- 
tion ; — so called from one Bleton. 
Blet'ting, n. The spotted appearance of over-ripe fruit 

from incipient decomposition. 
Blew (blu), imp. of blow. See Blow. 
Blight (blit), n. [See infra.] 1. Mildew ; decay ; — applied 
as a general name to various injuries or diseases of plants, 
causing the whole or a part to wither. 2. (Fig.) That 
which frustrates one's plans or withers one's hopes. 3. 
A species of plant-louse, destructive to fruit-trees. 
Blight, v. t. [imp. & p. p. blighted ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
blighting.] [Prob. contr. from a hypoth. A.-S. be- 
h/itan, to alight, fall upon, blast, fr. A.-S. lihtan,alihtan, 
to alight, descend. Cf. Eng. to light upon, to fall on, 
strike.] To affect with blight ; to blast: to frustrate. 
Blind, a. [A.-S. blind, Goth, blinds; allied to Mend, to 
mix, because obscurity arises from mixture. See Blend.] 
1. Destitute of the sense of seeing. 2. Not having the 
faculty of discernment ; unable to understand or judge. 
3. Morally depraved. 4. Having such a condition as a 
thing would have to a blind person : indiscernible ; out 
of public view ; private, hidden; unseen. 5. Undiscern- 
ing; undiscriminating ; inconsiderate. 
Blind, v. t. [imp. & p. p. blinded ; p. pr. & vb. n. 

blinding.] 1. To deprive of sight or discernment. 2. 
To obscure to the eye or understanding ; to deceive. 

Blind, n. 1. Something to hinder sight or keep out 
light ; a screen. 2. Something to mislead the eye or 
the understanding. 

Blind'er,w. 1. One who blinds. 2. One of the broad 
pieces of leather on a bridle near the eyes of a horse, to 
hinder him from seeing on the side. 

Bllnd'fold, a. Having the eyes covered ; blinded; hav- 
ing the mental eye darkened. 

Bllnd'fold, v. t. [imp. & p. p. blindfolded ; 
& vb. n. blindfolding.] To cover the eyes of; to 
hinder from seeing. 

BHnd'ly, adv. 1. Without sight or understanding. 2. 
Without discernment or examination. 

Blind'-man'g-bulF, n. A play in which one person is 
blindfolded, and hunts out the rest of the company. 

BKnd'ness, n. State or quality of being blind. 

Blind'- side, n. Side on which one is most easily assailed. 

Blind'- worm (warm), v. A small reptile without feet, 
like a snake; — called also slow-worm. Its eyes being 
very minute, it has often been supposed to be blind 

Blink, v. i. [Ger. blinken,blicken, to glance ; A.-S. Mican, 
to shine.] 1. To wink ; to see with the eyes half shut, 
or with frequent winking. 2. To glimmer, as a lamp. 

Blink, v. t. [imp. & p. p. blinked (blinkt) ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. blinking.] To shut out of sight ; to avoid, or 
purposely evade. 

Blink, n. 1. A glimpse or glance. 2. (Navt.) The 
dazzhng whiteness about the horizon occasioned by the 
reflection of light from fields of ice at sea. 

Blink'ard, n. [From Mink and termination ard.] 1. 
One who blinks. 2. That which twinkles, as a dim star. 

Blink'er,^. 1. One who blinks. 2. A blind for horses ; 
hence, whatever checks or obstructs sight or discernment. 

Bliss, n. [See Bless.] The highest degree of happiness. 
Syn. — Blessedness; felicity; beatitude; happiness; joy. 

Bliss'f ill, a. Full of joy and felicity ; supremely happy. 

Blass'fiil-ly, adv. In a blissful manner. 

Bliss'ful'iiess?. n. Exalted happiness : bliss. 

Blis'ter, n. [A corruption and modification of plaister, 
plaster, q. v.] 1. A thin, watery bladder on the skin. 
2. Any tumor made by the separation cf the film or 
skin, as on plants ; or by the swelling of the substance 
at the surface, as on steel. 3. A vesicatory ; a plaster 
applied to raise a blister. 

BHs'ter, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BLISTERED : p. pr. & vb. n. 
blistering.] 1. To rake blisters upon. 2. To give 
pain to, as if by a blister. 

Blis'ter, v. i. To rise in blisters. 

Blithe, a. [A.-S. Midhe, Goth, bleiths.] Gay ; merry, 
joyous ; sprightly : mirthful. 

Blithe'iy , adv. In a blithe, or gay, joyful manner. 

Blitiie'ness, n. Quality of being blithe. 

Blltke'fome, a. Gay ; merry ; cheerful ; blithe. 

Blitne'some-ness, n. Quality of leing blithesome. 

Bloat, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bloated.; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BLOATING.] [Perh. from p. p. of blow, to swell ; bloiced, 
blowt, bloat.] 1. To cause to swell or become turgid, 
as with water, air, &c. 2. To puff up ; to make vain. 

Bloat, v. i. To grow turgid, as by effusion of liquid in 
the cellular membrane ; to puff out ; to swell. 

B16to'ber-Hp, n. A thick lip. 

Block, n. [Ger. Mock, Icel. MUkkr. Fr. bloc] 1. A solid 
mass of wood, stone, &c. 2. The mass of wood on 
which criminals are beheaded. 3. The wooden mold on 
which hats, bonnets, &c, are shaped. 4. A connected 
mass or row of buildings. [Amer.] 5. A square, or 
portion of a city inclosed by streets. [Amer.] 
6. A system of one or mere pulleys or 
sheaves, arranged in a frame. 7. Any 
obstruction, or cause of obstruction. 

Block, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BLOCKED 
(blokt); & vb. n. BLOCKING.] 1. 
To hinder egress or passage from or into : 
to stop ; to obstruct. 2. To secure or 
support by means of blocks. 

To block out, to begin to reduce to shape. 

Blockade', «. [It. Moccata. See Tlock.] 

The shutting up of a place by troops or ■ B10CK w- 
ships, with a view to compel a surrender from hunger 
and want, without regular attacks. 

Block-ade', v. t. [imp. & p. p. blockaded; p. pr. 
& vb n. BLOCKADING.] To shut up, as a town or for- 
tress, by troops or ships, so as to compel a surrender from 
hunger and want ; to confine. 

i Block-ad'er, n. One who blockades. 

a, e, &c, long; a, e, &c, short ; care, far, ask, all, what ; ere, veil, term ; pique, firm ; son, 6r, do, wolf, 





8. The juice of any 

B15ck'h6ad, n. A stupid fellow ; a dolt. 

Block'-house, n. ( Mil. ) A kind 
of edifice of heavy timber or logs 
for military defense, having its 
sides loop-holed for musketry. 

Block'ish, a. Like a block ; de- 
ficient in understanding ; stupid ; 
dull. [manner. 

Blo«k'ish-ly, adv. In a stupidjj 

Bloek'ish-ness, n. Stupidity. ~~ 

Block'- tin, n. Tin in blocks or 

Blom'a-ry (bloom'-), n. [See Bloom, a mass of iron.] 
(Manuf.) The first forge through which iron passes after 
it is melted from the ore. 

Blonde, n. [Fr. blond, blonde. Cf. A.-S. blonden-feax, 
fair-haired, prop, blended-haired. See Blend.] A per- 
son with fair complexion, light hair, and light blue eyes. 

Blonde, _ In. [Fr. blonde, from its color. See supra.] 

Blond'-lace, J A fine kind of lace made of silk. 

Blonde, a. Of a fair color or complexion ; fair. 

Blood (blud), n. [A.-S. blOd, Goth. blOth, Icel. blodh. 
Cf. Lat. flutare, for fuitare, to flow.] 1. The fluid 
which circulates through the arteries and veins of men 
and animals. 2. Hence, relation by natural descent ; 
kindred; consanguinity. 3. Descent ; lineage ; especial- 
ly, honorable birth. 4. The shedding of blood ; murder ; 
destruction. 5. Temper of mind ; disposition ; state of 
the passions. 6. Excited feeling ; passion. 

©3F* Often, in this sense, accompanied with cold or warm, or 
other qualifying word. Cold blood denotes deliberation, or 
an absence of sudden passion. Warm blood denotes a temper 
inflamed or irritated. 
7. A man of fire or spirit ; a rake 
thing, especially if red. 

Blood (blud), v. t. [imp. & p. p. blooded ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. blooding.] 1. To let blood from; to bleed. 
2. To stain with blood. 3. To inure to blood, as a 
hound. [blood. 

Blood'-guilt'i-ness, n. The guilt or crime of shedding 

Blood'- gullt'y (blSd'yJU/y), a. Guilty of murder. 

B16 od'-lieat, n. Heat equal to the temperature of blood, 
or about 93° Fahr. 

Blood'-horse, n. A horse whose blood is derived from 
the purest stock. [perature. 

B16od'=liot, a. As warm as blood in its natural tem- 

Blood'-hound, n. A fero- 
cious, bloodthirsty variety of 
dog, remarkable for the acute- 
ness of its smell , and employed 
to pursue men or animals by 
tracing them by the scent of 
their tracks. [manner. 

B16od'i-ly, adv. In a bloody 

Blood'i-ness, n. 1. State of 
being bloody. 2. Disposition 
to shed blood ; blood-thirsti- 
ness. "Blood-hound. 

Blood'less, a. 1. Without blood ; dead. 2. Without 
shedding of blood. 3. Without spirit or activity. 

B16od'less-ly, adv. Without bloodshed. 

Blood'-let'ter, n. One who lets blood, as in diseases ; 
a phlebotomist. 

Blood'-let'ting, n. {Med.) Act of letting blood by 
opening a vein ; venesection ; phlebotomy. [descent. 

Blood'-re-la'tion, n. One connected by blood or 

Blood'root, n.. A plant so named from the color of 
its root. 

Blood'shgd, n. The shedding or spilling of blood ; 
slaughter ; waste of life. [derer. 

Blood'^hed'der, n. One who sheds blood ; a mur- 

Blood'shed'ding, n. The crime of shedding blood. 

Bio od'-shot, i a. Red and inflamed by a turgid state 

Blood'-shot'ten, j of the blood-vessels, as in diseases 
of the eye. 

Blood'-spav'in, n. (Far.) A dilatation of the vein that 
runs along the inside of the hock of a horse, forming a 
soft swelling. 

Bloo 3 '-stone, n. (Min.) (a.) A green silicious stone 
sprinkled with red jasper, as if with blood ; hence the 
name. ib.) Hematite; a brown ore of iron. 

Blood'-siick'er, n. Any animal that sucks blood ; 
specifically applied* to the leech. 

Blood'-thirst'i-ness, n. Thirst for shedding blood ; 
a murderous disposition. 

Blood'- thlrst'y, a. Desirous to shed blood ; murderous. 

Blood'- ves'sel, n. Any vessel in which blood circulates 
in an animal body ; an artery or a vein. 

Blood'- warm, a. Warm as blood ; lukewarm. 
Blood'y (b'iud'-j, a. 1. Stained with or containing blood. 

2. Given to the shedding of blood ; murderous. 3. At- 
tended with bloodshed. 

Blood'y, v. t. To stain with blood ; to make bloody. 

Blood'y-fliix, n. The dysentery. [position. 

Blood'y-mind'ed, a. Having a cruel, ferocious dis- 

Bldbm, n. [Goth, bloma. The root is A.-S. blovan, to 
blow, blossom. Cf. Blossom.] 1. A blossom ; the 
flower of a plant. 2. The opening of flowers in general. 

3. An opening to higher perfection, analogous to that 
of buds into blossoms. 4. The delicate, powdery coat- 
ing upon certain newly -gathered fruits. 5. [A.-S.Wuwia, 
a mass or lump, isenes bloma, a lump or wedge of iron.] 
Ajnass of crude iron undergoing the first hammering. 

Bloom, v. i. [hup. & p. p. bloomed ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BLOOMING.] 1. To produce blossoms ; to flower. 2. 
To be in a state of healthful, growing youth and vigor ; 
to_show beauty and freshness, as of flowers. 

Bloom'er, n. [So called from the introducer, Mrs. 
Bloomer.] 1. A costume for ladies, consisting of a very 
short dress, with long, loose drawers gathered round the 
ankle, and a broad-brimmed hat. 2. A woman who 
wears such a costume. [beauty, and vigor- 

Blobm'ing, a. 1. Flowering. 2. Thriving in health, 

Blobm'ing, n. 1. (Manuf.) The process of making 
blooms, as of iron. 2. A clouded appearance which var- 
nish sometimes assumes upon the surface of a picture. 

Blbbm'y, a. Full of bloom ; flowery ; flourishing with 
the vigor of youth. 

Blos'som, n. [A.-S. blosma and blostma. Cf. BLOOM.] 
The flower of a plant, or the essential organs of repro- 
duction, with their appendages. 

Blos'som, v. i. [imp. & p. p. blossomed ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. blossoming.] 1. To put forth blossoms; to 
bloom ; to blow ; to flower. 2. To flourish and prosper. 

Blot, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BLOTTED; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BLOTTING.] [Icel. bletta.] 1. To spot, stain, or be- 
spatter. 2. To stain with infamy ; to disgrace ; to dis- 
figure. 3. To obliterate so as to render invisible; to 
obscure. 4. To cause to be unseen or forgotten. 

Syn.— To obliterate; expunge; erase; efface; destroy; can- 
cel; tarnish; disgrace. 

Blot, n. 1. A spot or stain, as of ink on paper ; blur. 
2. An obliteration of something written or printed. 3. 
A spot in reputation ; disgrace ; reproach ; blemish. 

Blotch, n. [Cf. Blot and Bloat.] A pustule or 
eruption upon the skin. 

Blot'ter,n. 1. One who, or that which, blots. 2. (Coot.) 
A waste-book, in which are registered all accounts or 
transactions in the order in which they take place. 

Blot'ting-pa/per, n. A kind of unsized paper, serving 
to imbibe wet ink. 

Blouge ) (blouz), n. [Fr. blouse; — of Oriental origin: 

Blowge j Pers. baljad, a garment, or simple cloth.] 
A light, loose over-garment. 

Blow, n. [0. II. Ger. pluohl.] 1. A blossom ; a flower. 

2. A mass, or bed of flowers. 

Blow, n. [Goth, bliggvan.] 1. Act of striking; more 
generally, the stroke. 2. A sudden or severe calamity. 

3. An egg deposited by a fly in flesh, or the act of de- 
positing it. 4. (Naut.) A violent wind ; a gale. 

A blow or blow-out, a drunken frolic— At a blow, suddenly) 
at one effort. — To come to blows, to engage in combat. 
Blow, v. i. [A.-S. blovan, to blossom, 0. II. Gcv.pluohan.] 

1. To flower ; to blossom ; to bloom. 2. To sustain, 
produce, or cause to blossom. 

Blow, v. i. [imp. BLEW ; p. p. BLOWN ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BLOWING.] [A.-S. bldvan.] 1. To produce a current 
of air with the mouth ; hence, to move, as air. 2. To 
breathe hard or quick ; to pant: to puff. 3. To sound 
on being blown into. 4. To brag. [Amer. Low.] 

To blow over, to pass away without effect. — To blow up, to 
be broken and scattered by the explosion of gunpowder. 

Blow, v. t. 1. To throw or drive a current of air upon. 

2. To drive by a current of air. 3. To sound, as a wind 
instrument. 4. To spread by report ; to publish. 5. 
To deposit, as eggs by flies. 6. To form by inflation ; 
to swell by injecting air. 7. To put out of breath. 

To blow hoi and cold, to favor a thing at one time and treat it 
coldly at another; or to appear both to favor and oppose. — To 
bloio off', to suffer to escape. — To blow up, (a.) To fill with air. 
(b.) To puff up. (c.) To kindle, (d.) To burst, or scatter, by 
the explosion of gunpowder, (e.) To abuse or scold violently. 
[Colloq.] — To blow upon, to bring into disfavor or discredit. 
Blow'er, n. 1. One who blows; a smelter. 2. (Mech.) 
A contrivance for driving a current of air into something. 

3. A steam -jet to exhaust partially a chimney and create 

food, i&bt ; urn, rude, pull ; sell, chaise, -call, e«ho ; gem, get ; a§ ; e^ist ; linger, link ; this. 




a blast-draught. 4. A plate of metal used to increase 
the current of air in a chimney or through a fire, by 
closing the upper part of the fireplace. 

Blow'-pipe, n. An instrument by which a current of 
air is driven through the flame of a lamp, so as to direct 
the flame and concentrate the heat on some object. 

Blowge (blouz), n. See Blouse. 

Blow'y, a. [From blow.] Windy. 

Blowze (blouz), n. [From the same root as blush, q. v.] 
A ruddy, fat-faced woman. 

Blowzt-d (blouzd), a. Ruddy-faced ; blowzy. [ruddy 

Blow'zy (blou'zy), a. Coarse and ruddy-faced ; fat and 

Bliib'foer, n. [See BLEB.] The fat of whales and other 
large sea animals, from which oil is obtained. 

Bluo'ber, v. i. [imp. & p. p. BLUBBERED; p. pr. & 
vb. n. blubbering.] To weep noisily, or so as to dis- 
figure the face. peg- 

Blub'foer, v. t. To swell or disfigure the face with weep- 

Bliid'geon, n. [Cf. Blow, n.] A short stick, with 
one end loaded, or thicker and heavier than the other. 

Blue, n. [A.-S. bleoh, bled, Icel. Mar, D. blaauw, 0. H. 
Ger. blao,plao.] 1. The color of the clear sky; one of 
the seven primary colors. 2. (pi.) [Contracted from 
blue devils.] Low spirits ; melancholy. [Colloq.] 

Blue, a. 1. Of the color called blue. 2. Low in spirits; 
melancholy. 3. Severe or over-strict in morals. 

Blue, v. t. [imp. & p. p. blued ; p. pr. & vb. BLUING.] 
To make blue ; to dye of a blue color. [flowers. 

Blvie'toell, n. A plant which bears blue bell-shaped 

Blue'her-ry, n. (Bot.) A kind of whortleberry com- 
mon in America. 

Blue'Mrd, n. ( Ornitk.) A small bird, very common in 
the United States. The upper part of the body is blue. 

Blue'-lbobli:, n. 1. A parliamentary publication, so 
called from its blue paper covers, — such being commonly 
used ; also a book containing a list of fashionable ad- 
dresses. [Eng.] 2. A book containing the names of 
all the persons in the employment of the government, 
with the amount of their pay. [Amer.] 

Blvie'-foot/tle, n. 1. (Bot.) A plant which grows among 
corn. It receives its name from its blue bottle-shaped 
flowers. 2. A fly, with a large blue belly. 

Blue'-breast, n. A small species of European bird. 

Blue'-dev'ilg (-deVlz), n. pi. Lowness of spirits; hy- 
pochondria. [ Colloq.] 

Blue'-fish, n. 1. (Ichth.) A fish, often called dolphin, 
found in the Atlantic. 2. A fish allied to the mackerel, 
but larger, common off the Atlantic States ; —called also 

Blue'-Kght (-lit), n. A composition, burning with a 
blue flame, used as a night signal in ships, &c. 

Blue'ly, adv. With a blue color. 

Blue'ness, n. Quality of being blue. 

Blue'=pe ; ter, n. [A corruption of blue repeater, one of 
the British signal flags.] (British Marine.) A blue flag 
with a white square in the center, used as a signal. 

Blue'-pill, n. (Med.) A pill of prepared mercury, used 
as an aperient, &c. 

Blue'-stock'ing, n. A literary lady ; a female pedant. 
US* This term is derived from the name given to a certain 
literary association in Dr. Johnson's time, consisting of ladies 
as well as gentlemen. One of the leading members was a Mr. 
Stillingfleet, who always wore blue stockings. Hence these 
meetings were sportively called bluestocking clubs, and the 
ladies who attended them, bluestockings. 

Blue'-vit'ri-ol, n. ( Chem.) Sulphate of copper. 

Bluff, a. [Cf. 0. Eng. bloughty, swelled, puffed.] 1. 
Rude or coarse in manner or appearance ; blustering. 2. 
Roughly frank ; outspoken. 3. Steep ; bold ; like a bluff. 

Bluff , n. 1. A high bank presenting a steep or precipi- 
tous front. 2. A game of cards. 

Bluff , v. t. To frighten or deter from accomplishing one's 
ends. [Amer. Loiv.] 

Bluff 'ness, n. Quality of being bluff. [land. 

Bluffy, a. Having bluffs, or bold, projecting points of 

Blu'ing, n. 1. Act of rendering blue. 2. Something to 
giyc a bluish tint, as indigo. 

Blu'ieh, a. Blue in a small degree. 

Blun'der, v. i. [imp. & p. p. blundered ; p. pr. & 
vb. it. blundering ] [Allied to blend, q. v.] To mis- 
take grossly ; to err through want of care or deliberation. 

Blun'der, n. A gross mistake. 

^ Syn.— Error; mistake; bull. —An error is a wandering from 
the right; a mistake is the m ^-taking of one thing for another, 
through haste, &c.; a blunder is something more gross, a 
blending ox confusion of things through carelessness, ignorance 
or stupidity. An error may be corrected; a mistake may be 
rectified ; a blunder is always blamed or laughed at. A bull is 
a verbal blunder containing a laughable incongruity of ideas 

Blun'der-lbuss, n. [Probably corrupted from D. don- 
derbus, Ger. donnerbuchse , thunder-tube or box, gun, 
musket.] 1. A short gun, with a large bore, capable of 
holding a number of balls, and intended to do execution 
without exact aim. 2. A stupid, blundering fellow. 

Bluii'der-er, n. One who is apt to blunder. [ders. 

Blun'der-head, n. A stupid fellow ; one who blun- 

Blunt, a. [Cf. Prov. Ger. bludde, a dull knife, Sw. & 
Icel. blunda, to sleep.] 1. Having a thick edge or point ; 
dull. 2. Dull in understanding. 3. Abrupt in address ; 

Blunt, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BLUNTED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
blunting.] 1. To dull the edge or point of. 2. To 
repress or weaken, as any appetite, desire, or power of 
the mind. 

Blunt'ly, adv. In a blunt manner ; unceremoniously. 

Blunt'ness, n. 1. Want of edge or point; dullness. 

2. Abruptness or coarseness of address. 

Blur, 11. 1. That which obscures without effacing; a 
stain ; a blot. 2. A dim, confused appearance or vision. 

3. A blot, stain, or injury, as to character, &c. 
Blur, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BLURRED ; p. pr. & vb. n. BLUR- 
RING.] [Probably contracted from Scot, bludder, bluther, 
to blot, disfigure ; Sw. pluttra, plottra, to scrawl, scrib- 
ble.] 1. To obscure without quite effacing. 2. To 
cause imperfection of vision in ; to dim. 3. To blemish. 

Syn. — To spot; blot; disfigure; disgrace; stain; sully. 

Blurt, v. t. [imp. & p. p. blurted; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BLURTING.] [Scot, bluiler, to make a rumbling noise, 
to blurt.] To utter suddenly or unadvisedly ; to divulge 

Blush, v. i. [imp. & p. p. BLUSHED (blusht) ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. BLUSHING.] [A.-S. ablisian, to blush, blysa, torch, 
blysige, little torch.] 1. To have a red or rosy color. 2. 
To redden in the cheeks or face, as from a sense of shame, 
confusion, or modesty. 

Blus:h, n. 1. A red or rosy tint. 2. A red color suffus- 
ing the cheeks or the face. 3. Sudden appearance ; 
glance ; view. 

Bliis'ter, v. i. [imp. & p. p. BLUSTERED ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. blustering.] [Allied to blast, q. v.] 1. To 
blow fitfully with violence and noise, as wind. 2. To 
talk with noisy violence ; to swagger. 

Bliis'ter, n. 1. Fitful noise and violence, as of a storm. 
2. Noisy and violent or threatening talk. 

Syn. — Noise; boisterousness; tumult; turbulence; confu- 
sion; boasting; swaggering; bullying. 

Blus'ter-er, n. A swaggerer ; a bully. 

Bo'a, 11. [Lat. boa, bova, a kind of water-serpent, which 
was supposed to suck cows, from bos, bovis,ox, cow ; but 
probably so called from its size.] 1. (Zool.) A genus of 
serpents. It includes the largest species of serpent, the 
Boa-constrictor. 2. A round fur tippet ; — so called 
from its resemblance to the boa-constrictor. 

Bo'a-eon-strle'tor,?!. [N. Lat. 
constrictor, from Lat. conslrin- 
gere, to draw or bind together.] 
{Zool. ) A large and powerful ser- 
pent, sometimes thirty or forty 
feet long, found in the tropical 
parts of America, which crushes I 
its prey to death in its coils. 

Boar, n. [A.-S. bar.] The male 
of swine not castrated ; specifi- 
cally, the wild hog. Boa-constrictor. 

Board, n. [A.-S. bord, Goth, baurd. Cf. A.-S. bred, 
board, plank, table, from the root of brad, broad.] 1. 
A piece of timber sawed thin, and of considerable length 
and breadth compared with the thickness. 2. A table 
to put food upon. 3. Hence, food ; entertainment ; — us- 
ually as furnished for pay. 4. A council, or any author- 
ized assembly or meeting. 5. (Naut.) (a.) The deck of 
a vessel, (b.) The interior of a vessel, (c.) The side of a 
ship, (d.) The line over which a ship runs between tack 
and tack. 6. A table or frame for a game. 7. Paper 
made thick and stiff like a board. 8. (pi.) The stage in 
a theater. 

Board and board (.Naut.^, side by side. — By the board, over 
the side. Hence {Fig.), to go by the board, to suffer complete 

Board, v. t. [imp. & p.p. boarded; & vb. n. 
boarding.] 1. To lay, spread, or cover with boards. 
2. To go on board of, or enter. 3. To furnish with 
food, for compensation. 4. To place at board, for com- 

Board, v. i. To obtain food or diet statedly for compen- 

L, e, &.c,long; a, 6, be, short; care, far, ask, all, what ; ere, veil, term ; pique, firm ; son, or, do, wolf, 




Board'er, n. 1. One who takes his meals at another's 
table for pay. 2. (Naut.) One who boards a ship. 

Board'ing-house , n. A house for boarders. 

Boar d'ing- school (-skdbl), n. A school in which the 
scholars receive board and lodging as well as instruction. 

Board'-wa'geg, n. pi. Wages allowed to servants to 
keep themselves in victuals. 

Boar'ish, a. [From boar.} Swinish ; brutal ; cruel. 

Boast, v. i. [imp. & p.p. BOASTED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BOASTING.] [0. Eng. host. Cf. Ger. bausen, bauschen, 
bausten, to swell.] To vaunt one's self; to exalt, or ex- 
travagantly praise one's self. 

Syn.— To brag; vaunt; vapor; glory. 

Boast, v. t. 1. To speak of with pride, vanity, or exul- 
tation. 2. Iieflexively , to magnify or exalt one's self. 
Boast, n. 1. Expression of ostentation, pride, or vanity. 

2. The cause or occasion of boasting. 

Boast'ex*, n. One who boasts ; a braggart ; braggadocio. 

Boast'f ill, a. Given to boasting. 

Boast'f ul-ly, adv. In a boastful manner. 

Boast'f ul-ness, n. State or quality of being boastful. 

Boat (20), n. [A.-S. bat, Icel. batr.) 1. A small open 
vessel, usually moved by oars, or rowing, but often by a 
sail. 2. Hence, any vessel ; usually with some epithet 
descriptive of its use or mode of propulsion. 

Boat, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BOATED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BOATING.] To transport in a boat. 

Boat, v. i. To go in a boat. 

Boat'a-ble, a. Navigable for boats, or small craft. 

Boat'-bill, n. A species of wading bird, a native of the 
tropical parts of South America. It has a bill four inches 
long, not unlike a boat with the keel uppermost. 

Boat'-hobk, n. {Naut.) An iron hook with a point on 
the back, fixed to a long pole, to pull or push a boat. 

BSat'^nan \ n ' A man who mana S es a boat - 
Boat'swain (colloquially, bo'sn), n. [A.-S. batswan; 
bat, boat, and swan, swain, servant.] (Naut.) An officer 
who has charge of a ship's boats, sails, rigging, colors, 
&c, and who also performs various other duties. 
Bob, n. [An onomatopoetic word.] 1. Any thing that 
plays loosely, or with a short, abrupt motion, as at the 
end of a string. 2. Bait used in angling, as for eels. 

3. The ball or weight at the end of a pendulum or a 
plumb-line. 4. A short, jerking action. 

Bob, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bobbed ; p. pr. & vb. n. bob- 
bing.] 1. To move in a short, jerking manner. 2. To 
strike with a quick, light blow. 3. To gain by fraud. 

4. To delude. 5. To have the hair cut short. 

Bob, v. i. 1. To have a short, jerking motion. 2. To 
angle with a bob, or with a jerking motion of the bait. 

Bob'bin, n. [Lat. bombus, a humming, because it makes 
a humming noise.] A small cylindrical piece of wood, 
with a border at one or both ends, on which thread is 
wound ; a kind of spool. 

Bob bin-et', or Bob'bin-6t' 
of lace wrought by machines. 

Bob-lin'-eoln(-kun), ) n. (Or- 

Bob'olink, j nith.) 

The rice-bird, rice-bunting, or 
reed-bird ; an American sing- 

Bob'stayg, n. pi. (Naut 
Ropes or chains to confine the 
bowsprit of a ship downward 
to the stem or cutwater. 

Bob'tail, n. 1. A short tail, 
or a tail cut short. 2. The 
rabble ; used in contempt. 

Bock'ing, n. A kind of baize or drugget ; — so called 
from the town of Booking, Eng. 

Bode, v. t. [imp. & p. p. boded ; p. pr. & vb. n. bod- 
ing.] [A.-S. bodian, bod, command. See Bid, v. t.] 
To indicate by signs, as future events ; to portend ; to 
presage ; to foreshow. 

Bods, v. i. To foreshow ; to presage. 

Bod'ice, )n. [Properly the plural of body.] Stays; a 

Bod'diee, ) corset. 

Bod'ied (bod'id), a. Having a body ; — usually in com- 
position, [poreal. 

Bod'i-less, a. Having no body or material form ; incor- 

Bod'i-ly, a. 1. Having or containing a body ; corpo- 
real. 2. Pertaining to the body. [pletely. 

Bod'i-ly, adv. 1. Corporeally. 2. Entirely; com- 

Bod'kin, n. [W. bidogyn, a dim. of bidog, bidaiog, 
hanger, short sword.] 1. A dagger. [Obs.] 2. _ A 
pointed instrument for making holes, &c. 3. An in- 

[See supra.] A kind 


strument with an eye, for drawing tape or ribbon through 
a loop. 

Bod'y, n. [A.-S. bodig.] 1. The material substance of 
an animal, whether living or dead. 2. The principal 
part, as of an animal, tree, army, country, &c, in dis- 
tinction from parts subordinate or less important. 3. A 
person ; a human being. 4. A collective mass of indi- 
viduals ; a corporation. 5. A number of things or par- 
ticulars taken together ; a system. 6„ Any mass or por- 
tion of matter. 7. (Paint.) Consistency; thickness. 
8. Strength, or characteristic quality. 

Bod'y, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bodied; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BODYING.] To produce in definite shape ; to embody. 

Bod'y— elotiieg, n. pi. Clothing or covering for the 
body, as for a horse. 

Bod'y— eoat, n. A gentleman's dress-coat. 

Bod'y-eoFor, n. (Paint.) Color that has body, or con- 
sistence, in distinction from a tint or wash. 

Bod'y-guard, n. A guard to protect or defend the per- 
son ; a life-guard. 

Bod'y- snatch/er, n. One who robs graves of dead 
bodies for the purposes of dissection. 

Boe-o'tian, a. ( Geog.) Pertaining to Boeotia, which was 
noted for its moist, thick atmosphere; or to its inhabi- 
tants, who were noted for dullness and stupidity. 

Bog, n. [Ir. & Gael, bog, soft, moist.] A quagmire cov- 
ered with grass or other plants ; a marsh ; a morass. 

Bog, v. t. To whelm or plunge, as in mud and mire. 

Bo'gey, "j n. [See Bug.] A hobgoblin ; a bugbear; a 

Bo'gy, I specter ; a frightful apparition ; a nursery 

Bo'gle, f ghost or demon, whose name was formerly 

Bog'gle, J used to frighten children. 

Bog'gle, v. i. [imp. & p. p. boggled ; p. pr. & vb. n 
boggling.] [See Bogle, n.} To exhibit hesitancy. 
Syn.— To doubt; hesitate; waver; vacillate; shrink. 

Bog'gler, n. One who boggles. 

Bog'gyi a - Containing bogs ; full of bogs ; swampy. 

Bog'-ore, n. (Min.) (a.) An ore of iron found in boggy 
or swampy land, (b.) Bog manganese. 

Bog'-spav'in, n. (Far.) An encysted tumor on the in- 
side of the hough. 

Bog'- trotter, n. One who lives in a boggy country ; — 
formerly applied in derision to Irish robbers. 

Bo'gus, a. [A corruption of Borghese, the name of a 
noted swindler.] Spurious; — a cant term originally 
applied to counterfeit coin, and hence denoting any 
thing counterfeit. [Amer.] 

Bo-hea', n. [From Wu-'i, pronounced by the Chinese 
bu-i, the name of the hills where this kind of tea is 
grown.] An inferior kind of black or green tea, especially 
the former. 
B3r*- The name is sometimes applied to black tea in general. 

Bo-lie'mi-aii, a. 1. Pertaining to Bohemia or its in- 
habitants. 2. Pertaining to the gypsies. 3» Pertaining 
to, or characteristic of, hack-writers for the press. 

Bo-he'mi-an, n. 1. A native or an inhabitant of Bohe- 
mia. 2. A gypsy. 3. A needy writer for the press ; a 
hack-author ; — sometimes applied to politicians, artists, 
dancers, &c, who lead a sort of nomadic life, like the 
gypsies, and five by their wits. 

Boil, v. i. [Lat. bullire, allied to A.-S. weallan, Goth, bu- 
lan, to ferment, boil.] 1. To be agitated by the action 
of heat; — used of liquids. 2. To be similarly agitated 
by any other cause ; to bubble ; to effervesce. 3. To be 
hot or fervid ; to be moved or excited. 4. To suffer boil- 
ing in water or other liquid. 

To boil away, to evaporate by boiling. — Boiling point, the 
temperature at which a fluid is converted into vapor, with the 
phenomena of ebullition. 

Boil, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BOILED ; p. pr. & vb. n. BOIL- 
ING.] 1. To cause to bubble or be agitated by the appli- 
cation of heat. 2. To form by boiling. 3. To subject 
to the action of heat in a boiling liquid. 

Boil, n. [A.-S. byle, bile, sore.] A hard, painful, inflamed 
tumor, which commonly suppurates. 

83p- Formerly written bile, which conforms to the Anglo- 
Saxon orthography. 

Boil'er, n. 1. One who boils. 2. A vessel in which 
any thing is boiled. 3. (Mech.) A strong metallic ves- 
sel, in which steam is generated for driving engines, or 
other purposes. 

Boil'er-y, n. A place and apparatus for boiling, as salt. 

Boil'ing, n. Act or state of agitation by heat ; ebullition ; 
act of subjecting to the action of heat, as a liquid. 

Bois'ter-oiis, a. [0. Eng. boistous, Icel. bistr, stormy, 
furious, Scot, boist and boast, to threaten. Cf. W. bwyst, 

food, foot; ftrn, r|ide, pull ; yell, ylxaise, «all, e«ho; gem, get; a§; ejist; linger, link ; this- 




■wild, savage. See Boast and Bister.] 1. Exhibiting 
tumultuous violence. 2. Involving, threatening, indi- 
cating, or possessing might. [Obs.] 3. Noisy; turbu- 

Syn. — Loud; roaring; violent; stormy; furious; tumultu- 
ous; impetuous; vehement. 
Bois'ter-oiis-ly, adv. In a boisterous manner, [terous 
Bois'ter-ous-ness, n. State or quality of being bois- 
Bold, a. [A.-S. bald, bold, Goth, balths.] 1. Forward 
to meet danger. 2. Exhibiting or requiring spirit and 
contempt of danger. 3. In a bad sense, too forward ; 
over-assuming or confident ; lacking proper modesty or 
restraint; rude. 4. Taking liberties in composition or 
expression. 5. Markedly conspicuous. 
To make bold, to take liberties; to use freedom. 
Sj T n.— Courageous; daring; brave; intrepid; fearless; daunt- 
less; valiant; manful; audacious; stout-hearted; high-spirited; 
adventurous; confident; strenuous; forward; impudent. 

Bold'ly, adv. In a bold manner. 

Bold'ness, n. The quality of being bold. 

Syn. — Courage; bravery; intrepidity; dauntlessness ; hard- 
ihood; assurance. 

Bole, n. [Sw. bed. Dan. bid. Cf. L. Ger. boll, round.] 1. 
The body or stem of a tree. 2. A measure. See Boll,. 

Bole, 11. [Gr. /3d)Aos, clod.] A kind of fine, compact, or 
earthy clay. 

Boll, n. [Cf. Bowl, n.] 1. The pod or capsule of a 
plant, as of flax ; a pericarp. 2. A Scotch measure, for- 
merly in use, containing two, four, or six bushels. 

Boll, v. i. To form into a pericarp or seed-vessel. 

Bo-Iogn'a Sau'sage (bo-lon'ya). [From Bologna, in 
Italy.] A large sausage made of bacon, veal, and pork- 
suet, chopped fine. 

Bol'ster (20), n. [A.-S. bolster. Cf. bolla, a round ves- 
sel.] 1. A long cushion ; — generally laid under the pil- 
lows. 2. A pad used as a support, or to hinder pressure, 
or the like ; a compress. 3. Any cushion, pad, bag, or 

Bol'ster, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BOLSTERED ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. bolstering.] 1. To support with a bolster. 2. 
To hold up ; to maintain. 

Bolt (20),??. [A.-S. bolt, Icel.bolti.] 1. An arrow; a dart. 
2. A strong pin, used to fasten or hold something in 
place. 3. A thunder-bolt. 4. A shackle. 5. Twenty- 
eight ells of canvas. 

Bolt, v. t. 1. To fasten or secure with a bolt. 2. To 
fasten ; to restrain. 3. To blurt out ; to utter or throw 
out. 4. To swallow without chewing. 

Bolt, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BOLTED; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BOLTING.] [0. Fr. bulter, L. Lat. buletare, M. H. Ger. 
biuteln.] 1. To sift; to separate, assort, or purify br- 
other means. 2. To examine as by sifting. 

Bolt, r.i. 1. To start forth like a bolt ; hence, to move 
abruptly. 2. To spring suddenly aside. 3. To desert, 
as a party or organization. [Amer.] 

Bolt, adv. With sudden meeting or collision. 

Bolt'er, ii. One who, or that which, bolts. 

Bolt'-head, n. ( Chem.) A long glass vessel for distilla- 
tions ; — called also a matrass or receiver. 

Bolt'-rope, n. (Naut.) A rope to which the edges of 
sails are sewed to strengthen them. 

Bolt'sprit, n. [A corruption of bowsprit.] (Naut.) 
See Bowsprit. 

Bolus, n. [Lat., bit, morsel.] (Med.) A rounded mass of 
any thing ; a large pill. 

Bomb (Mm), n. [Gr. /?6ju/?o9, a humming or buzzing 
noise, a hollow, deep sound.] (Mil.) A hollow ball or 
shell of cast iron filled with explosive materials, to be 
discharged from a mortar. 

Bom-bard' (bum-b'ard / ), v. t. [imp. & p. p. bom- 
barded ; p. pr. & vb. n. BOMBARDING.] To attack 
with bombs. 

Bom'bar-dier', n. (Mil.) A person employed in throw- 
ing bombs : an artillery -man. 

Bom-bard'ment, n. An attack with bombs. 

Bom'bast (bum'bast, 114), n. [L. Lat. bombax, cotton, 
bombasium, a doublet of cotton.] 1. Cotton, or any 
soft, fibrous material, used as a padding. [Obs.] 2. 
(Fig.) An inflated style ; fustian. 

BomTbast. o. High-sounding; inflated: turgid. 

Bom-hast'ie, a. Characterized by bombast; high- 
sounding; inflated. 

Bdm bast'ie-al-ly, adv. With inflation of style. 

Bom'ba-zei', ) n. [Cf. Bombazine.] A sort of thin 

Bom'ba-zette', i woolen cloth. 

Bom'ba-zine' I (bum'ba-zeen'), n. [Lat. bombycinum, a 

Bom'ba-s/ine' ) silk or cotton texture, from bombyx, 

Gr. /36>0u£, silk, cotton.] A twilled fabric, with a silk 

warp, and a worsted weft. [Sometimes spelt bombasin.] 

Bom'bie, a. [Lat. bombyx, silk-worm.] Pertaining to, 

or obtained from, the silk- worm. 
Bomb'-ketch I (bum'-), n. (Naut.) A strong vessel, 
Bomb'-ves'sel ) carrying mortars to be used in bom- 
bardments at sea. [bombs. 
Bomb'-probf (bum'-), a. Secure against the force of 
B6mb'-shell (bum'-), n. A bomb, or hollow globe of 

irou, filled with powder. See Bomb. 
Bom-byc'i-noils, a. [Lat. bombycinus, from bombyx, 


Fig. 1. {Arch.) 

Flemish Bond. 

silk.] Being of the color of the silk-worm ; 
with a yellow tint. 

Bo'na-part'e-an, a. Pertaining to Bonaparte. 

Bo'na-part'igm, n. The policy or manners of Bona- 
parte, [parte. 

Bo'na-part'ist, n. One attached to the policy of Bona- 

JBon'bon (or bong'bong), n. [Fr., from bon, good.] Sugar 
confectionery ; a sugar-plum. 

Bond, 11. [A.-S. bond, bound, for- 
bunden, p. p. of bindan, to bind.] 
1. That which binds, fastens, or 
confines, as a cord, chain, &c. ; a 
band ; a ligament. 2. (pi.) State 
of being bound. 3. A binding 
force or influence. 4. An obliga- 
tion imposing a moral duty. 5. 
(Laiv.) A writing under seal by 
which a person binds himself, his 
heirs, executors, and administra- 
tors, to pay a certain sum on or before a future day 
appointed. 6. (Arcli.) Union or tie of the several stones 
or bricks forming a wall. 
Syn. — Chains ; fetters ; captivity } imprisonment. 

Bond, a. [See supra.] In a state of servitude or captivity. 

Bond, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BONDED; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BONDING.] To secure payment of, by giving a bond. 

Bonded goods, goods left in charge of the officers of customs, 
for the duties on which bonds are given at the custom-house. 

Bond'age, n. 1. State of being bound, or under re- 
straint. 2. Binding power or influence ; obligation. 3. 
(Old Eng. Law.) Yillenage. 

Syn. — Thralldom ; captivity ; bond-service ; slavery ; 
servitude ; imprisonment. 

Bond'ed-ware'house, n. A warehouse in which 
bonded goods are stored. 

Bond'maid, n. A female slave. 

Bond'man, n. ; pi. bond'men. 1. A man slave. 2. 
(Old Eng. Laiv.) A villain, or tenant in villenage. 

Bond'-serv'ant, n. A slave ; a bondman. [slavery. 

Btmd'-serv'ice, n. Condition of a bond-servant; 

Bond'-slave,'». A person in a state of slavery. 

Bonds/man, n. ; pi. bonds'men. 1. A slave ; a bond- 
man. [Obs.] 2. (Law.) A surety ; one who is bound, 
or who gives security for another. 

Bond'- stone, n. (Masonry.) A stone running through 
a wall from one face to another, to bind it together. 

Bonds/wom'an, ) n. [bond and woman.] A woman 

Bond'wom'an, j slave. 

Bond'-tim/ber, n. Timber worked into a wall to tie or 
strengthen it longitudinally. See Bond. 

Bone (20), n. [A.-S. ban, Goth, bain.] 1. (Anat.) A 
firm, hard, whitish substance, composing the skeleton in 
the higher orders of animals. 2. An integral portion of 
the skeleton. 3. Any thing made cf bone, as castanets. 
A bone of contention, subject of dispute. — A bone to pick, or 
gnaw, something to occupy or divert. — To make no bones, to 
make no scruple. [Low.] 

Bone,r. t. [imp. Sep. p. boned \ & vb. n. BON- 
ING.] 1. To take out bones from. 2. To put whale- 
bone into. 

Bone'-black, n. (Chem.) A black, carbonaceous sub- 
stance into which bones are converted by calcination in 
close vessels. [fertilizer. 

Bone', n. Ground or pulverized bones, used as a 

Bone'- earth, n. (Chem.) The earthy residuum after 
the calcination of bone, consisting chiefly of phosphate 
of lime. 

Bone'set, n. (Bot.) A medicinal plant ; thoroughwort. 

Bone'-set'ter, n. One who sets broken and dislocated 

Bone'-spav'in, n. (Far.) A bony excrescence, on the 
inside of the hock of a horse's leg. 

Bon'fire, ». [0. Eng. bone/ire, either from Fr. bon, 
good, and jSre, or related to Dan. baun, beacon.] A fire 
made to express public joy and exultation, or for amuse- 

a., e, &c, long; a, 6, &c, short; care, far, ask, all, what ; ere, veil, term; pique, firm; son, or, do,, wolf, 




Bo-ni'to, n. [Sp., from Ar. bainit and baintth.] (Ichth.) 
A fish of the Tunny kind, growing to the length of 3 feet. 

Bon-mot (bong'rno'), n. [Fr. bon, good, and mot, word.] 
A witty repartee ; a jest. 

Bdn'net, n. [Fr. bonnet, Sp. & Pg. bonete. Originally 
the name of a stuff.] 1. A cap or covering for the head, 
in common use before the introduction of hats, and still 
used by the Scotch. 2. A covering for the head, worn 
by women. 3. {Fort.) A part of a parapet considerably 
elevated to screen the otner part and its terre-pleine, 
usually from enfilade fire. 4. (Naut.) An addition to a 
sail. 5. A plate or a dome-shaped casing, tt. A frame 
of wire netting over a locomotive chimney. 

Bon'net-ed, a. 1. Wearing a bonnet. 2. (Fort.) 
Protected by a bonnet. [plum ply. 

Bmi'ni-ly, adv. [See Bonny.] Gayly ; handsomely; 

Bon'iiy, a. [Fr. bon, bonne, good. Of., however, Gael. & 
Ir. bain, baine, white, fair.] 1. Handsome ; beautiful. 
2. Gay; merry; blithe. 3. Plump; well-formed. 

BoJi'iiy-'Claiyber, n. [From Ir. bainne, baine, milk, 
and clabar, mud, mire.] 1. Sour buttermilk. [Irish.] 
2. The thick part of milk that has become sour. 

Bon Ton (bong tong). [Fr., good tone, manner.] The 
height of the fashion ; fashionable society. 

Bo'nus, n. [Lat.,good.] 1. (Law.) A premium given 
for a loan, charter, or other privilege. 2. An extra 
dividend paid out of accumulated profits. 3. A sum of 
money paid to an agent, iu addition to a share in profits, 
or to stated compensation. 

Bon-vlvant (bong'vG-vong'), n. [Fr. bon, good, and 
vivant, p. pr. of vivre, to five.] A good fellow ; a jovial 

Bon'y, a. 1. Consisting of bone, or of bones ; full of 
bones ; pertaining to bones. 2. Having large or prom- 
inent bones. 

Boa'ze (bon'ze), n. [Corrupted from Japan, busso, a 
pious man.] A priest of many different Oriental sects. 

Boo'by, ii. [Fr. boubie ; Sp. bobo, Russ. bdba. Several 
birds of this species are looked upon as very stupid.] 
1. (Ornith.) (a.) A water-fov/1 allied to the pelican. 
It is found among the Bahama Isles, and on various 
coasts of the Atlantic, (b.) The brown gannet. 2. A 
dunce ; a stupid fellow. 

Bdb'by-liiit, n. A kind of sleigh, with a covered top. 
[Local, Amer.} 

Bob'by-hutch, n. A clumsy, covered carriage. 

Bobdh/igm, n. See Buddhism. 

Boole (27), n. [A.-S. bde, from bdee, beoce, beech, Ger. 
buche, because the ancient Saxons and Germans in gen- 
eral wrote on beechen boards.] 1. A collection of sheets 
of paper, or similar material, blank, written, or printed, 
bound together, 2. A literary composition, written or 
printed. 3. A subdivision of a literary work. 4. (Mer.) 
A volume in which accounts are kept. 

Without book, (a.) By memory; without notes. (6.) "With- 
out authority. 

Book, v. t. [imp. & p.p. booked (bdbkt) ; & vb. 
n. booking.] To enter, write, or register in a book. 

Bobk'-bind'er, n. One who binds books. 

Bdbk'-bind'er-y, n. A place for binding books. 

Bdbk'-btiid'ing, ii. Art or practice of binding books. 

Bbbk'-ease, «. A case with shelves for holding books. 

Bdbk'ish, a. Given to reading ; fond of study. 

Bdbk'ish-ness, n. Addictedness to books. 

Bobk'-keep'er (109), n. One who keeps accounts. 

Bdbk'-keep'ing, n. The art of recording mercantile 
transactions in a regular and systematic manner ; the 
art of keeping accounts. 

Bobk'land, I n. ( Old Eng. Laws. ) Charter land held 

Bock'land, j by deed under certain rents and free 

Bbbk'-learned (60), a. Versed in books ; ignorant of 
men, or of the common concerns of life. 

Bobk'-learn'ing, n. Learning acquired by reading ; 
usually as_distinguished from practical knowledge. 

Bobk'-mak'er, n. One who writes and publishes 
books ; particularly a compiler. 

Bdbk'-mak'ing, n. The practice of writing and pub- 
lishing books ; compilation. 

Bobk'-mark, n. Something placed in a book to assist 
in finding a particular page or place. 

Bdbk'-sell'er, n. One whose occupation is to sell books. 

Boj>k'-shelf , n. A shelf to hold books. 

Bbbk'-shop, n. A shop where books are sold. 

Bojjk'-stall, n. A stand or stall, for retailing books 

Book' stand, n. 1. A stand or place for the sale of 
books in the streets ; a book -stall. 2. A stand or sup- 
port to hold books. 

Booh'store, n. [Amer.] A shop where books are kept 
for Hule. 

Book' worm (-warm), n. 1. A worm or mite that eate 
holes in books. 2. A student addicted to books. 

Boom, n. [See Beam.] 1. (Naut.) A long pole or spar 
used for extending the bottom of sails. 2. A chain 
cable, or connected line of spars extended across a river 
or other water. 3. A pole set up in shallow water, to 
mark out the channel. 4. A hollow roar, as of waves or 
cannon; the hollow cry of the bittern. 5. (pi.) That 
space on the upper deck of a ship, where the boats, spare 
spars, &c, are stowed. 

Boom, v. i. [imp. & p. p. BOOMED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
booming.] 1. [From the n.] To rush with violence, 
as a ship under a press of sail. 2. To make a hollow 
sound or roar, as of waves or cannon. 3. [W. bwmp, 
a hollow sound. Cf. D. bommen, to drum, to sound as 
an empty barrel, A.-S. bymian, to blow or sound a 
trumpet.] To cry with a hollow note, as the bittern. 

Boom'er-ang, n. A missile 
weapon used by the natives of 
Australia. When thrown for- 
ward from the hand with a quick 
rotatory motion, it describes very 
remarkable curves, and finally Boomerang, 

takes a retrograde direction , so as to fall near or in the 
rear of the one who threw it. 

Boon, n. 1. [Lat. bonus, good.] Gift ; benefaction ; 
grant ; present. 2. [A.-S. ben, Icel. bun, baen.] A 
prayer or petition. 

Boon, a. [Fr. bon. See supra.] 1. Gay ; merry ; jovial- 
2. Kind ; bountiful. 

Boor, n. [A.-S. geb&r, D. boer, N. H. Ger. bauer ; from 
A.-S. bHan, to inhabit, cultivate ; Skr. bhu, pres. bhavami, 
to be, Gr. poi, Lat./w/.] A countryman; a peasant; a 
clown ; hence, a rude and illiterate person. [illiterate. 

Bobr'ish, a. Like a boor ; clownish ; rustic ; awkward ; 

Boor'ish-ly, adv. In a boorish or clownish manner. 

Boor'ish-ness, n. Clownishness ; rusticity. 

Bob§e, 1 v. i. [From D. buis, Ger. buclise, box, cup, jar.] 

Booze,) To drink excessively. [Vulgar.] 

Bdbs/er, n. One who drinks to excess ; a tippler. 

Boost, v. t. [Cf. Boast, v. ?'.] To lift or push from 
behind ; to push up. [Low.] 

Boo'gy, ) a. [See Boose, v. ?.] A little intoxicated; 

Bdb'zy, J fuddled. [Colloq.] 

Boot, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BOOTED; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BOOTING.] [A.-S. but, compensation, betan, to improve, 
amend, Goth, blta, advantage, profit, bZtan, bOtjan, to 
profit. See Better.] To profit ; to advantage. 

Boot, n. That which i.3 given to make an exchange equal ; 
profit ; gain ; advantage. 

Boot, n. [Fr. botte, Ger. botte, butte, butte, tub, cask, 
A.-S. butte, bytte, byden, Eng. butt, Gr. /3o0ti;, /3ims, 
/BuTtvTj, flask.] 1. A covering for the foot and leg. 2. 
A kind of rack for the leg, formerly used to torture 
criminals. 3. A receptacle covered with leather at either 
end of a coach. 4. An apron or cover for a gig or other 
carriage, to defend from rain and mud. 5. (pi.) A ser- 
vant at hotels who blacks the boots. [ Colloq.] 

Boot, v. t. [imp. & p. p. booted; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BOOTING.] To put boots on. 

Bobt'-erlmp, n. A frame or last used by boot-makers 
for drawing and shaping the body of a boot. 

Bdbt-ee', n. A half or short boot. 

Bdbtn, n. [Icel. bUdli, Pol. buda, W. bwth.] A tem- 
porary shelter of boards, boughs of trees, or other slight 

Bdbt'-jack, n. An instrument for drawing off boots. 

Bbbt'less, a. [From boot, advantage.] Unavailing ; un- 
profitable ; useless. 

Bdbt'-tree, I n. An instrument to stretch and widen 

Bdbt'-last, ) the leg of a boot. 

Bbbt'y, ii. [Icel. byti, Ger. beute, Fr. butin, from Icel. 
byta, to distribute, exchange, Ger. beuten, to barter, cap- 
ture.] Spoil taken in war, or by violence ; plunder. 

Bo-peep', n. A play to amuse children, by peeping from 
behind any object, and crying out bo ! 

Bo-rac'i-e, a. Pertaining to, or produced from, borax. 

Bo'ra-eoiis, a. (Chem.) Relating to, or obtained from, 

Bor'age (bur'rej), n. [Low Lat. borago, from borra, hair 
of beasts, flock; so called from its hairy leaves.] A 
plant, formerly esteemed as a cordial. 

Bo'rate, n. (Chem.) A salt formed by the combination 
of boracic acid with a base. 

Bo'rax, n. [Ar. buraq, niter, saltpeter, from baraqa, to 

food, foot ; urn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, -call, echo j gem, get ; ag ; e$ist ; linger, link ; this- 




shine.] (Chem.) Biborate of soda; a salt formed by a 
combination of boracic acid with soda. 

Bor'der, n. [A.-S. bord, Fr. bord. See Board.] The 
outer part or edge of any thing. 

Syn. — Edge; verge; brink; margin; brim; rim; boundary. ■ 

Bor'der, v. i. 1. To touch at the edge ; to be contigu- 
ous or adjacent. 2. To come near to. 

Bor'der, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bordered; & vb. \ 
n. bordering.] 1. To make a border for ; to adorn 
with a border. 2. To touch at the edge or boundary. 

Bor'der-er, n. One who dwells on a border. 

Bore, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bored ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BORING.] [A.-S. borian, allied to Lat. forare.] 1. To 
perforate or penetrate, as a solid body, by turning au 
auger, gimlet, or other instrument. Hence, to form a 
round hole in. 2. To weary by tedious iteration or by 
dullness ; to trouble ; to vex. 

Bore, t'. ?'• 1. To pierce or enter by boring. 2. To be 
pierced or penetrated by an instrument that turns. 3. 
To carry the nose to the ground ; — said of a horse. 

Bore, n. 1. The hole made by boring ; hence the cavity 
or hollow of any fire-arm ; the caliber. 2. One who, or 
that which, wearies by ceaseless repetition or dullness. 

Bore, n. [Ger. bor, 0. H. Ger. por, height, top, from 0. 
H. Ger. burjan, pur j an, poran, to erect, ascend. Cf. Icel. 
byrja, to begin, A.-S. byrjan, to touch ; allied to A.-S. 
beran, beoran, Eng. to bear.] (Physical Geog.) (a.) A 
tidal flood of great height and force formed at the mouths 
of some rivers, (b.) Avery high and rapid tidal flow, 
when not so abrupt. 

Bore, imp. of bear. See BEAR. 

Bo're-al, a. [Lat. borealis, from Boreas, the north wind.] 
Northern ; pertaining to the north, or the north wind. 

Bor'er, ». 1. One who bores ; an instrument for boring. 
2. (Zool.) (a.) A genus of sea-worms that pierce wood, (b.) 
One of several species of worms, or the insects producing 
them, which penetrate trees. 

Born and Borne, p. p. of bear. See Bear. 

Bo'ron, n. [See Borax.] ( Chem.) An elementary sub- 
stance, nearly related to carbon. 

Bor'ough (bur'ro), n. [A.-S. buruh, burh, burg, Icel. borg, 
Ger. burg, Lat. burgus, Gr. Trvpyo?, Goth, baurgs, from 
bairgan, A.-S. beorgan, to hide, save, defend, to be prom- 
inent.] An incorporated town that is not a city ; in 
England, a town or village that sends members to par- 
liament ; in Scotland, a body corporate, consisting of the 
inhabitants of a certain district, erected by the sovereign, 
with a certain jurisdiction ; in America, an incorporated 
town or village, as in Pennsylvania and Connecticut. 

B6r'ougli-En / glisli(bur'ro-mg / glish), n. (Eng. Law.) 
A customary descent of estates to the youngest son, in- 
stead of the eldest ; or, if the owner leaves no son, to the 
youngest brother. 

Bor'row (bor'ro), v. t. [imp. So p. p. BORROWED; 
p. pr. & vb. n. BORROWING.] [A.-S. borgian, fr. borg, 
bork, pledge ; from the same root as Borough.] 1. 
To take from another on trust, with the intention of 
returning or giving an equivalent for. 2. To take from 
another for one's own use ; to appropriate. 

Bor'row-er, n. One who borrows. 

Bort, n. Minute fragments of diamonds used to make 
powder for lapidary work. 

Bose'age, n. [From Ger. busch, bosch, 0. Eng. busk, 
Eng. bush.] 1. Wood; underwood; a thicket. 2. 
(Paint.) A landscape representing thickets of wood. 

Bosh, n. [Prov. Eng. bosh, dash, show. Cf. Ger. bosse, 
joke, trifle.] Mere show ; hence, empty talk ; nonsense; 
folly. [Colloq.] 

Bosk, n. [See BOSCAGE.] A thicket or small forest. 

Bosk'y, a. Woody ; bushy ; covered with boscage. 

Bog'om, )i. [A.-S. busum, bosem.] 1. The breast of a 
human being. 2. The breast, as the seat of the pas- 
sions, affections, and operations of the mind. 3. Em- 
brace; affectionate inclosure. 4. Any inclosed place; 
the interior. 5. The part of the dress worn upon the 

US" In composition, intimate; confidential; familiar; dear; 
as, bosom-friend, 6oso/«-lover, oosom-secret, &c. 

Bog'om, v. l. [imp. & p. p. bosomed ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
bosoming.] . 1. To inclose in the bosom ; to keep with 
care. 2. To hide from view ; to embosom. 
Boss, n. [From Ger. butz, butzen, something cloddy or 
stumpy, point, tip ; boszen, to beat.] 1. A protuber- 
ant ornament on any work; a stud, a knob. 2. Any 
protuberant part. 3. (Mech.) (a.) The enlarged part 
of a shaft, on which a wheel is keyed, or at the end, 
where it is coupled to another. (6.)" A swage or die used 
for shaping metals. 

Boss, n. [D. baas, master.] A master workman or su- 
perintendent. [Amer.] 

Boss, v. t. 1. To cover or ornament with bosses ; to stud. 
2. To direct or superintend. [Low.] 

Boss'y, a. Containing, or ornamented with bosses ; stud- 
ded, [called. 

Boss'y, n. [Cf. Lat. 60s, cow.] A calf ; — familiarly so 

Bo-tan'i-e, ) a. Pertaining to botany ; relating to, or 

Bo-tan'i-e-al, J containing, plants. 

Bo-tan'i-e-al-ly, adv. In a botanical manner. 

B6t'an-ist, n. One skilled in botany. 

Bot'a-nize, v. i. [imp. & p. p. botanized ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. botanizing.] To seek for plants for the pur- 
pose of botanical investigation. 

B6t'a-ny, n. [Gr. fioraviq, herb, plant, from poa-Ketv, to 
feed, graze.] The science which treats of the structure 
of plants, their classification, &c. 

Botch, n. [Cf. Fr. bosse, It. bozza, a swelling. Cf. Boss 
and Patch.] 1. A large ulcerous affection. 2. A 
patch of a garment. 3. Work done in a bungling man- 
ner ; a clumsy performance. 

Botch, v. t. [imp. & p. p. botched (bfitcht) ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. BOTCHING.] 1. To mend or patch in a clumsy 
manner. 2. To express or perform in a bungling man- 
ner. 3. To mark with botches. 

Botch'er,n. A clumsy workman at mending ; a bungler. 

Bdt'-fly, n. (Entom.) An insect of many different 
species, some of which are particularly troublesome to 
domestic animals, on which they deposit their eggs. 

Both (20), a. & pron. [A.-S. bit; bulb, btitvu, for batva, 
both the two.] The one and the other ; the two. 

CO*- It is generally used adjectively with nouns: but with 
pronouns, and often with nouns, it is treated substantively, 
and followed by of. It frequently stands as a pronoun. 

Both, conj. It precedes the first of two co-ordinate worda 
or phrases, and is followed by and before the other. 

Both'er, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BOTHERED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
bothering.] To tease or perplex. See Pother. 

Both'er, n. One who, or that which, bothers : state of 
perplexity or annoyance. [Colloq.] [bothered. [Loio.] 

Both'er-a'tion, n. Act of bothering, or state of being 

Bot'ry-oid, ) a. [Gr. jSoTpo?, a cluster of grapes, and 

Bot'ry-old'al, ) etoos, form.] Having the form of a 
bunch of grapes. 

Bots, ) n. pi. [Prob. from bite, because they bite and 

Botts, ) gnaw the intestines of horses.] (Entom.) Small 
worms, larves of the bot-fly, found in the intestines 
of horses. 

Bot'tle, n. [Fr. bouteille, Low Lat. buticula, pvtida, 
botilia, from Fr. botte, cask. See Boot, n., a covering 
for the leg.] 1. A hollow vessel with a narrow mouth, 
for holding liquors. 2. The contents of a bottle. 

Bot'tle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bottled ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BOTTLING.] To inclose in bottles. 

Bot'tle-green, n. A dark shade of green, like that of 
a green glass-bottle. 

Bot'tle-hold'er, n. One who aids a boxer, by giving 
him refreshment and attention between the rcurds. 

Bot'tom, n. [A.-S. botm, Ger. boden, D. bodcm, Icel. 
botn. Cf. Gr. nvOfji-qv, bottom, allied to PaOvs, deep.] 1. 
The lowest part of any thing. 2. That upon which any 
thing rests or is founded, in a literal or a figurative sense ; 
foundation ; base. 3. Low land formed by alluvial de- 
posits along a river ; a dale; a valley. 4. (Naut.) The 
keel of a vessel, and hence, the vessel itself. 5. Power 
of endurance; stamina. 6. Dregs or grounds. 

Bot'tom, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bottomed ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. bottoming.] 1. To found or build. 2. To fur- 
nish with a seat or bottom. 

Bot'tom, v. i. To be based. 

Bot'tom- glade, n. A low glade ; a valley ; a dale. 

Bot'tom-land, n. See Bottom, No. 3. 

Bot'tom-less, a. Without a bottom ; hence, fathomless. 

Bot'tom-ry, n. [From bottom.] (Mar. Law.) A con- 
tract by which a ship is hypothecated and bound as se- 
curity for the repayment of money advanced or lent for 
the use of the ship. 

Boudoir (bob'dwor), n. [Fr., from bouder, to pout, to 
be sulky.] A lady's private room. 

Bough (bon), n. [A.-S. boga, from beogan, bugan, to bow, 
bend. Cf. Bow.] An arm or large branch of a tree. 

Bdught (bawt), imp. & p. p. of buy. See Buy. 

Boufjie (bob-zhe'), n. [Fr., wax-candle, bougie, from 
Bugia, a town of North Africa, from which these candles 
were first imported into Europe.] (Surg.) A long, flexi- 
ble instrument, that is introduced into the urethra, esoph- 
agus, &c, to remove obstructions, or for other purposes. 

a, e,8cc.,long; a,e,&c.,sW*; care, far, ask, all, what; ere, veil, term; pique, firm; son, dr, d£,wol$ 




Bouillon (bobPyong), n. [Fr., from bouillir, to boil. 
See BoiL.j Broth ; soup. 

Boul'der, n. See Bowlder. 

Boulevard (bocPle-var'), n. [Fr., from Ger. bollwerh, 
Eng. bulwark, q. v.] Originally, a bulwark ; now applied 
to the public walks or streets occupying the site of de- 
molished fortifications. 

Bounce, v. i. [imp. & p. p. bounced (bounst); p. pr. 
& vb. n. BOUNCING-.] [D. bonzen, bons, blow, bounce, 
Low Lat. bombizare, to crackle, from Lat. bombus, Gr. 
|36|U.)3os, a hollow, deep sound. See Bomb.] 1. To leap 
or spring suddenly. 2. To beat or thump. [violently. 

Bounce, v. t. To drive against any thing suddenly and 

Bounce, n. 1. A sudden leap or bound. St. A heavy, 
sudden blow or thump. 3. A bold lie. 

Baim'cer, n. 1. One who bounces. St. A bold lie. 
3. A liar. 4. Something big. 

Boun'cing, a. Stout ; plump and healthy ; lusty. 

Bound, n. [Prob. of Celtic origin. Of. Arm. bonn, 
boundary, limit, and boden, bod, a tuft or cluster of 
trees, W. bbn, stem, stock.] External or limiting line of 
any object or space; limit; confine; extent; boundary. 

Bound ; n. A leap ; a spring ; a jump. 

Bound, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bounded ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BOUNDING.] 1. To limit ; to terminate ; to fix the 
furthest point of extension of; to restrain ; to confine ; 
to circumscribe. 2. To mention the boundaries of. 

Bound, v. i. [Fr. bondir, from Lat. bombitare, to buzz, 
hum, from Lat. bombus, Gr. /36m/3o?, a hollow, deep 
sound.] 1. To move forward by leaps ; to leap ; to 
jump ; to spring. 2. To rebound, as an elastic ball. 

Bound, imp. & p. p. of bind. Made fast ; confined ; 
restrained; — often used in composition. [go, &c. 

Bound, a. Destined ; tending ; going, or intending to 

Bound'a-ry, n. [See Bounder and Bound.] That 
which indicates or fixes a limit ; especially, a visible mark. 

Bound'en^boumPn), a. [From bind.] Made obligatory ; 
imposed as a duty ; obligatory ; binding. 

Bound'less, a. Without bounds or confines ; infinite. 

Syn. — Unlimited; unconfined; immeasurable ; illimitable. 

Boun'te-oiis (66), a. [See Bounty.] Disposed to give 
freely ; generous ; munificent. 

Boun'te-ous-ly, adv. Liberally ; generously. 

Boun'te-ous-ness, n. Liberality ; munificence. 

Boun'ti-ful, a. Free in giving ; munificent ; generous. 

Boun'ti-f ul-ly, adv. In a bountiful manner. 

Boun'ti-f ul-ness, n. Quality of being bountiful. 

Boun'ty, n. [Fr. bonte, Lat. bonitas, from bonus, good.] 
1. Goodness. [Obs.] ti. Liberality; generosity; mu- 
nificence. 3. That which is given liberally. 4. A pre- 
mium offered or given to encourage some object. 

Bou-quet' (bcTo'ka/ or bdcPka), n. [Fr. for bousquet ; 
bosquet, thicket.] 1. A nosegay ; a bunch of flowers. 
ti. An agreeable perfume or aromatic odor. 

Bour-geois' (bur-jois'), n. [Prob. from a type-founder 
of that name, who invented this type.] (Print.) A small 
kind of type, in size between long primer and brevier. 

IHT* This line is printed in bourgeois type. 

Hoxirgeois (bobr-zhwaw'), n. [Fr. See Borough.] 
A man of middle rank in society ; a citizen. [France.] 

Houryeoisie (bdbr'zhwaw'zee'), n. [Fr.] The middle 
classes of a country, particularly those concerned in trade. 

Bour'geon (bur'jun), v. i. [Fr. bourgeonner, of Celtic 
origin.] To put forth buds ; to shoot forth, as a branch. 

Bourn, ) n. [Fr. borne. See Bound, n. In the sense 

Bourne,) of stream, A.-S. burna, brunna,fr. beornan, 
bi/rnan, brinnan, to burn, because the source of a stream 
seems to issue forth bubbling and boiling from the earth.] 
1. A bound ; a limit ; hence, goal. ti. A stream or riv- 
ulet ; a burn. 

Hourse (bobrss), n. [Fr., from Gr. Pvpara, skin, because a 
purse was made of skin or leather.] A French exchange. 

Bout, n. [Same as 0. Eng bought, bend, of which it is 
only a different spelling and application. See Bight.] 
1. A conflict; contest; attempt; trial. 2. As much 
of an action as is performed at one time ; a turn. 

J&outs-rim6s (bob're'ma'), n. pi. [Fr. bout, end, and 
rime, rhymed.] Words that rhyme, given to be formed 
into verse. 

Bo'vlne, a. [Low Lat. bovinus, from Lat. bos, bovis, ox, 
cow.] Pertaining to cattle of the ox kind. 

Bow, (bou), v. t. [imp. & p. p. BOWED ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. bowing.] [A.-S. b^gan, beogan, Goth, bivgan, Skr. 
bhudj, to be ber.t.] 1. To bend; to inflect; to make 
crooked or curved. 2. To cause to deviate from a natu- 

ral condition ; to turn ; to incline. 3. To bend, as the 

head or body, in respect, homage, or condescension. 4. 

To cause to bend down ; to depress ; to subdue. 
Bow (bou), v. i. To bend, in token of reverence, respect, 

or civility. 
Bow (bou), n. 1. An inclination of the head, or the body, 

in token of reverence, respect, civility, or submission. 

2. (Naut.) The rounded part of a ship forward; the 
stem or prow. 

Bow (b5), n. [See supra, and cf. BOUGH. See Bow, 
to bend.] 1. Any thing bent, or in form of a curve. 
ti. A weapon, by means of which an arrow is propelled. 

3. One of several different kinds of instruments or things 
having a curved form, as a fiddle-stick. 

Bow'--e6m/pass-e§, n. pi. 1. A pair of compasses, 
with an arched plate of metal riveted to one of the legs, 
upon which the other leg slides. '2. A small pair of 
compasses furnished with a bow-pen. 

Bow-drill, n. A drill worked by a bow and string. 

Bow'el (hou'el), n. [Lat. botellus, a small satisage, dim. 
of botulus, sausage, orig. intestine.] 1. One of the intes- 
tines of an animal ; an entrail ; a gut ; — chiefly in the pi. 
'<£. Hence, fig., the interior part of any thing. 3. The 
seat of pity ; hence, tenderness, compassion. 

Bow'el, v. t. To take out the bowels of; to eviscerate. 

Bow'er (bou'er), n. [From bow.] 1. One who bows or 
bends. St. (Naut.) An anchor carried at the bow of a 
ship. 3. [Ger. bauer,a, peasant, from the figure some- 
times used for the knave in cards.] One of the two 
highest cards in the game of euchre. 

Bight bower, the knave of the trump suit v the highest card 
in the game. — Left bower, the knave of the other suit of the 
same color as the trump, being the next to the highest in value. 

Bow'er, n. [A.-S. bixr, from Goth, bauan, to dwell, A.-S. 

bUan. See Boor.] 1. Anciently, a chamber. 2. A 

country-seat; a cottage. 3. A shelter or covered place 

in a garden ; an arbor. 
Bow'er-y, a. Covering, as a bower ; containing bowers. 
Bow'- hand, n. 1. (Archery.) The hand that holds the 

bow; the left hand. Si. (Mus.) The hand that draws 

the bow, i. e., the right hand. 
Bow'ie-knif e (-nlf), n. A peculiar kind of knife, worn 

as a weapon ; — named from its inventor, Col. Boivie. 
Bow'-knot (bo'not), n. A knot in which a portion of 

the string is drawn through in the form of a loop or bow, 

so as to be readily untied. 
Bowl, n. [A.-S. bolla, any round vessel. Cf. W. bdl, belly, 

bwl, rotundity.] 1. A concave vessel to hold liquors. 55. 

The hollow part of any thing. 
Bowl, n. [From Lat. bulla, any thing rounded by art. 

Cf. L. Ger. boll, round.] A ball used for rolling on a level 

surface in play ; a ball. 
Bowl, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BOWLED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 

bowling.] 1. To roll, as a bowl. 2. To pelt with 

any thing rolled. 

To bowl out, in cricket, to knock down one's wicket by bowl- 

Bowl, v. i. 1. To play with bowls. St» To roll the ball on 
a level plane. 3. To move rapidly, smoothly, and like a 

Bowl'der (boPder), n. [See Bowl, ball.] 1. A large 
pebble. St. ( Geol.) Amass of any rock, whether rounded 
or not, that has been transported by natural agencies 
from its native bed. [Written also boulder.] 

Bow'-legged (bo'legd), a. Having crooked legs. 

Bowl'er (\>oV~), n. One who plays at bowls. 

Bow'line, n. [Prop, the line of the bow or bend, a slant- 
ing sail to receive a side wind.] (Naut.) A rope used to 
keep the weather edge of the sail tight forward, when the 
ship is close-hauled. [bowls. 

Bowl'ing-alley, n. A covered place for playing at 

Bowl'ing-green, n. A level piece of ground kept 
smooth for bowling. 

Bow'man (bo'man), n.; pi. bow'men. A man who 
uses a bow ; an archer. [crawfish. 

Bow'-net, n. A contrivance for catching lobsters and 

Bow'-oar (bou / -), n. 1. The oar used by the bowman 
in a boat. St. One who rows at the bow of a boat. 

Bow'-pfin, n. A metallic ruling-pen, having the part 
which holds the ink bowed out toward the middle. 

Bow'-saw, n. A saw with a narrow blade set in a strong 
frame, and used for cutting curved forms from wood. 

Bow'-shot, n. The space which an arrow may pass 
when shot from a bow;. 

Bow'sprit (bS'sprit or bou'sprit), n. [bow (of a ship) 
and sprit, q. v.] (Naut.) A large spar, which projects 
over the stem of a vessel , to carry sail forward. 

food, foot ; urn, rude, pull ; cell, chaise, -call, e«ho ; gem, get ; a§ ; ejist ; linger, link ; this. 




Bow'strlng, n. 1. The string of a bow. 2. A string 
used by the Turks for strangling offenders. 

Bow'strlng, v. t. To strangle with a bowstring. 

Box, n. [A.-S. box, from L. Lat. buxis, Lat. puxis, pyxis, 
Gr. 7n>£is, a box, esp. of box-wood.] 1. A case or recep- 
tacle of any size. 2. The quantity that a box contains. 

3. An inclosed space with seats in a place of public 
amusement. 4. A money-chest. 5. A small house. 
6. (Mach.) (a.) A cylindrical, hollow iron, used in 
wheels, in which the axle-tree runs. (b.) A hollow tube 
in a pump, closed with a valve ; the bucket of a lifting 
pump. 7. The driver's seat on a carriage. 8. A present. 

In a box, in an embarrassing position; in difficulty. 

Box, n. [A.-S. box, Lat. buxus, Gr. wi;£os.] A tree or 
a shrub flourishing in different parts of the globe. The 
dwarf box is much used for borders in gardens. 

Box, n. [Cf. Gr. ttv£, with clinched fist.] A blow on the 
head or ear with the hand. 

B5x, v. t. [imp. & p. p. boxed (bokst) ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
boxing.] 1. To inclose in a box. 2. To furnish with 
boxes. 3. To strike with the hand or fist. 

To box the comjjass, to name the points of the compass in 
their order. 

Box, v. i. To fight with the fist. 

Box'er, n. One who fights with his fist. 

Box'liaul, v. t. [imp. & p. p. boxhauled ; p. pr. & 
vb. jj.'boxhauling.] (Naut.) To wear, as a ship, in a 
particular manner, when close-hauled, short round on to 
the other tack ; — so called from the circumstance of 
bracing the headyards aback. 

Box'- tree, n. The tree variety of the plant called box. 

Box'-wobd, n. The wood of the box-tree, very hard 
and smooth, and much used by engravers, turners, &c. 

Boy, n. [Prov. Ger. bua, bue, N. H. Ger. bube, D. boef. 
Cf. Lat. pupus, Dan. pog, Sw. pojke, Arm. bagel, bugul, 
child, boy, girl, Per batch, child, boy, servant ; A.-S. & 
Dan. p'ige, Sw. piga, Icel. pika, a little girl.] A male 
child, from birth to the age of puberty ; a lad. Some- 
times it is used in contempt or familiarity for a man. 

Boy'hobd (27), n. State of a boy, or of immature age. 

Boy'isli, a. Resembling a boy in manners or opinions ; 
childish ; puerile. 

Boy'ish-ly, adv. In a boyish manner. 

Boy'ish-ness, n. Manners or behavior of a boy. 

Brae'-eate, a. [Lat. braccatus, wearing breeches, from 
braccx, breeches, q. v.] ( Ornitli.) Furnished with feath- 
ers which conceal the feet. 

Brace, n. [From Lat. brachia, the arms (stretched out), 
pi. of bracliium, arm.] 1. A prop or support; espe- 
cially ( Carp.), a piece of timber extending across a cor- 
ner from one piece of timber to another. 2. That which 
holds any thing tightly or firmly. 3. (Print.) A verti- 
cal curved line connecting two or more words or lines, 
thus boll > I 4, A pair; a C0U P le - 5. A thick strap, 
' bowl. ) which supports a carriage on wheels. 6. 
(Naut.) A rope reeved through a block at the end of a 
yard, by which it is turned about. 7. (pi.) Straps that 
sustain pantaloons, &c. ; suspenders ; gallowses. 8. 
A bit-stock. 9. State of being braced or tight. 

Brace, v. t. [imp. & p. p. braced (brast); p. pr. & 
vb. n. BRACING.] 1. To furnish with braces ; to sup- 
port ; to prop. 2. To tighten ; to put in a state of ten- 
sion. 3. To place in a position for bracing. 4. (Naut.) 
To move around by means of braces. 

Brace'let, n. [Fr., from Lat. brachium, arm. Cf. 
Brace. ]_ 1. An ornament for the wrist. 2. Apiece 
of defensive armor for the arm. 

Bra'cer, n. That which braces ; a band or bandage. 

Braeh'i-al, or Bra'-elii-al, a. [Lat. brachialis ; bra- 
chium, arm.] 1. Belonging to the arm. 2. Of the 
nature of an arm ; resembling an arm. 

Braelx'y-eal/a-lee'tie, n. [Gr. /SpaxvKaTaXrj/mKos; 
/3paxvs, short, and /caTaA-qK-riKos, incomplete, from Kara- 
Ajjyctv, to leave off.] ( Gr. & Lat. Pros.) A verse want- 
ing two syllables at its termination. 

Bra-ehyg'ra-phy, n. [Gr. (3pa X v<;, short, and ypd<j>eiv, 
to write.] Art or practice of writing in short hand ; ste- 

Brack'en, n. Fern. See Brake. 

Brack'et, n. [0. Fr. braguet, dim. of brache, Lat. bra- 
chmm, arm.] 1. (Arch. & Engirt.) A small projecting 
support, fastened to a wall or other surface. 2. (pi.) 
(Naut.) Short, crooked timbers, resembling knees. 3. 
(Mil.) Cheek of a mortar carriage, made of strong plank. 

4. (Print.) One of two hooks [ ],used to inclose a refer- 
ence, explanation, note, &c. ; —called also crotchets. 

Brack'et, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BRACKETED ; p. pr. & 
vb. n. bracketing.] To place within brackets; to 
connect by brackets. 

Brack'et-ing, n. (Arch.) A series of ribs, or brackets, 
for supporting cornices, &c. [wall. 

Brack'et-Hglit, n. A gas-light projecting from a side- 

Br&ck'ish, a. [D. & L. Ger. brak, brackish. Cf. Ger. 
brack, refuse, trash.] Saltish, or salt in a moderate de- 
gree, as water. 

Brack'isli-ness, n. Quality of being brackish. 

Bra-et, n. [Lat. bractea, a thin plate.] (Bot.) A small 
leaf or scale, from the axil of which a flower proceeds. 

Brte'te-ate ) a ' (Bot ^ Furnisned with bract s j bracted. 

Braet'ed, a. (Bot.) Furnished with bracts. 

Brad, n. [Cf. Dan. braad, prick, sting, Icel. broddr, any 
pointed piece of iron or steel, brydda, to prick.] A kind 
of nail, with a slight projection at the top on one side in- 
stead of a head. [of brads. 

Brad'-awl, n. An awl to make holes for the insertion 

Brag, v. i. [imp. & p. p. bragged; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BRAGGING.] [Cf. Icel. bragga, to adorn, Ger. prachen, 
to make a show, boast, pracht, bracht, breaking, show, 
splendor, Fr. braguer, flaunt, boast, W. bra grata, to swell 
out.] To praise one's self, or what belongs to one's self, 
in an ostentatious manner. 

Syn.— To swagger; boast; vapor; bluster; vaunt; flourish. 

Brag, n. 1. A boast or boasting. 2. The thing boasted 
of. 3. A game at cards. 

Brag'ga-do'ci-o (-do'shi-o), n. [From Braggadocchio, 
a boastful character in Spenser's Faery Queen.] 1. A 
braggart ; a boaster. 2. Empty boasting ; mere brag. 

Brag'gart, n. [0. Fr. bragard, flaunting, vain, brag- 
ging. See supra.) A boaster ; a vain fellow. 

Brag'gart, a. Boastful ; vainly ostentatious. 

Brag'ger, n. One who brags : a, boaster. 

Brah'ma, n. [See infra.] '(Myth.) The first person in 
the trinity of the Hindoos ; the creator. 

Brah'man, ) n. [Skr. Brahman, Bramin, and the first 

Brah'min, J deity of the Hindoo triad, Bruhmd.} A 
person of the upper or sacerdotal caste among the Hin- 
doos. [Written also Brachman, Bramin.] 





Brah'man-i§m, ) n. The religion or system of doc- 

Brah'miii-i§m, ) trines of the Brahmans. 

Braid, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BRAIDED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BRAIDING.] [A.-S. bredan.] 1. To weave or entwine 
together ; to plat. 2. To mingle by rubbing in some 
fluid or soft substance. 

Braid, n. A string, cord, or other texture, formed by 
weaving together different strands. 

Brail, n. [From Lat. braca, bracpp, breeches, a Gallic 
word. See Breeches.] 1. (Falconry.) A piece of 
leather to bind up a hawk's wing. 2. (pi.) (Naut.) 
Ropes employed to haul up, or truss up, sails, for the 
more ready furling of them . 

Brail, v. t. [imp. & p. p. brailed ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BRAILING.] (Naut.) To haul up into the brails, or to 
truss up with the brails. 

Brain, n. [A.-S. bragen. Cf. Gr. Ppey/xa, upper part of 
the head.] 1. (Anat.) (a.) The whitish, soft mass which 
occupies the upper cavity of the skull, and is considered 
to be the center of sensation and perception, (b.) The 
anterior or cephalic ganglion in insects and other inverte- 
brates. 2. The understanding. 
E3f- In the latter sense, often used in the plural. 

Brain, v. t. To dash out the brains of; to destroy. 

Brain'-f e'ver, n. An inflammation of the brain. 

Brain'less, a. Without understanding ; witless. 

Brain'-pan, n. The bones which inclose the brain; 
the skull ; the cranium. 

Brain'-slck, a. Disordered in the understanding. 

Brake, n. [L. Ger. brake, brushwood, Dan. br'dgne, 
bregne, fern, W. brwg, wood, brake.] 1. (Bot.) A fern of 
different genera. 2. A place overgrown with brakes. 3. 
A_thicket ; a place overgrown with shrubs and brambles. 

Brake, n. [From the root of break.] 1. An instrument 
to break flax or hemp. 2. The handle by which a pump 
or fire-engine is worked. 3. A contrivance for confining 
refractory horses while the smith is shoeing them ; also, 
an inclosure to restrain cattle, horses, &c. 4. (Mil.) (a.) 
That part of the carriage of a movable battery, or engine, 
which enables it to turn, (b.) An ancient engine of war 

Pertaining to the Brahmans, or 
their doctrines and worship ; re- 
lating to the religion of Brahma. 

a, e, &c.,long; a, e, &c., short ; care, far, ask, all, what ; ere, veil, term ; pique, firm ; son, or, d<>, wolf, 




analogous to the cross-bow. 5. (Agric.) A large, heavy 
harrow for breaking clods after plowing. 6. A piece of 
mechanism for retarding or stopping motion by means of 
friction, as of a railway carriage. 7. A cart or carriage 
without a body, used in breaking horses. 

Brake'man, n. ; pi. brake'men. One whose business 
is to manage a brake. 

Bralt'y, a. Full of brakes or brambles ; rough ; thorny. 

Bram'fole, n. [A.-S. brembel, brember.] (Bot.) One of 
several different species of the genus Rubus, includ- 
ing the raspberry and blackberry ; hence, any rough, 
prickly shrub. 

Bram'lbly, a. Pertaining to, resembling, or full of 

Bra'min, n. See Brahman. 

Bran, n. [Fr. bran , excrement, dirt, 0. Fr. & 0. Sp. 
bren, bran, W. bran, brann, Ir. & Gael, bran.] The 
proper coat of the seed of wheat, rye, or other farina- 
ceous grain, separated from the flour by bolting ; — often 
applied to all refuse sifted out of flour or meal. 

Branch, n. [Fr. branche, Ger. bran/ce, claw, Ir. & Gael. 
brae, W. braich, arm.] 1. A limb; a bough growing 
from a stem, or from another branch or bough. 2. Any 
arm or part shooting or extended from the main body of" 
a thing, as a smaller stream running into a larger one ; a 
ramification. 3. Any member or part of a body or sys- 
tem ; a section or subdivision ; a department. 4. A line 
of family descent, in distinction from some other line or 
lines from the same stock ; any descendant in such a line. 
5. (Law.) A warrant or commission given to a pilot. 

Branch, v. i. [imp. & p. p. BRANCHED (brancht) ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. branching.] 1. To shoot or spread in 
branches ; to ramify. 2. To divide into separate parts 
or subdivisions. 
To branch out, to speak diffusively, or with many words. 

Branch, v . t. To divide as into branches. 

Bran'ehi-al, a. [From Gr. fipdyxiov, gill.] Pertaining 
to, or performed by means of, gills, as of fishes. 

Branch'i-ness, n. Fullness of branches. 

Bran'-ehi-o-podg, n. pi. [Gr. Pp6.yxi.ov, gill, and wou?, 
7ro56s, foot.] (Zool.) An order of Crustacea, generally 
very small or minute ; — so named from their feet having 
been supposed to perform the function of gills. 

Branch/let, n. A little branch ; a twig. 

Branch'y, a. Full of branches. 

Brand, n. [A.-S. brand, brond, brand, sword, from brin- 
nan, byrnan, beornan, to burn.] 1. A burning or partly 
burnt stick or piece of wood. 2. A sword, so called 
from its glittering brightness. [Poet.] 3. An iron used 
for burning a mark on something, as a cask, or a crimi- 
nal. 4. A distinctive mark made by burning with a hot 
iron ; hence, figuratively, quality ; kind ; also, any mark 
of infamy ; a stigma. 

Brand, v. t. [imp. & p. p. branded ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BRANDING.] 1. To burn or impress a mark with a hot 
iron. 2. To stigmatize as infamous. 

Brand'- goose, n. [See Brant.] (Ornith.) A species 
of wild goose, usually called, in America, brant. 

Bran'died, a. Mingled, flavored, or treated with brandy. 

Brand'ing-i'ron (-I'urn), ) n. An iron used to brand 

Brand'-T'ron (-l'urn), ) with. 

Bran'dish, v. t. [imp. & p. p. brandished (108) ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. BRANDISHING.] [From brand, a sword, q. 
v.] To wave, as a weapon ; to shake or flourish. 

Bran'dish, n. A flourish, as with a weapon, whip, &c. 

Bran'dish-er, n. One who brandishes. 

Brand'ling, n. [So called from its color. See Brand.] 
( Zool.) A small red worm, used as bait for small fish. 

Brand'-new, a. [See Brand.] Quite new, as if fresh 
from the fire. 

Bran'dy, n. [Contracted from 0. Eng brandwine, Ger. 
brantwein, brantewein, i. e., burned wine.] An ardent 
spirit distilled from wine or other liquors. 

Bran'gle, n. [Scot, brangle, to shake, menace ; prob. a 
modification of wrangle, q. v.] A wrangle ; a squabble. 

Bran'gle, v.i. To wrangle; to dispute; to squabble. 

Brank, n. [Probably of Celtic origin.] 1. Buckwheat. 
[Eng.] 2. [Cf. Branch.] A bridle for scolds. 

Bran'lin, n. [From brand, q. v., probably on account 
of the dark-colored marks on the sides of this fish, re- 
sembling those burned by a brand-iron.] (Ichth.) A 
species of fish of the salmon kind. 

Bran'-new (109), a. See Brand-neW. 

Bran'ny, a. Consisting of, or resembling bran. 

Brant, n. [It. branta, brenta, D. & Ger. brentgans. Prob. 
It. branta is for branca, branch, so that it signifies a 
branch goose, same as 0. & Prov. Eng. tree-goose, Ger. 

baumgans.] ( Ornith.) A species of wild goose ; — called 
also brent and brand-goose. See Brand-GOOSE. 

Brash, a. [Cf. Ger. barsch, harsh, sharp, tart, impetu- 
ous.] 1. Hasty in temper. 2. [Arm. breslc, brush, frag- 
ile.] Brittle, as wood or vegetables. [Local, Amer.] 

Brash, n. [See Brash, a., 2.] 1. A rash or eruption. 
2. Refuse boughs of trees ; truck. 3. (Geol.) Broken 
and angular fragments of rocks underlying alluvial de- 
posits. 4. Broken fragments of ice. 

Bra'gier (bra/zher), n. [From brass.] 1. An artificer 
who works in brass. 2. [Fr. brasier, braisier, from 
braise, embers, live coals.] A pan for holding coals. 

Brass, n. [A.-S. bras, W. pres. Cf. Icel. bras, cement, 
solder, Lith. waras, brass.] 1. A yellow alloy of cop- 
per and zinc. 2. Impudence ; a brazen face. [Colloq.] 3. 
pi. Utensils, ornaments, or other articles made of brass. 

Brass'-foand, n. A company of musicians who per- 
form on instruments of brass. 

Brasse, n. [A.-S. bears, baers. Cf. L. Ger. brasse.] The 
pale, spotted perch. 

Brass'i-ness, n. Quality or appearance of brass. 

Brass'-leaf , n. Brass made into very thin sheets. 

Brass'y, a. 1. Pertaining to brass ; hard as brass ; the 
color of brass. 2. Impudent ; impudently bold. [Colloq.] 

Brat, n. [A.-S. bratt, cloak, rag, W. brat, bratt, clout, 
rag, Ir. & Gael, brat, cloak, veil, apron, rag.] A child, 
so called in contempt. 

Bra-va'do, n. [Sp. bravada,bravata. See Brave.] 1. 
An arrogant menace ; a boast or brag ; boastful or 
threatening behavior. 2. A boasting fellow. 

Brave, a. [Fr. brave, Sp., Pg., and It. bravo, courageous. 
This word seems to be of Celtic origin.] 1. Of noble or 
admirable courage ; uniting boldness with generosity and 
dignity. 2. Excellent ; beautiful. 

Syn. — Courageous ; gallant ; daring ; valiant ; valorous ; 
bold; heroic ; intrepid ; fearless ; dauntless ; high-spirited. 

Brave, n. 1. A brave person ; specifically, an Indian 
warrior. 2. A hector ; a bully. 

Brave, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BRAVED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BRAVING.] To encounter with courage and fortitude ; 
to_set at defiance ; to defy ; to challenge ; to dare. 

Brave'ly, adv. In a brave manner. 

Brav'er-y, n. 1. Quality of being brave; fearlessness 
of danger ; undaunted spirit. 2. Showy appearance ; 

Syn. — Courage ; heroism ; intrepidity ; gallantry ; valor; 
fearlessness; dauntlessness; hardihood; manf'ulness.— Courage 
(from cor, heart) is that firmness of spirit which meets danger 
without fear; bravery defies or braves it, and shows itself in 
outward acts; audacity is bravery running out into rashness. 

Bra'vo, n. ; pi. bra/voe§. [It. See Brave.] A daring 
villain ; a bandit ; an assassin or murderer. 

Bra'vo, interj. Well done ! expressive of applause. 

Brawl, v. i. [Fr. brailler, W. bragal, to vociferate, brag ; 
broliaw, to brag, boast, brawl, boast. Cf. Broil..] 1. 
To quarrel noisily and indecently. 2. To complain 
loudly ; to scold. 3. To roar ; as water. 
Syn.— To wrangle; squabble; contend. 

Brawl, n. A noisy quarrel ; loud, angry contention. 
Syn. — Noise; quarrel; scurrility; uproar. 

Brawl'er, n. A noisy fellow ; a wrangler. 

Brawn, n. [From 0. H. Ger. brato, ace. bratun, braton, 
fatness.] 1. The flesh of a boar. 2. Full, strong mus- 
cles ; muscular strength ; hence, the arm. 

Brawn'i-ness, n. Quality of being brawny. 

Brawn'y, a. Having large, strong muscles. 

Syn. — Muse ulous; muscular; fleshy; strong; bulky. 

Bray, v. t. [imp. & p.p. brayed ;£>. pr. k,vb. n. BRAY- 
ING.] 1. [0. Fr. brayer; Icel. bralca, to break, bralca, 
to crack, A.-S. bracan, to rub.] To pound, beat, or 
grind small. 2. [See BRAY, v. i.] To make or utter 
with a harsh, grating sound. 

Bray, v. i. [Fr. braire, to bray. Cf. BRAG.] 1. To ut- 
ter a harsh cry, as an ass. 2. To make a harsh, grating 
noise. [sound. 

Bray, n. The harsh sound of an ass ; any harsh, grating 

Bray'er, n. One who brays like an ass. 

Bray'er, n. [From bray, to grind. See Bray, v. t. 1.] 
(Print.) An instrument for mixing or spreading ink. 

Braze, v. t. [From brass, q. v.] 1. To solder with an al- 
loy of brass and zinc. 2. To cover or ornament with 
brass. 3. To harden to impudence. 

Bra'zen (bra/zn), a. 1. Pertaining to, proceeding from, 
or made of, brass. 2. Impudent. 

Brazen age (Myth-), the age which succeeded the silver age, 
when men had degenerated from primitive purity. — Brazen 
sea (Jewish Antiq.), a large vessel of brass, cast on the plain of 
Jordan, and placed in Solomon's temple. 

food, f dot ; urn, r\jde, pull ; cell, chaise, eall, echo ; 

gem, get ; ag ; ejist ; linger, link ; this. 




Bra'zen (bra'zn,) V. i. To be impudent ; to bully. 

Bra'zen-f aced, (bra'zn-i'ast), a. Impudent ; bold to ex- 
cess ; shameless. 

Bra'zen-ly, adv. In a bold, impudent manner. 

Bra'zier (bra/zher), n. [See Brasier.] 1. An artificer 
who works in brass. 2. A pan to hold coals. 

Bra-zil'-wdod, n. [Pg. braza, a live coal, or glowing 
fire. This name was given to the wood from its color.] 
A very heavy wood, of a red color, growing in other 
tropical countries, and used for dyeing red. 

Breach, n. [A.-S. brice, bryce, Fr. breche,Ger. brecke. 
See Break.] 1. Act of breaking, or state of being 
broken. 2. The gap or opening made by breaking. 3. 
A breaking or infraction, as of a law, or any obligation 
or tie. 4. A breaking up of amicable relations. 

Syn.— Rent; cleft; chasm; rift; disruption; fracture; aper- 
ture; gap; break; infraction; infringement; violation; quar- 
rel; dispute; contention; difference; misunderstanding. 

Breach, v. t. (Mil.) To make a breach or opening in the 

walls of, by means of artillery. [cattle. 

Breach'y, a. Apt to break fences ; — applied to unruly 
Bread, n. [A.-S. bread, breod. The root is either A.-S. 

breovan, imp. bredv, to brew, bake, or, better, A.-S. 

breotan, imp bredt, to break, for an older breodan, imp. 

bread.] 1. Food made of flour or meal. 2. Provisions 

in general. 
Bread'-corn, n. Corn or grain of which bread is made, 

as wheat, rye, &c. 
Bread'- fruit (32), n. (Bot.) The fruit of a tree, found 

in the isles of the Pacific. When baked, it somewhat 

resembles bread, and is eaten as food. The name is also 

applied to the tree. 
Bread'stuff , n. Bread-corn ; meal ; flour. [Amer.] 
Breadth (108), n. [A.-S. brado, braed, from brad, broad. 

See Broad.] 1. Distance from side to side ; width. 

2. (Paint.) Quality of having colors and shadows broad 

and massive, and the arrangement of objects such as to 

produce an impression of largeness and simple grandeur. 
Break, v. t. [imp. broke (brake, obs.); p. p. broke 

or broken ; p. pr. & vb. n. breaking.] [A.-S. & Goth. 

brikan, Icel. braka, allied to Lat. frangere, for fragere, 

Skr. bhandj, in which the letter r has been dropped, Gr. 

priyi/vvat, where the initial consonant has been omitted.] 

1. (a.) To strain apart ; to part by. Hence, to lay open 
by breaking. And (Fig.) to lay open, as a purpose ; to 
disclose or divulge, (b.) To infringe or violate, (c.) To 
interrupt ; to terminate, (d.) To destroy the completeness 
of. 2. To dash or shatter to pieces. 3. Hence, (a.) To 
shatter or crush, without separation of parts ; to bruise. 
(b.) To weaken, impair, or subdue, (c.) To diminish the 
force of. And (Fig.) to impart cautiously, (d.) To tame ; 
to make tractable, (e.) To make bankrupt. (/.) To de- 
stroy the official character of ; to cashier. 

With prepositions or adverbs : — 

To break down, to crush; to overwhelm. — To break in, to 
force in; also, to train; to discipline.— To break of, to cause 
to reform, or abandon.— To break off, to separate by breaking; 
to interrupt ; to put an end to. — To break open, to open by- 
breaking. — To break out, to take or force out by breaking. — 
To break over, to transgress ; to disregard. — lo break up, to 
separate into parts; to put an end to. 

With an object : — 

To break the back, neck, &c, to dislocate the same. — To 
break bulk, to begin to unload; also, to transfer in detail, as 
from boats to cars. — To break cover, to burst forth from a pro- 
tecting concealment. — To breakfast, to partake of food after 
abstinence, especially in the morning. — To break ground, to 
open the earth as for planting ; to commence excavation. 
Hence (Fig.), to begin to execute any plan ; (Xaut.), to release 
the anchor from the bottom.— To break the heart, to crush or 
overwhelm with grief. — To break a house, (Law), to remove 
any part of the house or of its fastenings, with violence and 
a felonious intent. — To break the ice, to overcome obstacles 
and make a beginning.— To break jail, to escape from con- 
finement in jail. — To break a jest, to utter a jest.— To break 
joints, to lay bricks, shingles, &c, so that the ioints in one 
course shall not coincide with those in the preceding course.— 
To break a path, road, or the like ; to open a way through 
obstacles by force. — To break upon a wheel, to execute or pun- 
ish, as a criminal, by stretching him out upon a cart-wheel 
or frame, and breaking his limbs with an iron bar. 

Syn.— To dispart; rend; tear; crash; shatter ; batter ; vio- 
late; infringe; demolish; destroy. 

Break, v. i. 1. To come to pieces ; to burst asunder. 

2. To open spontaneously, or by force from within. 3. 
To come to view ; to appear ; to dawn. 4. To burst 
forth violently. 5. To become weakened ; to lose health 
or strength. 6. To fail in business. 7. To change the 
gait. 8. To exceed the natural compass or power, as the 
voice. 9. To fall out ; to terminate friendship. 

With prepositions or adverbs : — 

To break away, to disengage one's self abruptly; also, to be- 
come dissipated, as the clouds. — To break down, to come down 
by breaking ; to fail in any undertaking. — To break forth, 
to issue suddenly, as sound, light, &o. ; — with in or unto ; to 
give vent to. — To break in, or in upon, to enter violently or 
unexpectedly. —To break loose, to extricate one's self forcibly. 

— To break off, to become separated with suddenness and vio- 
lence; to desist. — To break out, to burst forth ; to appear sud- 
denly;— also, to show itself in cutaneous eruptions,— said of 
certain diseases; to become covered with cutaneous eruptions, 

— said of a patient. — To break up, to become separated into 
parts or fragments. Hence, to be dissolved; to disperse.— To 
break with, to fall out; to part friendship. 

Break, n. [A.-S. brzec. See supra.] 1. An opening 
made by fracture or disruption. 2. An interruption ; 
a pause. 3. In writing or printing, a dash, or a blank 
or unfinished fine. 4. The first appearing of light in the 
morning; the dawn. 5. An interruption of continuity. 
6. A kind of large, four-wheel carriage. 

Break'a-ble, a. Capable of being broken. 

Break'age (45), n. 1. A breaking. 2. An allowance 
for things broken in transportation. 

Break'down, n. 1. Act of breaking down, as of a car- 
riage. 2. A riotous dance, terminating a ball. [ Colloq.] 

Break'er, n. 1. One who, or that which , breaks. 2. 
(Naut.) A small, flat water-cask, used in boats for bal- 
last and for emergencies. 3. pi. Waves breaking into 
foam against the shore, a sand-bank, or a sunken rock. 

Break'fast (brek/fast), n. The first meal in the day. 

Break'fast, v. i. [imp. & p. p. breakfasted ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. breakfasting.] To break one's fast in the 
morning. [morning. 

Break'fast, v. t. To furnish with the first meal in the 

Break'-neck, n. A steep place, endangering the neck. 

Break'-neck, a. Producing danger of a broken neck. 

Break'wa-ter, n. Any structure or contrivance, to 
break the"force of waves. 

Bream, n. [Fr. brcme, brame, from 0. H. Ger. brahsema, 
brahsina,] (Ichth.) A certain fish inhabiting 
lakes and deep water, extremely insipid, and little valued 

Bream, v. t. [Cf. Broom, and Ger. ein schiff brennen.) 
(Naut.) To burn filth, as grass, seaweed, &c, off from. 

Breast, n. [A.-S. breost, Icel. briost, Goth, brusts, Ger. 
brust. The root is 0. H. Ger. brestan, A.-S. berstan, Eng. 
burst, so that the word properly signifies a thing bursting 
beyond the adjacent surface.] 1. The fore part of the 
body, between the neck and the belly. 2. The pro- 
tuberant glands, in females, in which milk is secreted. 
3. The seat of consciousness, and of the affections and 
passions ; the heart. 

To make a clean breast, to make full confession. 

Breast, v. t. To meet with the breast, or manfully. 

Breast'-bone, n. The bone of the breast to which most 
of the ribs are attached ; the sternum. 

Breast'-hobk, n. (Naut.) A piece of timber in the form 
of a knee, placed across the stem of a ship. 

Breast'ing, n. (Engin.) The curved channel in which 
a breast-wheel turns. [breast. 

Breasfknot (-not), n. A knot of ribbons worn on the 

Breast'pin, n. A pin worn for a fastening, or for orna- 
ment, on the breast ; a brooch. 

Breast'plate, n. 1. Defensive armor worn upon the 
breast. 2. A strap that runs across a horse's breast. 

3. (Jeivish Antiq.) A part of the vestment of the high 
priest, consisting of a folded piece of rich, embroidered 
stuff set with twelve precious stones, on which were en- 
graved the names of the twelve tribes. 

Breast'-plow, I n. A kind of plow, driven by the 

Breast'-plough, ) breast, used to cut or pare turf. 

Breast'rail, n. The upper rail of a balcony or of the 
breastwork on a quarter-deck. 

Breast'- wheel, n. A water-wheel, which receives the 
stream of water at about half its height. 

Breast'work ( -wurk), n. 1. ( Fort. ) A defensive earth- 
work breast-high. 2. (Naut.) A railing on the quarter- 
deck and forecastle. 

Breath, n. [A.-S. brsedh.] 1. Air respired. 2. Act or 
power of breathing naturally or freely. 3. Power of 
respiration; hence, life. 4. Time to breathe; respite; 
pause. 5. A single respiration, or the time of making 
it ; a single act ; an instant. 6. A very slight breeze. 

Breath'a-ble, a. Capable of being breathed. 

Breathe, v. i. [imp. & p. p. breathed; p. pr. & 
vb. n. BREATHING.] [From breath, q. v.] 1. To re- 
spire ; hence, to live. 2. To take breath ; to rest. 3. 
To pass, as air ; to exhale ; to emanate. 

Breathe, v. t. 1. To respire. 2. To inject or infuse 
by breathing. 3. To emit by the breath ; to utter softly. 

4. To exhale ; to emit, as breath. 5. To cause to sound 

a, e, S.c. , long , a , e, &c. , short ; care, far, ask, all, what ; ere, veil, term ; pique, firm ; son, 6r, do, wolf, 


by breathing. 6. To promote free respiration in; to 
exercise. 7. To suffer to take breath, or recover the 
natural breathing. S. To put out of breath. 9. [W. 
brathu, to pierce.] To give air or vent to ; to open. 

Breatn'er, n. One who breathes. 

Breatii'ing, n. 1. Respiration. 2. Air in gentle mo- 
tion. 3. Any gentle influence or operation. 4. Aspira- 
tion; secret prayer. 5. Exercise. 6. Utterance. 7. 
Breathing-place; vent. 8. (a.) (Gram.) Aspiration; 
the sound expressed by the letter h. (b.) ( Gr. Gram.) 
A mark placed over the initial vowel of a word to indicate 
aspiration. — Rough breathing ( spiritus asper), a mark ['], 
signifying that the letter over which it is placed is to be 
pronounced as if preceded by h, as livax (hl-e-nai). 
Smooth breathing (spiritus lenis). a mark ['], indicating 
the absence of the sound of h, as teVai (I-e-nai). 

Breath'Iess, a. 1. Out of breath. 2. Dead ; expired. 

Breath'less-ness, n. State of being breathless, or ex- 
hausted with exercise. 

Breccia (bret'cha), n. [It. See Breach.] (Geol.) A 
rock composed of angular fragments, united by a cement, 
and presenting a variety of colors. 

Bree'ci-a/ted (brek'shl-), a. Consisting of angular 
fragments cemented together. 

Breecli, n. [See Breeches.] 1. The lower part of 
the body behind. 2. The hinder part of any thing, esp. 
the part of a fire-arm, behind the bottom of the bore. 

Breech, v. t. [imp. & p. p. breeched ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. BREECHING.] 1. To put into breeches. 2. To fit 
or furnish with a breech. 3. To fasten with breeching. 

Breech'eg (brlch'ez), n. pi. [A.-S. broc, pi. brec, breec, 
Ir. brog, D. broek, Lat. braca, bracse, braces;.] A garment 
worn by men, covering the hips and thighs ; — sometimes, 
but less properly, used in the sense of pantaloons. 

To wear the breeches, to usurp the authority of the husband; 
— said of a wife. [Colloq.] 

Breech'ing (brlch'ing), n. 1. That part of a harness 
which comes round the breech of a horse. 2. (Naut.) 
A strong rope fastened to a cannon, to prevent it from 
recoiling too much in battle. 

Breech'-load'ing, a. (Mil.) Receiving the charge at 
the breech instead of the muzzle. 

Breed, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BRED; p. pr. & vb. n. 
BREEDING-.] [A.-S. bredan. Cf. W. brwd, hot, warm, 
brydiaio, to heat. See Brood.] 1„ To procreate ; to 
generate ; to beget ; to hatch. 2. To bring up ; to nurse 
and foster. 3. To instruct ; to form by education. 4. 
l'o occasion ; to produce. 5. To give birth to. 

Breed, v. i. 1. To bear and nourish young. 2. To be 
generated, or to grow, as young before birth. 3. To 
have birth ; to be produced. 4. To raise a breed. 

To breed in and in, to breed from animals of the same stock 
that are closely related. 

Breed, n. 1. A race or progeny from the same parents 
or stock. 2. A race of men or other animals, which 
have an alliance by nativity, or some distinctive qualities 
in common. 3. Progeny; offspring ; — applied toother 
things than animals. 

Breed'er, n. One who, or that which, breeds. 

Breed'ing, n. 1. Formation of manners. 2. Deport- 
ment or behavior ; manners. 

Syn. — Education ; instruction; nurture; training. 

Breeze, ) n. [A.-S. briosa, brimse. Cf. Ger. brausen, 

Breeze'-fly, ) Icel. brtisa, Sw. brusa, Dan. bruse, to 
hum, buzz, murmur.] ( Entom.) A kind of fly of vari- 
ous species, noted for buzzing about animals, and tor- 
menting them by sucking their blood . The name is also 
given to different species of bot-flies. [Written also 
breese and brize.] 

Breeze, n. [Fr. brise, It. brezza, Sp. briza, brisa. a 
breeze from north-east. Cf. Fr. bise, 0. H. Ger. bisa, 
north wind ] 1. A light wind ; a gentle gale. 2. (Fig.) 
An excited state of feeling ; a quarrel. ( Colloq. ) 

Breeze, v. i. To blow gently. 

Breez'y, a. Fanned with gentle winds or breezes. 

Brent, n. A brant, or brand-goose. See Brant. 

Breast'-sum'mer, n. (Arch.) A summer or beam 
placed breast-wise to support a superincumbent wall. 

Breth'ren, n. ; pi. of brother. It is used almost exclu- 
sively, in solemn and scriptural language, in the place of 
brothers. See BROTHER. 

Brett, n. A long, four-wheel pleasure-carriage, with a 
calash top, and seats for four, besides a driver's seat. 

Breve, n. [Lat. brevis, short. See Brief.] 1. (Mus.; A 
note, equivalent to two semibreves, or four minims. , ^ I 
2. (Law.) A brief. See Brief. 3. (Print.) A ' 


curved mark [~] used to indicate the short quantity 
of a vowel, or some particular quality of its sound. 

- Br ( e " v t 6t '> n - [ Fr -> from Lat. brevis, short. See Brief.] 
1. A royal or imperial warrant, granting a favor, privi- 
lege, title, or dignity. 2. (Mil.) A commission in the 
army at large, in distinction from a commission in a 
particular regiment or corps. [brevet 

Bre-vgt', v. t. (Mil.) To confer rank or title upon by 

Bre-vet', a. (Mil.) Taking rank by brevet. 

Bre'-vi-a-ry, n. [Lat. breviarium, from brevis, short.] 
1. An abridgment; a compend ; an epitome; a brief 
account or summary. 2. A book containing the daily 
service_of the Roman Catholic or Greek church. 

Bre-vier', n. [Probably so called from being originally 
used in printing a breviary.] (Print.) A small kind of 
printing type, in size between bourgeois and minion. 
pp" This line is printed in brevier type. 

Brev'i-ped, a. [Lat. brevis, short, and pes, pedis, foot] 
( Ornith.) Having short legs, as certain birds. 

Brev'i-pen'nate, a. [Lat. brevis, short, and penna- 
tus, winged, feathered, from penna, feather, wing.] ( Or- 
nith.) Short- winged ; — applied to a division of birds, 
including the ostrich, cassowary, swan, &c. 

Brev'i-ty, n. [Lat. brevitas, from brevis, short.] 1. 
Shortness of duration. 2. Contraction into few words ; 
shortness ; conciseness. 

Brew (brjj), v. t. [imp. & p. p. BREWED ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. BREWING.] [A.-S. breovan, Icel. brugga, allied to 
Lat. frigere, Gr. 4>pvyeiv, to roast, fry, broil.] 1. To 
boil or seethe. 2. To prepare, as a liquor, from malt 
and hops, or other materials, by steeping, boiling, and 
fermentation. 3. To prepare by boiling, mingling, &c. 
4. To contrive ; to plot. 

Brew(brii), v. i. 1. To perform the business of brew- 
ing. 2. To be in a state of preparation ; to be forming, 
or gathering. 

Brew'age (bru'-), n. Malt liquor ; drink brewed. 

Brew'er (bru/er), n. One who brews. 

Brew'er-y, / (brn'-), n. A house where brewing is 

Brew'-house, \ carried on. 

Brew'ing (bribing), n. 1. The act or process of pre- 
paring liquors from malt and hops, &c. 2. The quantity 
brewed at once. 

Brew'is (bru'is), n. [A.-S. briw, es, broth, frumenty, 
from breova?i, Eng. brew.] 1. Broth ; pottage. [Obs.] 2. 
Bre_ad soaked in gravy, or prepared in water and butter. 

BrI-a're-an, a. Pertaining to, or resembling, Briareus, 
a giant with a hundred hands ; hence, hundred-handed. 

Bribe, n. [Fr. bribe, a hunch of bread, scrap, leaving3 
of meals (that are generally given to a beggar), 0. Fr. 
briber, brifer, to eat gluttonously, to beg ; Cf. W. briw, 
fragment, bara briw, broken bread.] 1. A gift bestowed 
or promised with a view to pervert the judgment or cor- 
rupt the conduct. 2. That which seduces ; allurement. 

Bribe, v. t. [imp. & p. p. BRIBED ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
bribing.] 1. To influence or corrupt by gifts. 2. To 
gain by a bribe. 

Bribe, v.i. To give a bribe to a person. 

Brib'er, n. One who, or that which, bribes. 

Brlb'er-y, n. Act or practice of bribing. 

Brick, n. [Either from A.-S. brice,&. breaking, fragment, 
or, better, from Armor, priek, clayey, ^r^clay.] 1. Clay 
and sand, tempered with water, molded into regular 
forms, dried in the sun, and usually burnt. 2. Bricks 
collectively. 3. A good fellow; a merry person. [Low] 
A brick in his hat, used of a person intoxicated. 

Brick, v. t. [imp. & p.p. bricked (brlkt) ; p. pr. & 

vb. n. BRICKING.] To lay or pave with bricks. 
Brick'bat, n. A piece or fragment of a brick. See 

Bat, No. 4. [baked or burnt- 

Brick'-kiln (-kll), n. A kiln, in which bricks are 
Brlck'-lay'er, n. One who builds with bricks. 
Brick'-laylng, n. The art of building with bricks. 
Brick'-nog^ing, n. Brick-work carried up and filled 

in between timber framing. 
Brick'-tea, n. Fresh tea-leaves saturated with fat, or 

with an alkaline solution, and pressed into large cakes. 
Brick'- work (-wiirk), n. A structure of bricks. 
Brid'al. a. [From bride, q. v.] Belonging to a bride, or 

to a wedding ; nuptial ; connubial. 
Brid'al, n. The nuptial festival ; marriage. 
Bride, n. [A.-S. bryd, Goth, bruths, Icel. brildhr, W. 

priawd, a married person, Skr. praudha, bride. Cf. Skr. 

pri, to love.] 1. A woman recently married. 2. A 

woman espoused, or contracted to be married. [ding. 

Brlde'-eake, n. Cake made for the guests at a wed- 

food, foot; urn, riide, pull ; cell, fkaise, -eall, e-eho ; gem, get; ag; ejist; linger, link; this- 




Bride'-cham'ber, n. The nuptial apartment. 
Bride'grobm, n. [Orig. and prop, bndegoom, from 

A.-S. brydguma, from bryd, bride, and gvma, man.] A 
man newly married, or about to be married. 

Bride'-maid, 1 n. A woman who attends on a bride 

Bride§'-maid, } at her wedding. 

Bride'-man, n. ; pi. bride'-men. 1 A man who at- 

Bride§'-man, n.; pi. BRIDES-MEN. J tends upon a 
bridegroom and bride at their marriage. 

Brlde'well, n. A house of correction ; — so called from 
a hospital near St. Bride's or Bridget's well, in London, 
which was subsequently turned into a work-house. 

Bridge, n. [A.-S. brycg, bryc, brig, Icel. bryggja.] 1. 
A structure erected to make a continuous roadway over 
a watercourse, ravine, railroad, or the like. 2. Some- 
thing analogous to a bridge, as a support for the strings 
of a violin, the upper, bony part of the nose, &c. 

Bridge, v. t. [imp. & p. p. bridged ; p. pr. & vb. n. 
bridging.] To build a bridge or bridges over. 

Bridge'-board, n. {Arch.) A board on which the ends 
of the steps of wooden stairs are fastened. 

Bridg'ing-joist, n. (Arch.) (a.) A joist sustained by 
transverse beams below; — called also a binding-joist. 
(b.) A joist nailed or fixed to the flooring boards. 

Bri'dle, n. [A.-S. bridel.] 1. An instrument with which 
a horse is governed and restrained. 2. A restraint ; a 
curb; a check. 3. (Chin.) Part of a gun-lock. 4. 
(Naut.) A short piece of cable, intended to enable a ship, 
when moored, to veer with the wind and tide. 

Bri'dle, v. t. [imp. & p.p. bridled; p. pr. & vb. n. 
bridling.] 1. To put a bridle upon. 2. To restrain, 
guide, or govern ; to check, curb, or control. 

Bri'dle, v. i. To hold up the head, and draw in the chin, 
as an expression of pride, scorn, or resentment. 

Bri'dle-path, \ n. A path or way for travelers on 

Bri'dle-way, J horse-back. 

Bri'dler, n. One who bridles. 

Bri-ddbn', n. [Fr. bridon, from bride. See BRIDLE.] 
[Mil.) The snaffle and rein of a military bridle, which 
acts independently of the bit. 

Brief, a. [Fr. brief, bref, Lat. brevis, short.] 1. Short 
in duration. 2. Short" in expression ; using few words. 
Syn.— Short; limited; concise; succinct; summary; com- 
pendious; laconic. 

Brief,?!. 1. An epitome ; a short or concise writing ; a 
statement in few words. 2. (Law.) (a.) An abridg- 
ment of a client's case, (b.) A writ summoning a man 
to answer to any action. 
Apostolical brief, a letter of the pope relating to public affairs. 

Briefless, a. Having no brief; without clients. 

Briefly, adv. Concisely ; in few words. [writing. 

Briefness, n. Shortness; conciseness in discourse or 

Bri'er, n. [A.-S. brier, brer, Ir. briar, Gael, preas, W. 
prys, prysg.]. [Written also briar.] 1. A prickly plant 
or shrub. 2. (Bot.) The sweet-brier and the wild- 
brier, species of the rose. 

Bri'er-y, a. Full of briers ; rough ; thorny. 

Brig, n. [Abbreviation of brig- 
antine, q. v.] A vessel with 
two masts , square-rigged. 

Hermaphrodite brig, a two 
masted vessel, square-rigged for- 
ward and schooner-rigged aft. 

Bri-gade', n. [Fr. brigade, 
Sp. brigada, It. brigata, troop, 
crew, brigade, prop, and orig. 
a contending troop, from 0. _ 
Fr. brigue, It. briga, trouble, ^ 
quarrel.] (Mil.) A division of 
troops, commanded by a gen- 
eral officer, or brigadier, and consisting of an indeter- 
minate number of regiments, squadrons, or battalions. 
Brigade major, an officer who may be attached to a brigade 
to assist the brigadier in his duties. 

Bri-gade', v. t. [imp. & p. p. brigaded ; p. pr. & vb. 
n. brigading.] (Mil.) To form into a brigade, or into 

Brig/a-dier'-gen'er-al, n. [Fr.,fcombrigade.] (Mil.) 
The general officer who commands a brigade, in rank 
next below a major-general. 

Brig'and, n. [L. Lat. brigans, alight-armed soldier, W. 
brigant, summit, highlander, plunderer, brigantiad, high- 
lander, depredator, from brig, top, summit, hill.] A law- 
less fellow who lives by plunder ; a robber ; a freebooter. 

Brig'and-age, n. Theft ; robbery ; plunder. 

Brig'an-tine, n. [Fr. brigantin, originally a piratical 
vessel. See Brigand.] A kind of small brig. 

Bright (brit), a. [A.-S. beorht, byrht, briht, Goth, bairhts, 
Icel. biartr ; Skr. bhrctdsh, to shine, Goth, bairhtjan, ga- 
bairhtjan.] 1. Shedding much light. 2. Transmitting 
light. 3. Having qualities that render conspicuous or 
attractive, or that affect the mind as light does the eye. 

4. Having a clear, quick intellect ; sparkling with wit. 

5. Manifest to the mind, as light to the eyes. 

Syn.— Shining ; splendid ; luminous ; brilliant ; resplen- 
dent ; effulgent ; refulgent ; radiant ; sparkling ; glittering ; 
lucid ; beamy ; clear ; transparent ; translucent ; limpid. 

Brighton (brit'n), v. t. [imp. & p. p. brightened ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. brightening.] 1. To make bright or 
brighter ; to increase the luster of, 2. To make illustri- 
ous, or more distinguished. 3. To shed light upon ; to 
make cheerful. 4. To make acute or witty. 

Bright'en (bri^n), v. i. To grow bright, or more bright. 

Briglit'ly (brit'-), adv. Splendidly ; with luster. 

Bright'ness (brlt'-),n. 1. The quality of being bright. 
2. Acuteness, applied to the faculties. 

Syn. — Splendor ; luster ; radiance ; resplendence ; bril- 
liancy ; effulgence ; glory ; clearness ; transparency. 

Bright's' Di§-ea§e'. (Med.) A granular disease of the 
cortical part of the kidneys ; — so called from being first 
described by Dr. Bright, of London. 

Brill'iance, ) n. Great brightness, whether in a literal 

Brill'ian-cy, I or tropical sense ; splendor. 

Brlll'iaiit't'brll'yant), a. [Fr. brillant, p. pr. of briller, 
to shine o